 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 774
 Authors : Neeraj Seth, R. D. Kulkarni, V. P. Joshi
 Paper ID : IJERTV5IS010529
 Volume & Issue : Volume 05, Issue 01 (January 2016)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV5IS010529
 Published (First Online): 27012016
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Three Phase Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Number of Switches for Improved Harmonic Performance
Neeraj Seth
M.Tech. Student
Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Andheri, Mumbai 400058

D. Kulkarni
Member, IEEE
Head, EFS, Reactor Engg. Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085

P Joshi
Head, Dept. of Electrical Engg., Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Andheri, Mumbai 400058
AbstractThe paper introduces an Asymmetric topology of three phase MultiLevel (seven level) Inverter (MLI) with reduced number of switches. This topology facilitates reduction in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and number of switches. Amongst the conventional techniques e.g. Diode Clamp, Flying Capacitor and Cascaded Multilevel Inverter, Cascaded Multi Level Inverter (CMLI) requires lesser number of components. In case of seven level, three phase multilevel inverter, conventional CMLI requires thirty six switches whereas the proposed topology needs only twelve switches for the generation of three phase seven level output voltage. The Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MSPWM), the Carrier Disposition (CD) in particular, along with appropriate logical circuitry is used to generate the required gate pulses for triggering a designated switch. The proposed topology is successfully simulated and verified in simulink selecting 1 kHz carrier frequency.
Keywords Asymmetric topology, Cascaded Multilevel Inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation.

INTRODUCTION
Recently for medium and highvoltage, highpower industrial & research applications [14] multilevel Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) are extensively accepted. Inverters synthesize better output voltage and current waveforms with reduced harmonics [5] thus, providing unique solution for the desired applications. Various industrial applications where multilevel inverter technology is extensively used covers the areas such as speed control of single phase as well as three phase induction motors, hybrid active harmonic filters, reactive power compensation, renewable energy sector, traction, plug in hybrid electric vehicles and many more. However, they requires high number of components such as input DC sources and power electronic devices i.e. IGBTs, MOSFETs and the required gate driver circuitry. But, these limitations are overcome by their advantages such as low dv/dt, small output filter size as the dominant harmonics are significantly reduced, low electromagnetic interference and reduction in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in output voltages. A broad classification of different multilevel inverter topologies are classified into two main categories [6]: (1) Single dcsource inverters, for e.g. NeutralPointClamped (NPC) multilevel inverter and Flying Capacitor multilevel inverters (2) Multi DC sources inverters, for e.g. Cascaded HBridge (CHB)
multilevel inverter [78]. Further, multiDC source inverter is classified into symmetrical (equal DC source) and asymmetrical (unequal DC source) topologies. Fundamentally, asymmetrical topologies produce more voltage levels as compared to symmetrical topologies keeping same DC sources. Recently, asymmetrical topologies are becoming one of the most interested research areas [910] in the field of power electronics and applications. In the asymmetrical configurations, the magnitudes of input DC voltage sources are unequal. The size of these topologies is substantially reduced improving the overall reliability, since minimum number of power electronic components and DC sources are used. Considering the above mentioned types of multilevel inverters, there are three basic conventional multilevel inverter topologies: Diode Clamped MultiLevel Inverter (DCMLI), Flying Capacitor and Cascaded Multilevel Inverter. The DCMLI [1112] basically uses the clamping diode to get the desired step in the output waveform of the inverter. It is a widely used topology that gives the output voltage levels with the help of clamping diodes. The key concept of DCMLI is the reduction of voltage stress in the power electronic devices with the help of diode. A typical n level DCMLI needs (n1) voltage sources, {2(n1)} switching devices and {(n1)(n2)} diodes [13]. Fig.1 shows the structure of 7level Diode clamped multilevel inverter.
Fig.1 Seven level Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter
The second topology is the Flying Capacitor MultiLevel Inverter (FCMLI) [14], the structure of which is similar to that of DCMLI. Similarly, for an nlevel FCMLI, it will require {(n1)(n2)/2} clamping capacitors per phase leg in addition to (n1) main DC capacitors. The voltage stress across each power electronic switch has to be same and equal to {Vdc/(n1)} for n level multilevel inverter, this is assured by the proper connection of capacitors of FCMLI. But, the major limitation of FCMLI is the number of capacitors involved comparative to other multilevel inverter topologies. Fig.2 shows the structure of five level FCMLI.
Fig.2 Five level Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter
The third topology is Cascaded Multicell Inverter topology which consists of number of power electronic switches connected in proper combination with series connected DC sources to give the various levels in the output voltage. Number of input DC sources (m) connected in series gives the number of output voltage level that can be written as (2m+1). CMLI has the least complex structure that requires lesser number of components compared to other types of multilevel topologies.
Besides, conventional two level inverter requires a large and expensive LC output filter and can only be used with the application that can withstand such stresses. The, conventional inverters have some more disadvantages when operating at high frequency, mainly due to higher switching losses and constraints of the device ratings. In view of the above discussions, the technical and economic aspects for the development of multilevel inverters are as follows.

Modular realization

High availability

Failure management and

Investment and life cycle cost.
A broad classification of DCAC power conversion (Inverter) is shown in Fig.3.
Fig.3 Classification of Multilevel Inverter


CONVENTIONAL CASCADED HBRIDGE MULTILEVEL INVERTER
It is composed of multiple units of single phase Hbridge power cells; each cell consists of two legs in parallel powered by isolated DC sources. Each leg consists of two series connected power electronics switches. The inverter input DC voltage is usually fixed, while its ac output voltage can be adjusted by different modulation schemes. For achieving the N level with symmetric CHB, it requires {(N1)/2} number of cells per phase and {2(N1)} number of switches per phase. Hence for three phase seven level output, it requires nine cells and thirty six switches. Fig. 4 shows the basic structure of single H bridge cell whereas Fig. 5 shows the three phase seven level CHB multilevel inverter.
Fig.4 Structure of Single H bridge cell
Fig.5 Conventional threephase seven level Cascaded HBridge Multilevel Inverter

PROPOSED ASSYMETRIC TOPOLOGY
This topology presents an asymmetric configuration (input DC sources are of unequal magnitude) for three phase seven level inverter with reduced number of switches. To generate three phase seven level output voltage, the proposed topology requires only twelve switches instead of thirty six switches which are needed in CHBMLI. Fig. 6 shows thesimulation circuit of the proposed topology simulated in Simulink. It contains three legs and each leg contains two cells. Each cell contains two switches and one DC source. For e.g. switches S1 and S2 are in same cell and the generated levels of output voltage waveform are: 0Vdc,
Â±1Vdc, Â±2Vdc, Â±3Vdc. As 1Vdc=150V and 2Vdc=300V, hence generated seven voltage levels are: 0V, Â±150V,
Â±300V, Â±450V. For achieving the desired output voltage levels, each phase requires four switches and two voltage sources having different magnitudes. Therefore, for three phase output, it requires three voltage sources having magnitude 1Vdc (150V) and three voltage sources having magnitude 2V (300V).
For achieving a desired level, the switches are triggered by a particular well defined pulse pattern. Switching strategy for the proposed topology is shown in Table I. It may be noted that one cycle of reference sine wave has eighteen modes of switching states. It can be clearly observed from the switching table that at any instant of time, six switches are
ON and six switches are in OFF condition. Fig.6 Block diagram of proposed asymmetric topology
TABLE I. SWITCHING STRATEGY FOR PROPOSED ASSYMETRIC TOPOLOGY
Basically switches S1, S2, S3, S4 are dedicated for R phase, switches S5, S6, S7, S8 for Y phase and switches S9, S10, S11, S12 are dedicated for B phase. For understanding the operation of proposed topology, let us consider Mode 1 where Vab is equals to 2V, Vbc equals to 3V and Vca equals to 1V. For obtaining mode 1, switches S2, S3, S6, S8, S9, S11 are in ON state whereas Switches S1, S4, S5, S7, S10, S12 are in OFF state. Similarly remaining modes can also be obtained by using the given switching pattern.

CONTROL STRATEGY
In order to obtain desired switching pulse, level shifted multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is incorporated. Level shifted means all the carrier waves are displaced by DC offset value of desired magnitude. There are various methods of PWM techniques such as Phase Disposition (PD), Phase Opposition Disposition (POD), Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD) through which switching pulses can be obtained [15]. In PD technique, all the carrier waves are in same phase whereas in POD technique, carrier wave above zero has zero degree phase shift and carrier waves below zero are shifted by 180 degree. In APOD technique, adjacent carrier waves are phase shifted by 180 degree. In the proposed topology, level shifted PD technique is used which can be seen in Fig.7 (a), (b), (c). [1617]
Here, the number of carrier waves can be calculated by using {(N1)/2}, where N is the number of levels of output voltage waveform. For seven level output voltage waveform, only three carriers are required, whereas CHBMLI requires six carrier waves. Three reference sinusoidal waves are used which are shifted by 120 degrees to each other. By comparing sine wave with three carrier waves, three different pulse patterns are obtained. Now by using appropriate logic gate circuitry with these three pulses, final gate pulse for switches S1, S2, S3, S4 are generated for R phase. In the
same way for Y phase i.e. for obtaining gate pulses for switches S5, S6, S7, S8, the same carrier waves are compared with second reference sine wave (120 degrees phase shifted). Similarly for B phase, it can be observed that the switches in each cell (S1 and S2) are complementary to each other. Similarly the pairs of switches S3 & S4, S5 & S6, S7 & S8, S9 & S10, S11 & S12 are complementary to each other.

R phase

Y phase

B phase
Fig. 7 PD PWM techniques


SIMULATION USING SIMULINK
The proposed topology is successfully simulated using Simulink tool for no load, Resistive (R) load and ResistiveInductive (RL) load using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) as the switching device. Simulation circuit diagram for proposed topology is shown in Fig. 8, where R=10 ohm and L=15 mH has been chosen for simulation. Fig. 9 shows the three phase line to line output voltage waveform which is same for no load, R load and RL load conditions. Figs. 10 and 11 shows the three phase output current waveform for R load and RL Load respectively at 1 KHz carrier frequency.
Fig. 8 Simulation circuit diagram for the proposed topology
Fig. 9 Three phase output voltage waveforms (a) R phase (b) Y phase (c) B
phase
Fig.11 Three phase output current waveform for RL Load

SIMULATION RESULTS
It can be observed from Fig. 12 that THD at 1 KHz carrier frequency for the voltage waveform at No load, R load and RL load is 15.11% whereas the THD for current waveform obtained is 4.64 (RL load) as shown in Fig.13. The comparison between CHBMLI and the proposed topology is shown in Table II.
Fig.12 THD for voltage waveform at 1 KHz carrier frequency
Fig.13 THD for Current waveform at 1 KHz carrier frequency
Fig.10 Three phase output current waveform for R Load
TABLE II. COMPARISION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL CHBMLI AND PROPOSED TOPOLOGY
Parameters
Conventional CHBMLI
Proposed Topology
No. of switches
36
12
No. of DC Sources
9
6
PWM Technique
PD
PD
THD in Voltage waveform (Any type of load)
18.28%
15.11%
THD in Current waveform (RLoad)
18.25%
15.33%
THD in Current waveform (RLLoad)
5.85%
4.64%
No. of carrier wave Required
6
3

CONCLUSIONS


An asymmetric topology of threephase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter has been developed with reduced number of switches and the associated gate driver circuits. With less number of switches and input DC sources, the proposed topology results in reduced installation area. Level shifted Phase Disposition PWM technique is successfully employed for different load conditions. The results with minimum THD in voltage waveform (any type of load) obtained was 15.11% at 1 KHz carrier frequency and minimum THD in current waveform (RL load) obtained was 4.64% at 1 KHz carrier frequency. Since only two DC sources are required per phase, hence, solar PV panels can also be used as input DC source in the proposed topology for the integration with renewable energy. Hence, the proposed topology poses great industrial, research and commercial applications with lesser harmonic content and better results. Furthermore, different modulation control strategies can also be implemented for opening new challenges in the field of multilevel inverter technology.
REFERENCES

L. G. Franquelo, J. Rodriguez, J. I. Leon, S. Kouro, R. Portillo, and
M. A. M. Prats, The age of multilevel converters arrives, IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 2839, June 2008.

J. Rodriguez, L. G. Franquelo, S. Kouro, J. I. Leon, R. C. Portillo,
M. A. M. Prats, and M. A. Perez, Multilevel converters: An enabling technology for highpower applications, Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 17861817, Nov. 2009.

M. F. Escalante, J. C. Vannier, and A. Arzande, Flying capacitor multilevel inverters and DTC motor drive applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 805815, Aug. 2002.

T. Ishida, K. Matsuse, T. Miyamoto, K. Sasagawa, and L. Huang, Fundamental characteristics of fivelevel double converters with adjustable DC voltages for induction motor drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 775782, Aug. 2002.

C. Rech and J. R. Pinheiro, Impact of hybrid multilevel modulation strategies on input and output harmonicperformance, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 967977, May 2007.

G. J. Su, Multilevel DClink inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 848854, MayJune 2005.

M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, J. Rodriguez, and M. A. PÃ©rez, A survey on cascaded multilevel inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 21972206, July 2010.

D. Baimel and S. Tapuchi, A new topology of cascaded multilevel inverter, in Proc. Int. Symp., pp. 137140, Sep. 2013.

H. Belkamel, S. Mekhilef, A. Masaoud, and M. A. Naeim, Novel threephase asymmetrical cascaded multilevel voltage source inverter, IET Power Electron., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 16961706, Sep. 2013.

M. Veenstra and A. Rufer, Control of a hybrid asymmetric multilevel inverter for competitive mediumvoltage industrial drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 655664, Mar./Apr. 2005.

T. Ishida, K. Matsuse, T. Miyamoto, K. Sasagawa, and L. Huang, Fundamental characteristics of fivelevel double converters with adjustable DC voltages for induction motor drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 775782, Aug. 2002.

Y. S. Lai and F. S. Shyu, Topology for hybrid multilevel inverter, IEE Proc. Elec Power Appl., vol. 149, no. 6, pp. 449458, Nov. 2002.

A. Nabae, I. Takahashi, and H. Akagi, A new neutralpoint clamped PWM inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA17, no. 5, pp. 518523, Sep. 1981.

P. R. Kumar, R. S. Karthik, K. Gopakumar, J. I. Leon, and L. G. Franquelo, Seventeenlevel inverter formed by cascading flying capacitor and floating capacitor Hbridges, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 34713478, July 2015.

C. T. Pan, C. M. Lai, and Y. L. Juan, Output current ripplefree PWM inverters, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs., vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 823827, Oct. 2010.

S. N. Rao, D. V. A. Kumar, and C. S. Babu, New multilevel inverter topology with reduced number of switches using advanced modulation strategies, in Proc. Int. Conf. Power, Energy Control, pp. 693699, Feb. 2013.

A. Salem, E. M. Ahmed, M. Orabi, and A. B. Abdelghani, Novel threephase multilevel voltage source inverter with reduced no. of switches, in Proc. Int. Renewable Energy Congr., pp. 15, March 2014.

M. F. Escalante, J. C. Vannier, and A. ArzandÃ©, Flying capacitor multilevel inverters and DTC motor drive applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 809815, Aug. 2002.

G. S. Buja and R. Menis, Steadystate performance degradation of a DTC IM drive under parameter and transduction errors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 17491760, April 2008.

G. S. Buja and M. P. Kazmierkowski, Direct torque control of PWM inverterfed AC motorsA survey, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 744757, Aug. 2004.

D. Casadei, F. Profumo, G. Serra, and A. Tani, FOC and DTC: Two viable schemes for induction motors torque control, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 779787, Sep. 2002.

Rashid, Muhammad H. Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications, Third edition. Pearson Education, Inc., 2004.

N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design, 3rd edition. New York: Wiley, 2003.