Wildlife Animal Tracking System using GPS and GSM

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Wildlife Animal Tracking System using GPS and GSM

Priyadharsini. S, Renukasri.V,Sneha. R, Sowmiya. P. K, Swaathi. K

Electronics and communication engineering Sri Shakthi institute of engineering and technology

Coimbatore, India

Abstract This research is meant for the design of wildlife animal tracking system using GPS and GSM. This explains the methodology to overcome the problem of animal injury and mortality due to straying of wild animals out of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries by the use of wildlife tracking system. Automatic tracking system. Automatic tracking system has been implemented by incorporating GSM and GPS technology in the form of a device that would be attached to the body of an animal and would be continuously monitoring the position of the animal with respect to the GPS defined boundaries setup inside a wildlife sanctuary or national park. In case an animal strays out of the GPS defined zone, the coordinates specifying both the latitude and longitude information of an animal informing the concerned officer about the approaching danger. This system is flexible, cost efficient and easy to implement and can be beneficial for monitoring wildlife related complexities like poaching, railway and roadway accidents, destruction of vegetation and threat to human life on the occasion of straying of wild animals out of their habitation zone.

Keywords—Arduino UNO, GPS receiver, SIM COM GSM modem, Antenna, Service provider, Temperature sensor LM235.


As per natures rule, every living creature on this earth is important and has important role in ecosystem. Since human race, or human society is growing, the wildlife animals or wild animals are in danger. Endangered animal and wildlife, they live in the protected forest or national park where are in big area and when we need to know about the number of the special wild animals such as tiger or leopard, they become very hard to track or count them because they live in the big forest where there is no infrastructure for data communication. Fig 1. Shows a cheetah with tracking collar on its neck.

Hence in order to track the location Global Positioning System receiver and Global System for Mobile communication is used. In this project a GPS modem helps to get the coordinates of the location. This modem requires minimum 4 satellites Global Positioning System modem receives location parameters like latitude and longitude from the satellite. We have also used GSM modem which sense these parameters to particular mobile number through SMS. This information is used to locate the current location using Google map. We have added a temperature sensor to this project. If the animal has fever or if there are some wounds on animal body and because of wounds temperature of animal rises, then it sends SMS to the forest officer so he can give immediate attention.

Fig 1.A cheetah with tracking collar


Fig.1. shows overall system design. It consists of SIM COM GPS modem. GPS receiver Arduino UNO body

temperature sensor etc.

Fig.2. Block diagram of system design

A. GPS Modem

GPS stands for Global Positioning System. A GPS, is a device that is capable of receiving information from GNSS(Global Navigation System Satellites) and then to calculate the devices geographical position. Using suitable software, the device may display the position on map, and it may offer routing directions. The GPS is one of a handful of GNSS made up of a network of a minimum of 24, but currently 30 satellites placed into orbit.

A satellite navigation device can retrieve the location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth. GPS devices need to be connected to a computer in order to work. This computer can be a home computer, laptop, PDA or smartphones. Fig. 3 and 4 shows a GPS modem.

Fig 3. GPS module

A GPS receivers job to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location.

Fig 4. GPS modem

This operation is based on a simple mathematical principle called trilateration. GPS receiver will receive s string of data from the GPS satellites and sends it to the microcontroller.

B. GSM Module

SIM COM GSM modem sends the received latitude and longitude via SMS. GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. A GSM module is a chip or circuit that will be used to establish communication between a mobile device or a computing machine and a GSM or GPRS system. module. Fig 5. shows a GSM module.

Fig 5. GSM Module

C. Temperature Sensor

Temperature sensor is used to detect the body temperature of animal. LM235 temperature sensor is used for this system. This is a easily-calibrated, integrated circuit temperature sensor. Applications for the LM135 include almost any type of temperature sensing over a -550C to 1500C temperature range. This is used to monitor the health of the animal.

D. Control Unit

Arduino UNO is used in this system. Arduino UNO is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection and a reset button. Low power microcontroller is used for this system and Arduino suits this application. Fig.6. shows the Arduino board.

Fig 6. Arduino microcontroller

Arduino microcontroller is available on various packages, It has features such as low power and high performances.


Wildlife animal tracking to track the animals in the forest and in national parks

We can use it for domestic purpose to detect the pet animals. In criminal cases many times we see that police department uses dogs to find the criminal, so this system can be used in such situations.


This system is fast and convenient when compared to other system.

This does not require human attention as it is completely self-independent and automated system.


In future we are planning to detect the animal using water sensor so that even when the animal is in water

it could be tracked easily.


The main objective of wildlife monitoring system is to track the location of animals. It is achieved by the GPS and GSM module.

GPS antenna is used to track the location of animals. To monitor health of animal temperature is used. The measured parameters are helpful to analyse the animal disease or health condition of animal.


Wildlife monitoring is important for effective protection,sustainable use and scientific management of wildlife resources. Although there is currently a lot of work on building real sensor systems, very few attempts have beenmade to deploy them in the field and then maintain and develop them. The study on the animals through this system for their conservation.


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