Topic: Decision Making Tool for Water Efficiency in Built Environment

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Topic: Decision Making Tool for Water Efficiency in Built Environment

Ar. Anjali Pal

Deenbandhu chhotu ram university of science & technology

Murthal (Sonepat)

Department of Architecture

Abstract:- Life and civilization cannot exist without water. The earth is surrounded by water, but only a small part (around 0.3 percent), is used by human beings. The rest of it which is around 99.7 percent is in the oceans, soils, and floating in the atmosphere. (CSO, 2018). Due to rapid growth of urbanization there is more pressure on the fresh water. India is the second populated country in the world with 1.2 billion people (according to Census of India, 2011) (UNICEF, 2013). India is now facing water stressed situation and heading towards water scarcity situation by 2051.

In this regards, this research has been carried out with an attempt made to study the processes of realization of retrofitting potential and incorporating it in the real world scenario. The research includes a study and comparison of various water norms and codes to establish a minimum performance benchmarking criteria for the equipments constituting building services such as, Plumbing system.

It also includes an in-depth study of understanding of services and the various water technique associated with them.

Keywords: Water efficiency, Water stressed, MPC (Matrix paired comparison), MADA (Multi Attribute Decision Analysis)

INTRODUCTION:

India is the second populated country in the world with over 1.2 billion people (Census of India, 2011). (UNICEF, 2013, p. 1). In India, industrialization and urbanization have not yet reached the peak levels considering ever increasing demands of the growing population. This translates to a mounting pressure on the freshwater in the country. The water resources are being increasingly stressed not only by over-abstraction, but also by pollution and climate change. However, the per capita availability of water has been estimated to decrease over the decades in India. (CSO, 2018, p. 3.6)

http://aquadoc.typead.com/waterwired/2014/06/misinfographic-groundwater.html

http://aquadoc.typead.com/waterwired/2014/06/misinfographic-groundwater.html

Per Capita Water Availability in India

Year

Population (Million)

Per capita water availability (m31Year )

Remarks

1951

361

5178

1955

395

4732

1991

846

2210

2001

1027

1820

2011

1211

1544

water stressed

2015

1326*

1441$

water stressed

2021

1345a

1421$

water stressed

2031

1463a

1306$

water stressed

2041

1560 a

1225$

water stressed

2051

1628 a

1174$

water stressed

*projected 2011census

Note: a: Population figures for 2021 to 2051 are taken from projected population by Planning Commission

$: The per capita availability from 2015 onwards has been calculated from 2017 WRA estimate Source: CSO (2018), EnviStats-India 2018

As per Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator, a per capita availability of less than 1700 cubic meters is water-stressed condition, while if per capita availability falls below 1000 m3, it is water scarcity condition.

3.AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of research:

  • To explore the best strategies of water Conservation.

  • To explore the tool for water efficiency. The research -based objectives as follow:

  1. To study different water conservation technique through literature reviews.

  2. To study the water criteria in Rating/Review (such as LEED, GRIHA, IGBC)

  3. To analyse parameters collected from literature review.

  4. The important parameters will be analysed through survey

METHODOLOGY

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The scope of project deals with application of various water conservation techniques on a building at design stage to achieve NBC (National Building Code) Standards. It does not include any major alteration to the design aspects of the building.

LITERATURE REVIEW CONCLUSION

Based on literature review, studies and survey, the study of water efficiency tools such as water supply, fixtures, pumps, rainwater recharge structure, types of filters used, landscape technique, Irrigation practices and waste water treatment has been analyzed above in building context is found to be a research gap which is very important so that it can be used as a tool for decision-making in-built environment.

The List of parameter affecting is Ease of Installation, Rate of Flow, Facility Management, Cost.

PARAMETERS

S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

SYSTEM

PARAMETERS

1

PLUMBING

i

Type of water supply system for high rise building

  • Direct supply system from mains public or private.

  • Gravity distribution system.

  • Pressurized distribution system (Hydro pneumatic pumping system).

  • Combined distribution system

  • Energy consumption

  • Proper residual pressure

  • Ease of installation

  • Facility Management

  • Reliability

ii

Type of piping systems,

  • Single stack system

  • One pipe Partially ventilated system

  • One pipe Fully ventilated system

  • Two pipe system with common vent pipe

  • Two pipe system with independent vent pipes

  • Ease of installation

  • Facility Management

  • Performance

  • Ease of integration

  • Cost

ii

Efficiency improvement of motors and pumps.

  • Centrifugal pump

  • Rotary pump

  • Reciprocating pump

  • Cost

  • Energy efficiency

  • Performance

  • Ease of integration

  • Ease of installation

iii

Fixtures

  • Sensor

  • Water efficient fixture

  • Auto control valve

  • Pressure reducing valves

  • Rate of flow

  • Ease of installation

  • Maintenance

  • Cost

  • Proper residual pressure

S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

SYSTEM

PARAMETERS

2

LANDSCAPING

  • Minimising Lawn area

  • Maximise native and adapted species

  • Maximise tree/shrub plantation

  • Use of efficient technologies

  • Grouping of similar plant species as per the water requirement

  • Xerscaping

  • Install soil moisture or rain sensor

  • Water efficiency

  • Ease of design

  • Life span

  • Maintenance

S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

SYSTEM

PARAMETERS

3

IRRIGATION PRACTICES

  • Micro-drip

  • Micro-spray

  • Multiple-sprinkler

  • Sprinkler, large gun

  • Smart irrigation system

  • Sub irrigation system

  • Water efficiency

  • Rate of flow

  • Cost

  • Facility Management

  • Payback period

S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

SYSTEM

PARAMETERS

4

RAINWATER RECHARGE

i

Recharge structure

  • Recharge pit

  • Improves quality of ground

  • Recharge trenches

  • Reuse of abandoned dug wells

  • Recharge shafts

  • Lateral shafts with bore wells

  • Deep injection well

water

  • Reduces run-off

  • Ease of construction

  • Costing

  • Maintenance

ii

Filters in RWH

  • Cloth filter

  • Sand filter

  • Reverse sand filter

  • Dewas filter

  • Varun filter

  • Desilting chambers

  • Amount of silt load

  • Quality of Run-off

  • Catchment Area

  • Costing

  • Type of recharge structure

REVIEW/RATING SYSTEM

This section presents a review on the strategies of water conservation. The section deals with different parameters of Rating system in Indian context (such as GRIHA, LEED (IGBC) and IGBC. All the parameters have been analysed in each criterion. The points observed are Water quality. GRIHA EXPLAINS about water quality while others criteria do not deal with. In some criterion such as irrigation system, (in case of IGBC single parameter have been considered and in others rating system this criterion has been merged with Landscape

Data Collection

This chapter deals on the subject of Data collection. The tool used is MADA (Multi Attribute Decision Analysis). The parameters were analysed on the basis of data collection. The data was collected from Architect, Civil Engineer, Research scholar.

Showing no of profession responded

Showing experienced categories

1.Plumbing

  1. Type of water supply system for high rise building

    MPC for Energy Consumption MPC for proper residual pressure

    MPC for Ease of installation MPC for Facility management

    MPC for Reliability MPC for parameter

    Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

    MADA for Types of water supply system

    Hence we see that the best system of Water supply system is Gravity distribution system, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Combined distribution system, and the third is Pressurized distribution system (Hydro pneumatic pumping system).

  2. Types of piping system.

    MPC for Ease of Installation MPC for Ease of Integration

    MPC for Facility Management MPC for performance

    MPC for Cost MPC for parameter

    Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

    MADA for Types of pipping system

    Hence, we see that the best system of piping system isTwo pipe system with independent vent pipe, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Two pipe system with common vent pipe system, and the third is One pipe fully ventilated system.

  3. Efficiency improvement of motors and pumps.

    MPC for Ease of integration MPC for Ease of installation

    MPC for Energy efficiency MPC for performance

    MPC for Cost MPC for parameters

    Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

    MADA for Motors & pumps

    Hence, we see that the best system for is Centrifugal pump, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Rotary pump, and the third is Reciprocating pump.

  4. Fixtures

MPC for Ease of installation MPC for Rate of flow

MPC for Maintenance MPC for Cost

MPC for proper residual pressure MPC for parameter

Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

MADA for Fixture

Hence, we see that the best system for Fixture is Water efficient fixture, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is pressure reducing valve, and the third is Auto control valve.

  1. Landscaping

    MPC for Design work MPC for water efficiency

    MPC for Maintenance MPC for Life span

    MPC for parameter

    Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

    MADA for Landscape

    Hence we see that the best system of Landscape is Maximise native and adapted species, Xeriscaping, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Use of efficient technologies, and the third is Maximise tree/shrub plantation.

  2. Irrigation Practices

MPC for water efficiency MPC for rate of flow

MPC for cost MPC for facility management

MPC for payback period MPC for parameter

Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

MADA for Irrigation practices (Irrigation practices)

Hence we see that the best system of Irrigation practices is Micro spray and smart irrigation system, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Multiple-sprinkler, and the third is sub irrigation system.

4 (i) Rainwater recharge structure

MPC for Ease of construction MPC for Maintenance

MPC for Improve quality of ground water MPC for costing

MPC for Reduce run-off MPC for parameter

Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

MADA for Rainwater structure

Hence we see that the best system of Rainwater structure is Recharge pit, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Recharge trenches, and the third is Reuse of abandoned dug wells.

4 (ii) Filters in RWH

MPC for Amount of silt load MPC for Quality of Run-off

MPC for Costing MPC for Catchment area

MPC for Type of recharge structure MPC for parameter

Final MADA Table for the desirability of techniques:

(MADA for Filters in Rainwater structure)

Hence we see that the best system for filter in Rainwater structure is Distillation chambers, as it ranks 1st. The next desirable option is Sand filter, and the third is Varun filter.

CONCLUSIONS

The major conclusions that can be drawn from this research work are as follows:

The basis of any water efficiency system has been detailed out and can be calculated initially using the benchmarks.

The potential fields of water savings have been analysed and worked out, by applying different permutations and combinations of various techniques.

RECOMMENDATION

The research work can be used to study and analyze the buildings water efficiency performance, the performance of water supply system, different techniques in different scenarios and can be applied to any building.

Also, there is a strong need to make conscious decisions for choosing the optimum solution/option for water efficiency.

FUTURE SCOPE

The future scope for this research work is as follows

The same categories can be done for high-rise building by applying the different technique in order to achieve the efficiency. Similarly, the case study can be carried out for other types of buildings, namely, residential,hospital, hotels, etc.

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