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 Authors : A. S. Aruna , V. Ramachandramurthy
 Paper ID : IJERTV7IS070058
 Volume & Issue : Volume 07, Issue 07 (July 2018)
 Published (First Online): 13072018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
RayleighBenardTaylor Convection in Temperaturesensitive Newtonian Liquid with Heat Source/Sink
RayleighBÃ©nardTaylor Convection in Temperaturesensitive Newtonian Liquid with Heat Source/Sink

Ramachandramurthy1
1Department of Mathematics, Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru560054, India
A.S. Aruna2
2Department of Mathematics, Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru560054, India
Abstract The present paper deals with a linear stability analysis of RayleighBÃ©nard convection in a rotating Newtonian fluid with heat source/sink confined between two parallel, infinitely extended horizontal surfaces. It is proved that internal Rayleigh number; Thermo rheological parameter and the Taylor number influence the onset of convection. It is found that the effect of increasing the strength of rotation is to stabilize the system whereas the increase of internal heat source and variable viscosity parameter is to destabilize the system. The result has possible applications in the astrophysical and geophysical context.
Keywords RayleighBenard convection; Taylor number; variable heat source; temperaturedependent viscosity.

INTRODUCTION
The RayleighBenard instability problem with internal heat generation, thermo rheological effect and rotation have been received great attention due to their implications in heat and mass transfer. The rotation is one of the important external mechanisms in controlling the onset of convection. The effect of noninertial acceleration on the stability analysis of buoyancy driven convection is discussed in several books and monographs such as Chandrasekhar [1961], Platten and Legros [1984] and Drazin and Reid [2004].
Thermal convection occurs when a fluid is heated from below. RayleighBÃ©nard convection as it is called is discussed in two excellent books Chandrasekhar [1] and Drazin and Reid [2]. Over several decades, many researchers are trying to control the convective phenomena in RayleighBÃ©nard convection by imposing external constraints such as temperature, Magnetic field, rotation etc. Rotation plays a very important role in controlling the convection. Motivated by the experiments of Donnelly [3] on the effect of rotation on the onset of instability in a fluid flow between two concentric cylinders, Venezian [4] performed a linear analysis under temperature modulation with freefree surfaces. He obtained an expression for critical Rayleigh number and found that by suitably tuning the frequency of rotation one can regulate the heat transport effectively. Later on, RayleighBÃ©nard problem under many constraints were studied by various researchers, considering different physical models. Kloosterziel and Carnevale [5] investigated the effect of rotation on the stability of a thermally modulated system, and determined analytically the critical points on the marginal stability boundary above which an increment either in viscosity or in diffusivity is
destabilizing the system. Finally, they showed that when the fluid has zero viscosity the system is always unstable, in contradiction to Chandrasekhars [1] conclusion. Siddheshwar and Vanishree [7] studied the effect of rotation on thermal convection in an anisotropic porous medium with temperature dependent viscosity. The Galerkin variant of the weighted residual technique is used to obtain the Eigen value of the problem. They presented some new result on the parameters influence on convection in the presence of rotation, for both high and low rates. Bhadauria [8] investigated rotational influence on Darcy convection and found that both rotation and permeability suppress the onset of thermal instability. The effect of nonuniform temperature gradient on Rayleigh BÃ©nard convection in micro polar fluid has been studied by Siddheshwar and Pranesh [9]. The Eigen value is obtained for freefree, rigidfree and rigidrigid boundary conditions on the spin vanishing boundaries. They presented some important results on the micro polar fluid parameters and the internal heat generation on the onset of convection. Bhadauria et al. [10] investigated the nonlinear thermal instability in a rotating viscous fluid layer under temperature/gravity Modulation. They found that by suitably adjusting the frequency or amplitude of modulation one can control the convective flow. Recently Siddheshwar and Chan [11] investigated the thermo rheological effect on Benard and Marangoni convection in an anisotropic porous media. They showed that the effect of increasing thermo rheological parameter is to destabilize the system. A brief study of the combined effect of thermal modulation and rotation on the onset of convection in a rotating fluid layer was made by Rauscher and Kelly [12]. It is clear most of the available studies considered are not involving all the three effects such as internal heat generation, rotation and the temperaturesensitivity of the liquid on the onset of convection. However there are only few studies available, This paper deals with the study of convective nonlinear Rayleigh B\'{e}nardTaylor instability problem in an electrically conducting temperaturesensitive Newtonian liquid with heat source; we use the truncated representation for half range Fourier cosine series expansion to represent the basic non uniform temperature gradient and basic viscosity. The Galerkin procedure is utilized to discover the systematic articulation for the thermal Rayleigh number as the function of Internal heat source parameter, thermo rheological parameter and Taylor number.

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
= , =
(8)
Eliminating the pressure in the equation (2) and using the equations (8) in the resulting equation, we get the following equations
(2) =
(2) +
4
0
+ (2) + 4
+
(2) 0
2
+ (,2), (9)
0 0
(,)
= + 2 + + (,), (10)
Consider a Newtonian liquid confined between two infinite, parallel horizontal planes of depth between = 0 and =
1 (,)
. The lower and the upper plates are maintained at different
Further from the momentum equation we can write
temperatures, the lower plate is hotter than the upper plate (see
=
4 + 2
+ (,). (11)
Fig. 1). The system is rotated about axis. We assume the
0
0 0
(,)
OberbeckBoussinesq approximation is valid and consider only smallscale convective motions (Lorenz) and the
We nondimensionalize the equations (12), (13) and (14) using the following definitions:
boundaries are assumed to be to be stressfree and isothermal.
Density, dynamic viscosity and heat source are assumed to be temperaturedependent. The governing equations for the study
(, , ) = ( ,
,
) , =
, =
2
,
}, (12)
of RayleighBÃ©nard convection in variable viscosity Newtonian liquids with the Coriolis force are given by
= T
T
and obtain
1 (2) =
(2) +
4
. = 0 (1)
+ (2) + 4
0 [ + (. ) + 2()] = + () +
+
(2) +
. [ ()( + )], (2)
+ 1 (,2), (13)
+ (. ) = 2T + Q (T T ), (3)
2
(,)
(,)
1 0
=
() + + +
(,)
, (14)
() = 0[1 ( 0)], (4)
() = 0(0). (5)
1 =
2 + + (,) , (15)
(,)
To make a finite amplitude analysis, we consider the following perturbations:
where, = is Prandtl number,
= 3
is the
= + , = + , = + ,
thermal Rayleigh number,
= (
202
2
) is Taylor number
}, (6)
and () = 1 + 2 cos() ,
= + , = +
=1 22
where the primes indicates perturbed quantities. The basic state quantities (), (), () have the forms
0 0
= + () , = (1 ())
. (7)
The boundaries are assumed to be stress free and isothermal, hence the boundary conditions for solving the equations (13),

and (15) are
= 2 = = = 0 at = 0,1 (16)
= ( ) ( ) + , =
0 0
( )
}
In the next section, the linear stability analysis is performed using fourier series and the Galerkin technique is used to find
sin[(1 )]
Where, ( ) = , 0 is the constant of integration
out the analytical expression for the critical Rayleigh number
sin[]
and
= 12 is the internal Rayleigh number. Since the flow
which is of great utility in performing the linear stability analysis.
considered is two dimensional, we introduce the stream function as follows:


LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS
In order to study the linear theory, the linearized version of equations (13),(14) and (15) is considered along with the boundary conditions (16). This means that the Jacobeans
(,) and (,) in equations. (13), (14) and (15) is neglected.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The effect of a variable heat source (sink) and rotation on RayleighBÃ©nard convection is studied. The effect of heat source (sink) appears in the equation in the form of an internal Rayleigh number and rotation in the form of Taylor number
(,)
(,)
. The external Rayleigh number is the Eigen value of the
The solution of the linearized system is assumed to be periodic waves of the form:
(, ) = 0 sin(X) sin(Y)
(, ) = 0 cos(X) sin(Y)} , (17)
(, ) = 0 sin(X) cos(Y)
Where, = , 2= 2(1 + 2)
1
1
1
2(2 )(4 2 )
problem.
The highlights of the linear study are

Derivation of a useful analytical expression for the stationary critical Rayleigh number by using the half range Fourier cosine series expansion for the basic non uniform temperature gradient and for the basic viscosity.

Discounting the possibility of oscillatory motions
The focus in the paper is on RayleighBenard convection
=
422
influenced by a heat source (sink) and for this reason only those values of that do not allow dominance of heat source
1 + 2
( +
2
1 2
2 2
2
2 2
), (18)
(sink) over buoyancy in effecting convection are considered.
In order to understand better the results arrived at in the
1
4 (
32 +
4 )
0
15
problem we analyze the nonlinear basic state temperature distribution, which throws light on the observed effect of heat
0
= 20
1 V
sin[(1)]
esin[] ,
0
source (sink) on the stability. A scaled, dimensionless temperature distribution is considered in the following form:
2
= 20
1 V
sin[(1)]
esin[] cos(2Y) ,
() =
0
sin[( 1)]
=
sin[]
4
= 20
0
1 V
sin[(1)]
esin[] cos(4Y) ,
0
Fig.2 is the plot of the non uniform basic temperature gradient
() versus for different values of . It is evident that the plots are not symmetric about the line = 1 , which is the basic temperature distribution when there is no heat source
In equation (18), is the scaled horizontal wave number. The
quantities 0 , 0 and 0 are respectively, amplitudes of the stream function, temperature, and the vorticity function. Substituting equation (17) into the linear version of equations
(13) to (15) and integrating the above equation with respect to
]
X in [0, 2 and also with respect to in [0, 1], a set
of homogeneous equations in 0 , 0 and 0 is obtained. In obtaining the nontrivial solution of the linear system, the above expression of the critical Rayleigh number is obtained.
It is now clear that defined by equation (20) is the critical Rayleigh number of the marginal stationary state. The scaled critical wave number for the preferred mode satisfies the following equation:
3 4 4
(sink).
1.0
2
0.8 1
0
0.6
b Y
1
0.4 2
0.2
0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Y
) 4 6
0
(
1
+ (
2 ) 4
Fig.2: Temperature profile of quiescent basic state for different values of
0 2
2 02 + 22
( + )4 2 2
, (22 )
This asymmetry due to temperaturedependent heat
1 0 2
0
2
source/sink helps in making the inference that the results on
+
2
( 30(2)
1 2 4 0
2(10 +2 15 )
) = 0
}
the problem with a heat sink cannot be obtained from that of a heat source through a suitable transformation as can be done in the case of a constant heat source.
3000
2500
RI 1, V 0
3000
2500
RI 1, V 0
2000 2000
R
1500
1000
500
Ta 0
Ta 100
Ta 1000
1500
R
1000
500
Ta 0
Ta 100
Ta 1000
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
3000
2500
Fig.3 (a)
RI 1, V 0.5
3000
2500
Fig.3 (e)
RI 1, V 0.5
2000
R
R
1500
2000
1500
1000
500
Ta 0
Ta 100
Ta 1000
1000
500
Ta 0
Ta 100
Ta 1000
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
3000
2500
2000
R
1500
1000
Fig.3 (b)
RI 0, V 0
Ta 0
Ta 100
Fig.3 (f)
Figs. 3(a),(b),(c),(d),(e) and (f) illustrate the variation of Rayleigh number with respect to the wave number for different parameters combinations. It is clear that as an increase in Taylor number, , results in an increase in the value of critical Rayleigh number, , and the critical wave number, , and also it is clear that if increases the critical Rayleigh number and the critical wave number
500
Ta 1000
decreases. The negative value of represents the heat sink
and the positive value corresponds to the heat source. Clearly,
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Fig.3 (c)
3000
RI 0, V 0.5
2500
2000
R
1500
the wave number decreases with increase in , for both the heat source and heat sink.


CONCLUSION

The paper presents an analytical study of RayleighBenard convection with variable heat source. Closed form expressions for and are otained as functions of the parameters of the problem. It is found that one can regulate the flow by suitably tuning the parameters involved in the problem. The effect of increasing the strength of rotation is to stabilize the
1000
500
Ta 0
Ta 100
Ta 1000
system where as the increasing the Thermo rheological parameter and the internal Rayleigh number lead to the destabilization of the system.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Fig.3 (d)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are very much thankful to the Management and Principal of Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru54 and Prof. P. G. Siddheshwar, Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru56 for his valuable suggestions towards the preparation of the article.
NOMENCLATURE LATIN SYMBOLS
depth of the fluid layer
acceleration due to gravity
unit normal in direction
unit normal in direction
Prandtl number
pressure
velocity of the fluid, (, )
heat source / sink
internal Rayleigh number
external Rayleigh number
Ta Taylor number
GREEK SYMBOLS
wave number
thermal expansion coefficient
constant thermal diffusivity
constant of dynamic viscosity
two dimensional Laplacian
kinematic viscosity
phase angle
stream function
perturbed stream function
density
perturbed temperature
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