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 Authors : Supriya T J, Praveen J V
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS100397
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 10 (October 2014)
 Published (First Online): 18102014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Use of Precast Hollow Core Slabs in High Rise Buildings
Supriya T J

ech student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Siddhartha Academy Of Higher Education, Tumkur, India.
Praveen J V
Asst. professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Siddhartha Academy Of Higher Education, Tumkur, India.
Abstract – Precast prestressed hollow core flooring is used extensively around the world because of economical, light weight, faster assembling etc. This type of slabs is generally used in the construction of floors for highrise apartments or multi storey buildings in lowseismic regions.
The present study is on the analysis of seismic behaviour of precast hollow core slabs in high rise buildings using ETABS software. Comparision of behaviour of hollow core slab building and solid slab building for different seismic zones keeping the member size same for all models. Comparision of quantity of concrete and quantity of steel for hollow core slab building and solid slab building. A 33 storey commercial office building with precast hollow core slabs have been analyzed for seismic zone IV with type two medium soil. Structural system used for these buildings are taken as concrete special momentresisting frame with ductile shear walls. Five different models of hollow core slab building with different member sizes have been performed. Static analysis has been carried out by equivalent static method and dynamic analysis has been carried out by response spectrum method as per recommendation of IS: 1893(Part 1):2002.Based on analysis results of five models it has been concluded that model 5member sizes shows better performance when compared to other four models member sizes. Keeping model 5 member sizes constant, 4 models of hollow core slab building and 4 models of solid slab building have been performed for different seismic zones and compared with various factors such as base shear, storey drift. Thus hollow core slab building shows better performance when compared to solid slab building. Hollow core slab building and solid slab building have been analyzed for seismic zone IV based on analysis and design results, quantity of steel and quantity of concrete required are calculated and compared. Based on the analysis results it can be concluded that hollow core slab building consumes less material when compared to solid slab building. Therefore hollow core slab building is best compared to solid slab building.
Keywords: precast hollow core slab; high rise building; finite ETABS Software; seismic zones.

INTRODUCTION

A hollow core slab refers to a precast slab that is prepared using prestressed concrete with tubular voids which run through the full length of the slab. Prestressing gives concrete longer spanning capacity, shallow depth and the ability to carry heavy loads. Precast hollow core slabs are typically 1200mm in width and about 20m in length. This type of slabs are costeffective, quick to assemble and build, have lower selfweight, use less raw materials etc.
The prestressed hollow core slabs are tender, light weight products which help in construction of thinner floor. The thinner the flooring much is the space saved for construction which can be translated in to additional floors in the high rise structure that too with controlled costs and lesser joints. The precast prestressed hollow core units are very easy to install and offer an immediate working platform after completion of installment and can be implemented with lesser labour or workforce in lesser time. This greatly reduces the construction delay to a minimum thereby enabling for faster construction of the high rise projects.
With hollow core slabs, thermal activated flooring can be installed in the high rise constructions. In high rise building hollow core flooring offers better fire resistance and ensures better protection of inhabitants or people within building at the time of fire incidents. Costs of construction are greatly reduced with use of hollow core floors in high rise constructions. The presence of longitudinal voids leads to about 45% saving in concrete compared with normal insitu reinforced slab flooring.

Definition of High Rise Building
A building is an enclosed structure that has walls, floors, a roof, and usually windows. A tall building is a multistorey structure in which most occupants depends on elevators [lifts] to reach their destinations. The most prominent tall buildings are called highrise buildings in most countries. The terms do not have internationally agreed definitions. However, a high rise building can be defined as follows:
Generally, a high rise structure is considered to be one that extends higher than the maximum reach of available firefighting equipment. In absolute numbers, this has been set variously between 75 feet(23 meters) and 100 feet(30 meters) or about seven to ten stories (depending on the slabtoslab distance between floors).
The exact height above which a particular building is deemed to be a high rise is specified by fire and building codes for the country, region, state, or city where the building is located. When the building exceeds the specified height, then fire, an everpresent danger in such situation facilities, must be fought by fire personnel from inside the building rather than from outside using fire hoses and ladders.

Definition of earthquake
An earthquake is the series of vibration on the earths surface caused by the generation of seismic waves due to sudden rupture within the earth.
Seismograph is used to find strength and location of earth quake.
1.2.1 Definitions in earthquake resistant structures:

Design Basis Earthquake (DBE): It is the earthquake which can reasonably be expected to occur at least once during the design life of the structure.

Design Horizontal Acceleration Coefficient (Ah): It is a horizontal acceleration coefficient that shall be used for design of structures.

Design Lateral Force: It is the horizontal seismic force prescribed by this standard that shall be used to design a structure.

Design Seismic Base Shear (VB): It is the total design lateral force at the base of a structure.

Height of Structure (h): It is the difference in levels, in metres, between its base and its highest level.

Importance Factor (I): It is a factor used to obtain the design seismic force depending on the functional use of the structure, characterized by hazardous consequences of its failure, its postearthquake functional need, historic value, or economic importance.

Natural Period (T): Natural period of a structure is its time period of undamped free vibration.

Response Reduction Factor (R): It is the factor by which the actual base shears force that would be generated if the structure were to remain elastic during its response to the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) shaking, shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral force.

Seismic Weight (W): It is the total dead load plus appropriate amount of specified imposed load.

Shear Wall: It is a wall designed to resist lateral forces acting in its own plane.

Special MomentResisting Frame: It is a moment resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behaviour and comply with the requirements given in IS 4326 or IS 13920 or SP 6 (6).

Storey Drift: It is the displacement of one level relative to the other level above or below.

Structural Response Factors (Sa/g): It is a factor denoting the acceleration response spectrum of the structure subjected to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends on natural period of vibration and damping of the structure.

Zone Factor (Z): It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum depending on the perceived maximum seismic risk characterized by Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in which the structure is located. The basic zone factors included in this standard are reasonable estimate of effective peak ground acceleration.
2. DESCRIPTION OF ANALYZING MODELS

Modeling
A commercial office building of 33 storeys with precast hollow core slabs of plan dimension 24mx18m is considered for analysis. Height of each storey is 3m and total height of the building is 99m. Structural system used for these building is taken as concrete special momentresisting frame with ductile shear walls and typeII medium soil has been considered.

preliminary data
Plan of the building are shown in figure 2.1. Five models of hollow core slab buildings of different member sizes have been analyzed. For all models beam dimensions have been assumed as 230x260mm, 300x600mm, 300x750mm, and hollow core slab thickness have been assumed as 260mm and column dimensions and shear wall thickness have been shown in table 2.1.
Figure 2.1Plan of the commercial office building with precast hollow core slabs
Table 2.1: Schedule of Member Sizes
Name
Column Dimensions
Shear Wall Thickness
Storey
110
Storey
1120
Storey
2133
Storey
110
Storey 11
33
C1
C2
C3
Sw1
Sw2
Model 1
450×900
450×750
450×600
400
300
Model 2
450×1000
450×750
450×600
400
300
Model 3
600×1200
400×800
300×600
400
300
Model 4
600×900
450×750
300×600
500
450
Model 5
450×1200
450×750
450×600
500
450
Note: All dimensions are in mm.
Model 1Column dimensions and shear wall thickness have been changed.
Model 2Column dimensions have been changed.
Model 3Column dimension have been changed and shear wall length has been increased.
Model 4Column dimensions and shear wall thickness have been changed.
Model 5Column dimensions have been changed.

Material properties
The strength of a structure depends on the strength of the materials from which it is made for this purpose material strength is specified in standardized ways as a step to proceed the design of a structure.

Analysis property data
Material name – Concrete
Grade of concreteM25 has been considered for beams and slabs.
Grade of concreteM40 has been considered for columns and shear walls.
Type of material – Isotropic Mass per unit volume2.4 kN/m3
Modulus of elasticity25 kN/mm2 Poissons ratio 0.2

Design property data
Concrete cube compressive strength for M25 grade of concrete, fck25 N/mm2
Concrete cube compressive strength for M40 grade of concrete, fck40 N/mm2
Bending reinforcement yield stress for steel reinforcement, fy 415 N/mm2
These are the material properties which have been considered for all the models.


Load considerations
Dead load, live load and earthquake load are considered in the design as per Indian standard codes.
Table 2.2 represents dead load and live load data considered for analysis.
Wall load 
12kN/m2 
Super imposed dead load 
2.5 kN/m2 
Super imposed live load 
4 kN/m2 
Table 2.2: Dead load and live load data
can therefore work well for low to mediumrise buildings without significant coupled lateraltorsion modes, in which only the first mode in each direction is of significance. Tall buildings (say, over, 75 m), where second and higher modes can be important, or buildings with torsion effects, are much less suitable for the method, and require more complex methods to be used in these circumstances.
2.5.2 Manual equivalent static analysis design procedure as per IS 1893(PART 1):2002
The total design lateral force or design base shear along any principal direction is given in terms of design horizontal seismic coefficient and seismic weight of the structure. Design horizontal seismic coefficient depends on the zone factor of the site, importance factor of the structure, response reduction factor of the lateral load resisting elements and the fundamental period of the structure. The procedure generally used for the equivalent static analysis is explained below:

Determination of fundamental natural period (Ta) of the buildings.
For moment resisting RC frame building without brick infill wall.
Ta = 0.075h0.75
For moment resisting steel frame building without brick infill wall.
Ta = 0.085h0.75
For all other buildings including moment resisting RC frame building with brick infill walls.
Ta =0.09h/d
Table 2.3 represents earthquake load data for seismic zoneIV considered for analysis of five models.
Table 2.3: Earthquake load data
Where,
h The height of building in m.
d The base dimension of building at plinth level in m, along the considered direction of lateral force.

Determination of base shear (VB) of the building.
VB = Ah x W
Where,
Seismic zone
Zone IV
Soil type
Medium(Type2)
Each storey height
3m
Zone factor, Z
0.24
Importance factor, I
1.0
Response reduction factor, R
5.0
Analysis type
Dynamic analysis
Ah =
2.5 Methods of static analysis
The method of static analysis used here is equivalent static method.
2.5.1 Equivalent static analysis
All design against earthquake effects must consider the dynamic nature of the load. However, for simple regular
Ah = Design horizontal seismic coefficient. Z = Zone factor.
I = Importance factor.
R = Response reduction factor.
Sa/g = Average response acceleration coefficients.
Sa/g in turn depends on the nature of foundation soil (rock, medium or soft soil sites), natural period and the damping of the structure.

Distribution of design base shear.
The design base shear VB thus obtained shall be distributed along the height of the building as per the following expression:
2
structures, analysis by equivalent linear static methods is
Q V
Wihi
often sufficient. This is permitted in most codes of practice for regular, low to mediumrise buildings and begins with an estimate of peak earthquake load calculated as a function of the parameters given in the code. Equivalent static analysis
i B n
Wihi2 i1
Where,
Qi = The design lateral force. Wi = The seismic weight.
hi = The height of the ith floor measured from base. n = The number of stories in the building.
2.6 Methods of dynamic analysis
IS: 1893(Part 1):2002 presents two methods of dynamic analysis. They are:

Timehistory analysis.

Response spectrum analysis.
Out of these two methods, response spectrum analysis is more convenient than time history analysis.
2.6.1 Response spectrum analysis
A response spectrum is the graphic representation of maximum response i.e. displacements, velocity and acceleration of a damped singledegreeoffreedom system to a specified ground motion, plotted against the frequency or modal periods.
Five models of different member sizes have been done considering above member sizes, material properties, and load Consideration and they have been analyzed for seismic zone IV. By considering gravity loads such as dead load, live load data shown in table 2.2 static analysis has been carried out by equivalent Static method and by considering earthquake load data shown in table 2.3 dynamic analysis has been carried out by response spectrum method as per recommendation of IS 1893(Part 1):2002.The results of base shear, time period and storey drift have been collected and compared with different models.

Comparision of hollow core slab building with solid slab building for different seismic zones
By varying member sizes seismic analysis have been carried out by response spectrum method on Model 1, Model 2, Model 3, Model 4, and Model 5.Thus based on analysis results it can be concluded that Model 5 member size perform better when compared to other 4 Models member sizes.
A 33 storey commercial office building of plan dimension 24mx18m is considered for analysis. Keeping the Model 5 member size constant, different hollow core slab buildings and solid slab buildings have been performed for seismic zone II, seismic zone III, seismic zone IV and seismic zone V. Table 2.4 represent schedule of member sizes for hollow core slab buildings and solid slab buildings. Structural system used for these building is taken as concrete special momentresisting frame with ductile shear walls and typeII medium soil is considered.
By considering gravity loads such as dead load, live load data shown in table 2.2 static analysis has been carried out by equivalent static method and by considering earthquake load data for different seismic zones shown in table 2.5. Dynamic analysis has been carried out by response spectrum method as per recommendation of IS 1893(Part 1):2002.The results of base shear and maximum storey drift have been collected and compared with different models.
Table 2.4: Schedule of member sizes
Type of buildings
Name
Hollow core slab
building
Solid Slab building
Beam Dimensions
B1
230 x 260
B1
230 x 600
B2
300 x 600
B2
300 x 600
B3
300 x 750
B3
300 x 750
Column Dimensions
Storey 110
C1
450x 1200
C1
450 x 1200
Storey 1120
C2
450 x 750
C2
450 x 750
Storey 2133
C3
450 x 600
C3
450 x 600
Slab
Thickness
260
150
Shear Wall
Thickness
Storey 110
SW1
500
SW1
500
Storey 1133
SW2
450
SW2
450
Note: All dimensions are in mm.
Table 2.5: Shows earthquake load data for different seismic zone
Type of buildings
Type of model
Seismic zone
Zone factor, Z
Importance factor,
I
Response reduction factor,
R
Hollow core slab buildings
Model
A
Zone II
0.10
1.0
5.0
Model
B
Zone III
0.16
1.0
5.0
Model
C
Zone IV
0.24
1.0
5.0
Model
D
Zone V
0.36
1.0
5.0
Solid slab buildings
Model
A1
Zone II
0.10
1.0
5.0
Model
B1
Zone III
0.16
1.0
5.0
Model
C1
Zone IV
0.24
1.0
5.0
Model
D1
Zone V
0.36
1.0
5.0

Comparision of total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel in hollow core slab building and solid slab building
Model C hollow core slab building and Model C1 solid slab building have been considered for the determination of total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel. Model C hollow core slab building and Model C1 solid slab building have been analyzed and designed for seismic zone IV. Design details such as longitudinal reinforcement details and shear reinforcement details of Model C and Model C1 have been collected. Detail calculation of quantity of steel and quantity of concrete have been done in excel sheet and the total quantity have been compared by graphical representation.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The results of each building models have been presented. The analysis carried out is static analysis by equivalent static method and dynamic analysis by response spectrum method.
The result of Base shear, storey drifts and time period for different models were presented. Comparision of hollow core slab building and solid slab building results have been presented. Comparision results of total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel in hollow core slab building and solid slab building have been presented.
.

Analysis results of five hollow core slab building models of different member sizes
The results of five models such as base shear, time period, and maximum storey drift are represented in table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Results of five hollow core slab building models of different member sizes
Name
Base Shear,(kN)
Time period,
(Sec)
Max Storey Drift,(mm)
EQX
EQY
Drift x
Drift y
Model 1
3664.12
3664.12
4.785067
0.000754
0.0022
Model 2
3671.55
3671.55
4.757858
0.000745
0.002245
Model 3
3709.72
3709.72
4.723347
0.000699
0.002239
Model 4
3819.93
3819.93
4.6438
0.00068
0.002135
Model 5
3839.71
3839.71
4.60538
0.000656
0.00207
Based on analysis results of five hollow core slab building models presented in table 3.1 graphs have been drawn as shown below.
TIME PERIOD

Comparision of type of model v/s time period Figure 3.1: Graph of type of model v/s time period
TYPE OF MODEL V/S TIME PERIOD
4.8
4.75
4.7
4.65
4.6
4.55
4.5
TYPE OF MODEL V/S TIME PERIOD
TYPE OF MODEL
The comparative study of maximum time period values for different type of models are represented in figure 3.1. In comparison of time period at different storey levels, it is observed that the time period are steadily increased i.e., minimum at top storey and maximum time period at bottom storey. The maximum time period value of Model (1) is 1.005 times greater than that of Model (2), 1.013 times greater than that of Model (3), 1.031 times greater than that of Model (4),
1.039 times greater than that of Model (5) at storey 1.Thus maximum time period in building have been steadily decreased as the member size increases.

Comparision of type of model v/s base shear in x direction
Figure 3.2: Graph of type of model v/s base shear in x direction
The comparative study of base shear values in x direction for different type of models are represented in figure 3.2.The base shear values of Model (1) is 1.002 times less than that of Model (2), 1.012 times less than that of Model (3), 1.042 times less than that of Model (4), 1.047 times less than that of Model (5) in x direction. Thus base shear in building steadily increased as the member size increases.

Comparision of type of model v/s base shear in y direction
Figure 3.3: Graph of type of model v/s base shear in y direction
The comparative study of base shear values in y direction for different type of models are represented in figure 3.3. The base shear value of Model (1) is 1.002 times less than that of Model (2), 1.012 times less than that of Model (3), 1.042 times less than that of Model (4),1.047 times less than that of Model (5) in y direction. Thus base shear in structure will be steadily increased as the member size increases.

Comparision of type of model v/s max storey drift in x direction
Figure 3.4: Graph of type of model v/s max storey drift in x direction
The comparative study of maximum storey drift values in x directions for five different models is represented in figure 3.4.The maximum storey drift value of Model (1) is
1.012 times greater than that of Model (2), 1.072 times greater than that of Model (3), 1.078 times greater than that of Model (4),1.108 times greater than that of Model (5).Thus maximum storey drift will decreases as the member size increases and storey drift values of all models lies within the limits as per IS:1893(Part 1):2002 (clause7.11.1).

Comparision of type of model v/s max storey drift in y direction

Figure 3.5: Graph of type of model v/s max storey drift in y direction
The comparative study of maximum storey drift values in y direction for five different models is represented in figure 3.5. The maximum storey drift value of Model (1) is
1.006 times greater than that of Model (2), 1.009 times greater than that of Model (3), 1.058 times greater than that of Model (4), 1.091 times greater than that of Model (5) in y direction. Thus maximum storey drift will decreases as the member size increases and storey drift values of all models lies within the limits as per IS:1893(Part 1):2002 (clause 7.11.1).
3.2 Comparision of hollow core slab building with solid slab building for different seismic zones
Analysis results of hollow core slab building and solid slab building for different seismic zones are shown in table 3.2 and 3.3. The results of models such as base shear and maximum storey drift are given below.
Table 3.2: Represents results of hollow core slab building for different seismic zones
Seismic
Zone
Name
Base Shear,(kN)
Max Storey
Drift,(mm)
EQX
EQY
Drift X
Drift Y
Zone II
Model A
1599.88
1599.88
0.000273
0.000862
Zone III
Model B
2559.80
2559.80
0.000437
0.001380
Zone IV
Model C
3839.71
3839.71
0.000656
0.002070
Zone V
Model D
5759.56
5759.56
0.000984
0.003105
Table 3.3: Represents results of solid slab building for different seismic zones
Seismic Zone
Name
Base Shear,(kN)
Max Storey Drift,(mm)
EQX
EQY
Drift X
Drift Y
Zone II
Model A1
1394.19
1394.19
0.000238
0.000750
Zone III
Model B1
2230.71
2230.71
0.000381
0.001201
Zone IV
Model C1
3346.06
3346.06
0.000571
0.001801
Zone V
Model D1
5019.10
5019.10
0.000856
0.002702
Based on analysis result values presented in table

and table 3.3 graphs have been represented as shown below. Base shear, maximum storey drift have been compared for different zones between hollow core building and solid slab building.

Comparision of seismic zone v/s base shear for hollow core slab building and solid slab building
Figure 3.6: Graph of seismic zones v/s base shear
The comparative study of base shear values for different seismic zones is represented in figure 3.6. In comparision of base shear values for different seismic zones, base shear value are increased steadily and maximum base shear are found in seismic zone V. The base shear values of hollow core slab building in seismic zone II, zone III, zone IV and zone V is 1.147 times less than that of solid slab building in seismic zone II, zone III, zone IV, and zone V. Thus hollow core slab building produce less base shear compared to solid slab building.

Comparision of seismic zone v/s max storey drift along x direction for hollow core slab building and solid slab building
Figure 3.7: Graph of seismic zones v/s maximum storey drift along x direction
The comparative study of max storey drift values in x direction for different seismic zones is represented in figure

In comparision of max storey drift values for different seismic zones, storey drift value are increased steadily and maximum storey drift are found in seismic zone V. The maximum storey drift values of hollow core slab building in seismic zone II is 1.1470 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone II, 1.1469 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone III, 1.1488 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone IV, 1.1495 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone
V. Thus hollow core slab building produce greater storey drift values in x direction compared to solid slab building.


Comparision of seismic zone v/s max storey drift along y direction for hollow core slab building and solid slab building
Figure 3.8: Graph of seismic zones v/s max storey drift along y direction
The comparative study of max storey drift values in y direction for different seismic zones is represented in figure

In comparision of max storey drift values for different seismic zones, storey drift value are increased steadily and maximum storey drift are found in seismic zone V. The maximum storey drift values of hollow core slab building in seismic zone II is 1.1490 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone II, 1.1490 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone III, 1.1493 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone IV, 1.1491 times greater than that of solid slab building in seismic zone
V. Thus hollow core slab building produce greater storey drift values in y direction compared to solid slab building.



Comparision of total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel in hollow core slab building and solid slab building
Model C hollow core slab building and Model C1 solid slab building design details such as longitudinal reinforcement details and shear reinforcement details of beams, columns and slabs have been collected. Detail calculation of quantity of steel and quantity of concrete of all storeys have been done in excel sheet and the results of total quantity of steel and total quantity of concrete for beams, columns, slabs in solid slab building and in hollow core slab building are represented in table 3.4.
Table 3.4: Total Quantity of concrete and steel in Hollow core Slab building and Solid Slab building
Sl. No.
Hollow core Slab building
Solid Slab building
Total Quantity of
Concrete, (m3)
Total Quantity of Steel, (Tonnes)
Total Quantity of
Concrete, (m3)
Total Quantity of steel, (Tonnes)
Beams
976.734
151.403
1131.57
187.461
Columns
2204.265
217.776
2204.265
191.109
Slabs
1612.05
91.424
2138.40
146.239
Total
4793.30
460.603
5474.23
524.809
Total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel in hollow core slab building and solid slab building have been compared in graph as shown below based on results presented in table 3.4.

Comparision of type of buildings v/s total quantity of steel
Figure 3.9: Graph of type of building v/s total quantity of steel

Comparision of type of buildings v/s total quantity of concrete
Figure 3.10: Graph of type of building v/s total quantity of concrete
The comparative study of total quantity of concrete and total quantity of steel for different type of building are represented in figure 3.9 and 3.10. Hollow core slab building consume less material when compared to solid slab building because of the presence of longitudinal voids in the cross section of hollow core slabs leads to saving in concrete as compared to solid slabs and at the same time cuts the amount of prestressing steel because of lower selfweight. Therefore hollow core slab building is best compared to solid slab building.



CONCLUSION
The thesis attempts to study the behaviour of precast hollow core slabs in high rise buildings.Five models of hollow core slab buildings of different member sizes is analyzed using equivalent static method and Response spectrum method for seismic zone IV. From the above analysis results following conclusions can be made in this respect:

Maximum storey drift, storey drifts in X and Y direction of model 5 is less than that of other four models.

Time period of model 5 is less than that of other four models.

Storey shear in X and Y direction of model 5 is greater than that of model 1, 2, 3, 4.
From the above study it has been conclude that model 5 shows better performance when compared to other models.
Keeping model 5 member size constant Hollow core slab building and solid slab building have been performed for different seismic zones and it has been analyzed using equivalent static method and Response spectrum method according to code provisions, considering the effect of base shear, storey drift the results obtained by hollow core slab building and solid slab building for different seismic zone has been compared. Following broad conclusions can be made in this respect:

Base shear is less for hollow core slab building compared to solid slab building for different seismic zones.

Storey drift is higher for hollow core slab building as compared solid slab building.

Thus hollow core slab building consumes less material when compared to solid slab building. Therefore hollow core slab building is best compared to solid slab building.


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