Zigbee Based Monorail Control System

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV3IS06041

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Zigbee Based Monorail Control System

Hiren Borkar1; Saurabh Dabhade2; Rohan shinde3; Aditya Shirke4

Department of Electronics Engineering,

K.C. College of Engineering & Management studies & Research, Kopri,Thane(E)-400 603, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract- Zigbee based monorail is designed to operate and control the monorail wirelessly via computer from control room and without man power. The wireless operation takes place with the help of Zigbee hardware with a limited range. Passenger safety is further enhaced by sensor at both the ends of the monorail which avoid any kind accidents. The sensors also makes sure that the monorail halts when it reaches the track end.

For wireless data transmission and networking between sensor nodes, the project uses zigbee modules. Every node after transmitting waits for acknowledgment from the computer to make data transfer reliable. The Zigbee RF modules are engineered to meet IEEE 802.15.4 standards and support the unique needs of low cost, low power wireless sensor networks. The modules require minial power and provide reliable delivery of data between devices. The modules operate with the ISM 2.4GHz/800MHz frequecy band

Keywords – MicrocontrolerAT89S51, IR Sensors, LCD, Relay Driver IC ULN2803, Limit Switch, Zigbee.


    A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail, typically elevated. monorail, A single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles. Monorails have found applications in airport transfer and medium capacity metros. To differentiate monorails from other transport modes, the Monorail Society says Monorail. A single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles. In most cases rail is elevated, but monorails can also run at grade, below grade or in subway tunnels. Vehicles either are suspended from or straddle a narrow guide way.

    It is designed to operate and control the monorail wirelessly via computer from control room and without man power. The wireless operation takes place with the help of Zigbee hardware with a limited range. Passenger safety is further enhaced by sensor at both the ends of the monorail which avoid any kind accidents. The sensors also make sure that the monorail halts when it reaches the track end.


    1. Zigbee Technology

      It is a short range wireless communication technology. In this system, Zig-Bee assembles the information acquisition, information transmission, information processing units.

    2. Relay driver IC

      It is used to control the trigerring of relay switches. The ULN2803 is designed to be compatible with standard TTL families while the ULN2804 is optimized for 6 to 15 volt high level CMOS or PMOS.

    3. Power Source

    A step down transformer is used which feeds 12V DC supply directly through tracks. Contacts embedded in the trains power supply unit gets the supply.


    An evaluating hardware was developed with Maxstreem, Zigbee pro Zigbee module, it consumes only 2mW and 1.25 mW power at active and sleep mode. It is compatible to transfer data up to 400 meters range at 250Kbps. Zigbee pro communicates based on DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) and it is very suitable for mesh, point-to-point and point-to-multipoint networks. It also gives 3V CMOS UART the option to interface external devices like, microcontrollers, sensors, etc. Zigbee pro manufacturer provides XTU software package to program the Zigbee module.

    A controller is required to handle the events, the drawback of 8051 is that it can be programmed only for once hence we are using an 89S51 micro controller since it has 4KB Flash Memory and can programmed for multiple times. There are two versions available in this 89C51 and 89S51, 89C51 uses CMOS technology, and 89S51 uses ISP (in system programmable) technology. CMOS usually takes +15V to operate whereas ISP uses +5V. Controller is a 40 pin device, a supply is provided on 40 number pin and pin 20 is grounded, pin 18 and 19 are used for crystal oscillator. The value of crystal oscillator is 11.0592 MHz. Pin 9 is reset pin, which is connected to a capacitor and resistor, as the power is supplied to controller; it turns on at zero memory position. There are four 8 bit bidirectional ports in it, Port 0, Port 1, Port 2, Port 3


    Fig. 1 Block diagram from train side

    Fig. 2 Block diagram from control room side

    The Zigbee based monorail control system basically consists of seven main blocks.

    1. Zigbee

      Two zigbees are used in this project one is connected to the train to receive command signals and send status of the train in real time mode. The other one is connected to the computer wich stores the result and then sends the updated result to the computer.

    2. Microcontroller

      Micro controller senses the signal given from switches and decides the mode of operation. In voting mode, it increments the data for corresponding key, in counting mode micro

      controllers fetches data from memory location and send it to display devices

    3. LCD Display

      Liquid Crystal Display which is commonly known as LCD is an Alphanumeric Display it means that it can display Alphabets, Numbers as well as special symbols thus LCD is a user friendly Display device unlike seven segment display which can display only numbers and some of the alphabets. Here we have used 16 x 2 Alphanumeric Display.

    4. Sensors

      There are four sensors:

      1. Track end sensor1. 2. Track end sensor2. 3. Station sensor.

      4. Signal sensor.

    5. Relay driver IC

      Relay Driver IC ULN2803 to control the motors of trains. It will control the speed and direction of the motors via Relay Switches. The eight NPN Darlington connected transistors in this family of arrays are ideally suited for interfacing between low logic level digital circuitry

    6. Relay Switches

      A relay is an electrically operated switch. Here two relay switches NT73 (JQC-3FC) are used to move the train in both forward and reverse direction and to control the switches relay driver ic is being used.

      PCB Layouts:

      Fig. 3 Pcb layout and circuit mapping from train side


      1. Visual Basic


The monorail itself uses no carbon-based fuels and so does not pollute, unlike cars and buses. The electricity used to power the locomotive may come from an gas or coal-fired power station which does produce pollution, but as the use of alternative energy increases this problem will be reduced. As monorails run around elevated tracks there is no risk of cars getting stuck on crossings? There is a reduced risk to pedestrians for the same reason. The monorail itself is also safer as there is no risk of the carriage derailing. This leads to fewer accidents and delays, meaning the system are a lot more efficient than a ground-based rail system or buses. As there are fewer accidents and no friction between rails and wheels, the system requires less maintenance than a road or train track. This means fewer delays and less expensive maintenance. As monorail will be programmed so we wont need any motor man to be present in Monorail to operate it. Monorails can be used for tourism, benefiting from the unique views offered from the largely elevated installations. Monorails can also be used for transportation of goods from one city to other.

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programminglanguage and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model first released in 1991. Microsoft intended Visual Basic to be relatively easy to learn and use. Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects.

    1. Bascom

BASCOM-8051© is the Windows BASIC COMPILER for the 8051 family. It is designed to run on W95/W98/NT/W2000 and XP. The program can be written in a comfortable MDI color coded editor. Besides the normal editing features, the editor supports Undo, Redo, Bookmarks and block indention. The simulator let you test your program before writing it to the up. You can watch variables, step through the program one line at the time or run to a specific line, or you can alter variables. A powerful feature is the hardware emulator, to emulate the LCD display, and the ports. The LCD emulator also emulates custom build LCD characters. When you are done with the simulator it is time to program the chip using one of the supported programmer drivers.


  1. http://www.zigbee.org/en/about/faq.asp

  2. http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources/#SlidePresentations

  3. http://computing.arizona.edu/networkmasterplan/tech_hpe_0703. pdf

  4. http://www.santafe.cc.fl.us/~faeds/presentations/2004%20Educati onal%20Tech%20Landscape.ppt#11

  5. http://danielneamu.rdscv.ro/cutenews/images/gartner_hype_cycle


  6. http://www.embedded.com/shared/printableArticle.jhtml?articleI D=52600868

  7. http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/04/08/wo_brown0819 04.asp

  8. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is- zigbee.htm?referrer=adwords_campaign=zigbee_ad=013761&_c ontent_kw=what%20is%20zigbee

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