Outcome of Variation of Number of Meshes and Size of Meshes in Geo-Ferrocement

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Outcome of Variation of Number of Meshes and Size of Meshes in Geo-Ferrocement

M D Ahirrao1 and Dr. S.L. Hake 2

1PG Scholar,Department of Civil Engineering,Dr. V.V.P College of Engineering 2PG Guide, Department of Civil Engineering,Dr. V.V.P College of Engineering Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract – Normally, conventional concrete is manufactured with Portland cement, which acts as a binder. The production of cement releases approximately an equal amount of C02 into the atmosphere.In view of this, there is a need to develop sustainable alternativesto Portland cement utilizing the industrial by products such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag which are Pozzolonic in nature. Geopolymer is produced without the presence of cement as a binder; instead, the base material such as fly ash, that is rich in Silicon (Si) and Aluminium (Al), is activated by alkaline solution to produce the binder. Hence Geopolymer mortar can be used instead of Cement mortar which will have no adverse effect on our environment. Ferrocement is an emerging technology that differs from conventional reinforced concrete by the manner in which the reinforcing elements are dispersed and arranged. It consist of closely spaced, multiple layers of wire mesh embedded in cement mortar. Experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of Geopolymer mortar in Ferrocement for variation in mesh size and number of layers. For this, Flexure testing was conducted on Geo-ferrocement panel of 750 mm X 120 mm X 30 mm (thickness). Square slabs of dimension 230 x 230 x 30 mm were subjected to impact testing to observe the effect of reinforcement of mesh in different layers on impact energy absorption of slabs. Flexural strength of specimen with triple layer mesh is increased by around 190% than specimen with single layer mesh. From test results it was found that due to incorporation of mesh the impact resistance of the slab has increased as compared to slab without any mesh.

KeywordsFerrocemnt, Geopolymer, Flyash,Flexure strength , Impact strength

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The production of cement generates large amount of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide could be reduced if the production of cement could be reduced as well. Concrete is the most versatile and widely used construction material in view of its wide ranging performance, suitability, applicability and cost effectiveness. Normally, conventional concrete is manufactured with Portland cement, which acts as a binder. The production of cement releases approximately an equal amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. It is also energy intensive and consumes significant amount of natural resources, leading to its depletion in due course of time. In view of this, there is a need to develop sustainable alternatives to Portland cement utilizing the industrial by products such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag which are Pozzolonic in nature. Further, environmentally compatible

    disposal of waste materials by appropriate technologies is of increasing concern and imposes interesting technical challenges.

    Construction industry is the one where bulk utilization of waste materials can be effectively done without any compromise on quality and performance. It has been established that fly ash can replace cement partially. However, efforts are on to replace Portland cement completely by synthesizing alternative binder (which later became to be known as Alkali Activated Cement) by alkali activation of many marginal materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag which are rich in silica and alumina. Such an effort leads to dual goals of utilizing the marginal materials advantageously rather than just disposal and conservation of resources for sustainable development. Scientists have been doing research and development for more than 20 years on a new material called Geopolymer to replace the use of cement .The amorphous to crystalline reaction products resulting from the synthesis of alkali alumino- silicates and high alkaline solution is generically known as Geo-Polymer. This material is made basically with the mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution and when it is combined with certain powder material such as fly ash results in a material with cementitious properties similar to Portland cement paste. The three components can vary a great deal, from the concentration of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to the ratio of the two solutions to the composition of the fly ash and there is a general consent that the reaction producing the Geopolymer is in the form of polymerization.

    Ferrocement is an emerging technology that differs from conventional reinforced concrete by the manner in which the reinforcing elements are dispersed and arranged. It consist of closely spaced, multiple layers of wire mesh embedded in cement mortar.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Davidovit1 proposed that binders could be produced by a polymericreaction of alkaline liquids with the silicon and the aluminium in source materials of geological origin or by- product materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. He termed these binders as geopolymers.

Gourley2 carrired out research on Low-calcium fly ash is preferred as a source material to High fly ash. The presence of calcium in high amount may interfere with the polymerisation process and alter the microstructure.

Noor Ahmed Memon et al3 investigated the performance of high workability mortar mix, applicable for the casting of

thin Ferrocement elements by using slag as cement replacement and super plasticizer as water reducing agent.

Md. Zakaria Hossain et al4 in his research, sixteen specimens were prepared and tested. From the flexural behavior in the form of load-deflection relationships, and first crack and ultimate loads.

B.Sivagurunathan, Dr.B.Vidivelli5 were investigates the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by ferrocement laminates. The aim of this project is to bond ferrocement laminates to reinforced concrete beams and strengthen it against flexure.

  1. Sreevidya, R.Anuradha et al6, studied to assess the Acid resistance of fly ash based Geopolymer mortar with a ratio of fly ash to sand as 1:3.The various ratio between NaOH and Na2SiO3 solution to fly ash were used. Study indicate that Geopolymers are highly resistance to sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

    Bhalsing S., Sayyed Shoaib, Autade P7., investigated the increase in tension due to increase in contact area between wire meshes and mortar, i.e. increase in specific surface of ferrocement. For achieving higher values of specific surface, No. of Layers of meshes needs to be increased.

    Dr. A. S. Kasnale. S. Yedshikar8 studied the effect of different volume fraction percentage of steel mesh on compressive strength and split tensile strength of Ferrocement and Geopolymer mortar. Activated liquid to fly ash ratio of

      1. by mass was maintained in the experimental work on the basis of past research. Sodium silicate solution with Na2O = 16.37%, SiO2 = 34.35% and H2O = 49.28% and sodium hydroxide solution having 13M concentration were maintained throughout the experiment. Geopolymer mortar cylinders of 150 x 300 mm size were cast. The temperature of heating was maintained at 900C for 8 hours duration after demoulding.

        III OBJECTIVES OF INVESTIGATION

        • To study the suitability of the meshes for use in Ferrocement.

        • To study Flexure characteristics of Geopolymer based Ferrocement samples of chosen size reinforced with different layers.

        • To study the effect of layers of meshes on toughness

    of Geo-Ferrocement specimens and ordinary Ferrocement specimens.

    IV. MATERIALS

    The present research work is experimental and requires preliminary investigations in a methodological manner.

    1. Cement: The cement used in this experimental work is ACC 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement. All properties of cement are tested by referring IS 8112 – 1989 Specification for 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement.

    2. Fine aggregate: Locally available river sand conforming to Grading zone II of IS: 3831970.

    3. Fly ash-Fly Ash is available in dry powder form and is procured from Dirk India Pvt. Ltd., Nashik. It is available in 30Kg bags, color of which is light gray

      under the product name "Pozzocrete 63" Confirming to IS: 3812 Part 1-2003 as mineral admixture in dry powder form.

    4. Water: Potable water available in laboratory is used.

    5. Sodium hydroxide: Sodium hydroxide available in pellet form and it is packed in 50 Kg bag. The physical and chemical properties of Sodium hydroxide are listed in following tables.

      Table I PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NAOH

      Property

      Information

      Molecular Weight

      39.997g/mol

      Appearance (solid)

      White Crystalline Substance

      Transparent

      Only in liquid form

      Odour

      None

      Density

      2.13g/cm³

      Boiling Point

      1390°C

      Melting Point

      318°C

      Freezing Point

      14°C

      Specific Gravity (20°C)

      1.52g/ml

      Flammable

      No

      Vapour Pressure (0.2 kPa, 20°C)

      1.5mmHg

      Table II CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NAOH

      Chemical Formula

      Information

      Acidity

      NaOH

      Basic Type

      Very Low (13-14 pH)

      Corrosive

      Caustic Metallic Base

      Reactivity

      High

      Hygroscopic

      Medium

      Solubility (20°C)

      Yes

      Soluble (in)

      1110g/L

    6. Sodium Silicate: Sodium silicate available in liquid (gel) form.

      Table III Properties of Sodium Silicate

      Property

      Information

      Molecular Weight

      122.06 g/mol

      Appearance (viscous)

      Yellowish

      Transparent

      Not Transparent

      Odour

      None

      Density

      2.4g/cm³

      Melting Point

      1088°C

    7. Wire meshes: Weld meshes generally used in ferrocement structures are having opening sizes in mm as 25 X 25,50 X 50, 75 x 75, 100 x 100, and 150 x 150.The wire gauges may vary from 10 to 18.

    8. Flexure Test mould: Sample mould for specimen castingwas prepared having dimensions 750mm X 125mm with 30mm thickness.

      Figure I: Flexure Test moulds

    9. Impact Test Mould: Moulds has been prepared of size 230 mm X 230 mm X 30 mm in size, two angles are placed on metal sheet with screw arrangement.

Figure II: Impact Test moulds

  1. METHODOLOGY

    The fresh fly ash-based geopolymer mortar was dark in colour (due to the dark colour of the fly ash), and was cohesive. Davidovits (2002) suggested that it is preferable to mix the sodium silicate solution and the sodium hydroxide solution together at least one day before adding the liquid to the solid constituents.

    1. Mix sodium hydroxide with water at least one day prior to adding the liquid to the dry materials.

    2. Mix all dry materials in the pan mixer for about three minutes. Add the liquid component of the mixture at the end of dry mixing, and continue the wet mixing for another four minutes.

      Ratio of sodium silicate solution-to-sodium hydroxide solution, by mass, can be used inI the range of 0.4 to 2.5. But this ratio was fixed at 1 for most of the mixtures because the sodium silicate solution is considerably cheaper than the sodium hydroxide solution.

      • Preparation of Binder Solution

    Binder solution plays a vital role in the binding of the fly ash based geopolymer mortar. Binder solution is a mixture of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Silicate. In this investigation the sodium hydroxide pellets in 13 molar concentrations were used.

    Sr No

    Specimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    1

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    CCM

    1.371

    2

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.38

    3

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.36

    4

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    8.46

    5

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    GM

    1.606

    6

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.57

    7

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.6

    8

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    9.01

    Sr No

    Specimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    1

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    CCM

    1.371

    2

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.38

    3

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.36

    4

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    8.46

    5

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    GM

    1.606

    6

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.57

    7

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.6

    8

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    9.01

    Figure III: Flexural test on specieme TABLE IV- Single Mesh flexure strength

    15

    10

    5

    0

    SAMPLE X SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 SAMPLE 3

    15

    10

    5

    0

    SAMPLE X SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 SAMPLE 3

    Flexural Strength

    (N/mm2 )

    Flexural Strength

    (N/mm2 )

    Graph 1-Single Layer Mesh Flexural Strength Table V-Double Layer Mesh Flexural Strength

    Sr. No

    Spcimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    1

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    CCM

    15.98

    2

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    15.51

    3

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    14.85

    4

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    GM

    17.12

    5

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    16.04

    6

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    15.47

    Sr. No

    Specimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    1

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    CCM

    15.98

    2

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    15.51

    3

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    14.85

    4

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    GM

    17.12

    5

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    16.04

    6

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    15.47

  2. TESTING PROGRAM

    Flexural Strength (IS 516:1959): As per provision of testing of flexure member in IS 516:1959 we have tested our sample for flexure and calculated flexural strength .

    18

    17

    16

    15

    14

    13

    SAMPLE 1

    SAMPLE 2

    SAMPLE 3

    18

    17

    16

    15

    14

    13

    SAMPLE 1

    SAMPLE 2

    SAMPLE 3

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2 )

    Graph 2-Double Layer Mesh Flexural Strength

    Impact Test (ASTM D 2794.): Specimens of size 230 x 230 x 30 mm were placed in their position in the testing frame with the finished face up. The mass 0f 0.5 kg was then dropped repeatedly and the number of blows required to cause first crack was recorded. The number of blows required for failure was also recorded.

    Figure IV – Impact testing of specimen

    Table VI-Single Layer Mesh Impact Strength

    Sr No

    Specimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Impact Energy (Joules )

    1

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    CCM

    1.371

    2

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.38

    3

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.36

    4

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    8.46

    5

    Sample X

    No Mesh

    GM

    1.606

    6

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    10.57

    7

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    9.6

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    9.01

    Graph 3-Single Layer Mesh Impact Strength

    Table VII-Double Layer Mesh Impact Strength

    Sr. No

    Specimens

    Opening Size of Mesh (mm x mm)

    Mortar Material

    Impact Energy (Joules )

    1

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    CCM

    72.52

    2

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    62.72

    3

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    58.80

    4

    Sample 1

    13 x 13

    GM

    76.44

    5

    Sample 2

    19 x 19

    66.64

    6

    Sample 3

    25 x 25

    60.76

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    72. 76.44

    62. 66.64

    60.76

    C M

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    72. 76.44

    62. 66.64

    60.76

    C M

    Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3

    Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3

    52

    52

    72

    72

    58.8

    58.8

    Impact Energy Absorbed(Joules)

    Impact Energy Absorbed(Joules)

    Graph 4-Double Layer Mesh Impact Strength

  3. CONCLUSIONS

    • It is concluded that Flexural strength of specimen after 28 days of curing with triple layer mesh is increased by around 190% than specimen with single layer mesh & Flexural strength of specimen after 28 days of curing with double layer mesh is increased by around 150% than specimen with single layer mesh

    • From test results it was found that due to incorporation

    of mesh in mortar the impact resistance of the slab has increased as compared to slab without any mesh. It can be thus inferred that meshes used as reinforcement play a major role in improving the impact energy absorption.

  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Experimental work was carried out using the facilities in Civil Engineering Department laboratory of P.D.V.V.P.COE, Ahmednagar. I wish to thank Dr. S.L Hake, my guide & ME Co-ordinatorfor their valuable Suggestionsand authorities for their kind support. I also wish to thank the laboratory staff for their help and support during experimental work

  5. REFERENCES

  1. Davidovits, J., 1994, Properties of Geopolymer Cements, in First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes, SRIBM, Kiev,StateTechnical University, Kiev, Ukraine, 1994.

  2. Gourley, J.T. Geopolymers; Opportunities for Environmentally Construction Materials, Conference: Adaptive Materials for a Modern Society, Sydney, Institute of Materials Engineering Australia, 2003.

  3. A Mohamad N., Mahmood Sura, A. Majeed Flexural behaviour of flat and folded Ferrocement panels [Al-Rafidain Engineering, Vol.17, No.4, August 2009].

  4. MD. Zakaria Hossain, A Comparison of the Mechanical Properties of Ferrocement in Flexure for Square and Hexagonal Meshes, Journal of Ferrocement, International Ferrocement Information Center.ISSN: 0125-1759 28(2) 111-134 1998.

  5. Sivagurunathan.B, Vidivelli.B, Strengthening of Predamaged Reinforced Concrete Beams by Ferrocement Plates International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology Vol.2-2012, pp 340 344.

  6. V. Sreevidya, R. Auradha, R.Venkatasubramani and S. Yuvaraj, Flexural Behavior of Geopolymer Ferrocement Elements, asian journal of civil engineering (bhrc) vol. 15, no. 4 (2014)PAGES 563- 574.

  7. Dr. B.N. Divekar, Ferrocement Technology, A Construction Manual.

  8. Swayambhu Bhalsing, Sayyed Shoaib, Pankaj Autade Tensile Strength of Ferrocement with respect to Specific Surface.

  9. Niteen Deshpande and Mohan Shirsath, Comparative study between Bamboo reinforced & Conventional Ferrocement Panels, IJRPET, ISSN 2554-7875, Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2016.

  10. Randhir Phalke & Darshan Gaidhankar, Flexural Behaviour of Ferrocement Slabs Panels using Welded Square mesh by incorporating Steel Fibers, IJRET, Volume:3 Issue:5, May 2014.

  11. S. Nagan & R. Mohana, Behaviour of Geopolymer Ferrocment Slabs Subjected To Impact, ISJT, Volume 38, no C1, pp 223-233. Printed in Islamic Republic of Iran 2014.

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