 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 366
 Authors : Irfan Ahmad Khan, Parvej Ali, SaifUlIslam Ansari, Irfan Ali Khan, Seema Srivastava
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS040813
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 04 (April 2014)
 Published (First Online): 19042014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Vibrational Dynamics and Heat Capacity of Poly (ethylene glycol)
Irfan Ahmad Khan, Irfan Ali Khan, SaifulIslam Ansari, Parvej Ali, Seema Srivastava
Department of Physics, Integral University, Lucknow226026, Uttar Pradesh, India
AbstractUsing the UreyBradley force field and Wilsons GF matrix method as modified by Higgs, normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in poly (ethylene glycol) have been obtained. It provides a detailed interpretation of I.R. and Raman spectra. Characteristic features of the dispersion curves, such as regions of high densityofstates, repulsion and character mixing of dispersive modes are discussed. Predictive values of the heat capacity as a function of temperature have been calculated.
KeywordsPoly (ethylene glycol); Infrared; Raman spectroscopy; Phonon dispersion; Densityofstates; Heat capacity

INTRODUCTION
Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)/Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) is a crystalline, nonionic homopolymer of ethylene oxide. PEG has varied uses in the medical field, including drug delivery (e.g.; treatment of hepatitis C), cell immobilization, (as adhesion promoters), biosensor materials, and encapsulation of islets of langerhans for treatment of diabetes. It is also used as carrier material for encapsulated cells for tissue engineering purposes. Thus PEG, with its biocompatibility, flexibility and stealth properties is an ideal material for use in pharmaceutical applications [15].
The conductivity values for PEO complexes increased continuously and reached a maximum of 103 S cm1 when doped with carbon nano tubes [6]. The PEO chains adopt a helical conformation with four monomers per turn, which is very similar to the 72 helix of the pure polymer [7, 8]. Vibrational spectroscopy plays a very important role in elucidating polymer structure and normal mode analysis. It provides a better identification of various vibrational modes and interpretation of IR and Raman spectra. Several authors have reported the infrared and Raman spectra of PEO [811].
Infrared absorption, Raman spectra, and inelastic neutron scattering from polymeric systems are very complex and cannot be unraveled without the full knowledge of their dispersion curves. Dispersion curves and dispersion profiles also provide information about the extent of coupling along the polymeric chain or between the chains. These curves also facilitate correlation of the microscopic behavior of a crystal with its macroscopic properties such as specific heat, enthalpy and free energy. The frequency of a given mode depends upon the sequence length of ordered conformation. Thus, the study of phonon dispersion in polymeric systems continues to be of topical importance. In the present work, we report a complete normal mode
analysis of PEO using the UreyBradley force field, including calculation of the phonon dispersion and heat capacity obtained via the densityofstates derived from the dispersion curves. The experimental data of IR and Raman spectroscopic studies reported by previous authors [811] have been used for comparison.

THEORITICAL APPROACH

Normal Mode Calculation:
The calculation of normal mode frequencies was carried out according to the wellknown Wilsons GF matrix method [12], as modified by Higgs [13]. The method consists of writing the inverse kinetic energy matrix G, and the potential energy matrix F, in terms of internal coordinates. In the case of an infinite isolated helical polymer, there are an infinite number of internal coordinates that lead to G and F matrices of infinite order. The presence of screw symmetry in the polymer enables that a transformation similar to that given by Born and Von Karman can be performed that reduces the infinite problem to finite dimensions [14]. The vibrational secular equation gives normal mode frequencies and their dispersion as a function of phase angle and has the form:
 G () F () () I  0, 0 . (1)
The vibrational frequencies () (in cm1) are related to the eigen values () by the following relation:
() 42c22() . (2)

Calculation of Specific Heat:
Dispersion curves can be used to calculate the specific heat of a polymeric system. For a onedimensional system, the densityofstate function, g ( ), or the frequency distribution function, expresses the way the energy is distributed among various branches of normal modes in the crystal. It can be calculated from the relation:
g ( ) = j ( j / ) 1 j( )= .( 3 ) wi t h g ( j ) j = 1
The sum is over all branches j, where j is the index for dispersion curves. Considering a solid as an assembly of harmonic oscillators, the frequency distribution g( ) is equivalent to a partition function. The constant volume heat capacity Cv can be calculated using Debyes relation.
exp (h j / kT)
C v = j g( j) kN A (h j / kT) 2 . (4)
[exp (h j / kT) – 1] 2The constant volume heat capacity, Cv, given by the above equation is converted into constant pressure heat capacity, Cp, using the NernstLindemann approximation [15, 16].
cm1 at the zone center showed repulsion at = 0.60. These two modes have been separated by 202 wave numbers at
= 0.0, but at = 0.60, they come close to each other, separated by only 9 wave numbers but again they repel to each other and separated by 178 wave numbers at = 1.0.
3.2. Heat Capacity:
2 o The dispersion curves obtained for PEO have been used to
C p – C v = 3RA o (C p T/C v Tm ) . (5)
calculate the densityofstates and heat capacity as a
Where Ao
9
m
is a constant, often of a universal value [3.9×10
function of temperature. The densityofstates are shown in
(Kmol/J)], and T
o is the equilibrium melting temperature.
Fig. 1(b). Heat capacity of PEO has been calculated in the temperature range 0300 K, as shown in Fig. 2.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Using molecular modeling technique, the minimum energy structure as a function of dihedral angles of PEO was determined by us as helical structure. It also agrees with the helical structure reported by others [7, 8]. The number of atoms per residue in PEO is nine and, hence, there would be (9 x 3) – 4 = 23 normal modes of vibration. The vibrational frequencies have been calculated for each of the values of varying from 0 to in steps of 0.05. The optically active modes are those for which = 0, and . The four zone center zerofrequencies correspond to acoustic modes; three representing translations along the three axes and one rotation around the chain axis. The assignments have been made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED), band intensity, band profile and absorption/scattering in similar molecules having groups placed in similar environments. The UreyBradley force constants have been initially transferred from the earlier work on molecules having similar groups and have been further refined by using the leastsquare deviation method [17]. All vibrational modes along with their potential energy distribution are given in Table 1 at = 0.0.
3.1. Dispersion Curves:
The dispersion curves below 1400 cm1 are shown in Fig. 1(a). The modes above 1400 cm1 have been either non dispersive or their dispersion was less than 5 cm1. A very interesting feature of the dispersion curves is the convergence of various modes. The modes that are separated by a large wave number at the zone center
0.0) come very close at the zone boundary ( = 1.0) This convergence arises mainly because of phononphonon coupling and consequent sharing of potential energy in different measures by the coupled modes. The extent of sharing depends on the strength of coupling. For example, the two zone center modes calculated at 1162 and 1055 cm
1 are separated by 107 wave numbers but at the zone
boundary they are separated by only 5 wave numbers. Similar features have been observed in the pair of modes, which appear at the zone center at 873 and 834 cm1, and 583 and 545 cm1 etc..
Another specific feature of some of the dispersion curves was the exchange of character that occurs at repulsion points. For instance, the modes calculated at 545 and 343

CONCLUSION
The vibrational dynamics of PEO have been satisfactorily interpreted from the dispersion curves and dispersion profiles of the normal modes of PEO as obtained by Higgs method for infinite systems. Some of the internal symmetrydependent features, such as attraction and exchange of characters, have been predicted. Heat capacity behavior of PEO with temperature was nearly linear in nature. REFERENCES

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(b)

Figure 1(a): Dispersion curves of PEO (01400 cm1) (b) Densityofstates of PEO (01400 cm1)
Figure 2: Variation of heat capacity with temperature of PEO
Table 1: Vibrational modes at = 0.0
Calculated Observed % Potential Energy Distribution
IR 
Raman 

2890 
2879 
(CH)(100) 

2890 
2879 
v(CH)(100) 

2883 
2879 
(CH)(99) 

2882 
2879 
(CH)(99) 

2811 
2808 
(CH)(100) 

2811 
2808 
(CH)(100) 

2809 
2808 
(CH)(99) 

2808 
2808 
(CH)(99) 

1477 
1470 
1487 
(HCH)(72)+(HCC)(24) 
1474 
1470 
1471 
(HCH)(67)+(HCC)(22) 
1458 
1464 
1445 
(HCH)(67)+(HCC)(13) 
1452 
1451 
1445 
(HCH)(69)+(HCC)(13) 
1372 
1362 
1397 
(HCC)(39)+(OCH)(30)+(CO)(22) 
1368 
1362 
1363 
(HCC)(41)+(OCH)(29)+(CO)(18) 
1300 
1306 
(OCH)(43)+(HCC)(30)+CO)(23) 

1282 
1279 
1283 
(OCH)(55)+(HCC)(35) 
1229 
1231 
1234 
(HCC)(82)+(CC)(15) 
1228 
1231 
1234 
(HCC)(85)+(OCH)(11) 
1191 
1183 
(OCH)(53)+(HCC)(47) 

1171 
1171 
(HCC)(54)+(OCH)(46) 

1162 
1171 
1143 
(OCC)(32)+(CO)(29)+(OCH)(17) 
1055 
1062 
1065 
(CO)(81)+(OCH)(18) 
1045 
1033 
1065 
(OCH)(78)+(CH)(16) 
1012 
1010 
(CO)(70)+(OCH)(24) 

1002 
1010 
(OCH)(81)+(CH)(15) 

998 
1010 
(CO)(84)+(OCH)(12) 

931 
932 
936 
(CC)(62)+(OCC)(28) 
919 
917 
(CC)(67)+(CO)(19) 

873 
884 
862 
(HCC)(44)+(OCH)(35)+(CH)(23) 
834 
843 
844 
(OCH)(43)+(HCC)(37)+(CH)(19) 
583 
(OCC)(56)+(CC)(30) 

545 
(COC)(46)+(OC)(39) 
343 (OCC)(87)+(CC)(15)
248 (COC)(64) + (OCC)(25)
168 (CC)(29)+(CC)(26)+(CO)(21)+(CO)(18)
159 (OC)(54)+ (CH)(31)+(CO)(14)
82 (CO)(63)+ (CH)(19)+(OC)(15)
34 (CC)(52)+ (CH)(28)+(CO)(22)
2 (CC)(36)+(CO)(21)+(CH)(17)
1 (CO)(32)+(OC)(28)(CH)(22)
Note: All frequencies are in cm1.