Thermal Analysis of Uneven Span Greenhouse integrated Semitransparent Photovoltaic Thermal System (GiSPVT)

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Thermal Analysis of Uneven Span Greenhouse integrated Semitransparent Photovoltaic Thermal System (GiSPVT)

a Sugandha Singh, b G. N. Tiwari

a Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas New Delhi, India -110016

bBag Energy Research Society (BERS), Plot No 51, Mahamana Nagar, Karaudi, Varanasi, UP, India-221005

Abstract:- According to the UN report, world population is estimated to be 9.8 billion by 2050. This demographic alteration will lead to exponential increase in energy and food demands. To meet the food security, aquaculture is one of the promising solutions which has increased at a faster rate in the past years and consequently; next decade is likely to witness a considerable rise in tailor-made and innovative sustainable solutions for aquaculture development. In this paper, an effort has been made to design a self-sustainable hybrid system for aquaculture, which includes uneven span greenhouse integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (GiSPVT) system with aquapond. Energy balance equations as a function of climatic, operational and design parameters have been formulated and solved in MATLAB R2015b for the climatic conditions of New Delhi (Northern India) for a typical day of 15th January (Type a). Based on energy balance equations, analytical expression for solar cell temperature, greenhouse room air temperature, aquapond water temperature as well as solar electrical efficiency have been derived. The range of variation of electrical efficiency is from 10.4% to 11.08% and solar cell temperature varies between 10oC to 48.2oC. Attenuation factor of solar flux is 1.0 at the surface of water mass and decreases as the water depth increases. Temperature of the water of aquapond rises to 23.3oC during sunshine hours and later decreases slowly to a value of 9.03oC for a typical day of January, New Delhi, India. Moreover, temperature of greenhouse air is more than the ambient temperature at night by 5oC.

Keywords: Aquaculture, greenhouse, photovoltaic thermal, solar energy

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Harnessing of solar power is increasingly growing. The device powered by solar energy is being developed by several researchers. Solar radiation on the ground is 43% IR, 48% VIS and 9% UV radiation [1]. The ever scarcer traditional fuel supplies, especially fossil energy supplies, the requiste to decrease harmful atmospheric emissions, and emergency climatic conditions call for immediate action to introduce more environmentally friendly products to shift towards food security and system production in sustainable agriculture [2].

    The most sustainable technology can be derived from the star Sun. Each amount of energy, predominantly or partially, consists of solar energy from Sun. Greenhouse technology practice harnessing solar energy for maintaining a controlled favorable environment for agriculture, aquaculture & algaculture.

    Since the early 1960s, the global population has doubled, expected to overtake 9.8 billion people by 2050, leading to the exacerbation of the global "Food Security" issue as one of the most critical dimensions of sustainability. In contrast to the global downward trend in undernourishment, the number of people suffering from hunger has increased since 2014, so that the number of undernourished people has increased.

    A growing trend followed, reaching approximately 784 million people in 2015, to reach 821 million people in 2017. Therefore, to ensure food security and reduce global hunger and poverty, investment in the agricultural sector is crucial. Fig.1. shows the number of undernourished people in the world from 2005 to 2018 [3].

    Fig.1 Number of undernourished people in the world (2005-2018)

    Revealed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (FAO, 2019), the Early Warning Early Action (EWEA) study (2019) presented a progressive overview of the leading risks of disaster to the agricultural industry and food security. According to this study, a combined disruptive impact on food production and availability can be observed in many countries around the world with political conflicts and climate-related disasters. Continuing evidence shows that agriculture and food security are already affected by climate change, especially in countries where agricultural systems are more vulnerable to weather instability. Development in the agriculture sector is claimed to be up to 3.2 times more effective in reducing poverty than in other industries [4].

    Mathematical-based models may also explain the thermal behavior of solar greenhouses. The models based on knowledge are correlated with physical parameters and use energy balance equations to explain the thermal behavior of solar greenhouses. The thermal environment of solar greenhouses may also be simulated by widely used software in commercial buildings with dramatically different greenhouse environments. The complex environment of greenhouses can be better defined by machine learning algorithms, but they are not sufficiently accurate since they can only provide the trustworthiest results for the training data set that is not always available for greenhouse [5].

      1. Solar Photovoltaic

        Also, the most easily usable, renewable, and clean power source available is solar photovoltaic technology (PV) to satisfy human energy demands. [6-8].

        Solar photovoltaic has marked its potential in energy sector by contribution of 6000 TWh PV electricity till 2050, approximately 16% of global electricity consumption [9], as projected by the International Energy Agency (IEA). For this task, the absorption of solar energy into the atmosphere requires wide surface areas. Many of these requirements are met via rooftop solar panels or integrated PV (BIPV) building [10-13] and plenty more via PV farms on the field [14-17].

        Also, Photovoltaic panels are an appealing technology in renewable energy because during their operation, they avoid large greenhouse emissions, have a long life estimate of 20 to 30 years, and use a reliable and abundant power resource [18]. For an atmosphere temperature of about 25oC the performance of a standard photovoltaic module is between 27-52oC. The whole thermal conduction can be used for greenhouse heating. This thermal energy extraction from photovoltaic energy also increases solar cell performance. Therefore, a photovoltaic device is referred to as PVT device as an optimized framework allowing use of thermal energy and electrical energy.

      2. Hybrid photovoltaic system

        Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) system, which removes Photovoltaic modules heat with air and water as a workable fluid with an increase in monthly energy conversion efficiency by around 2.8 percent to 7.7 percent was introduced by Kern and Russel [19]. Across the world, many researchers have concluded that photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technologies can help in

        increasing the solar cell efficiency. [20-26]. A combined hybrid PV/T screen that translates the solar energy into electrical and thermal energy has efficiency of 6.7% (electrical) and 33% (heat) [27].

        The conduct of a photovoltaic and therapeutic (PV/T) collector installed into a black-plastic solar thermal absorber (unglazed PV/T system) by placing single crystal silicon cells. It proposed that the combined PV/T principle could be used for reduced temperature applications and to improve the PV system's efficiency level (e.g., building room heating) [28]. Each thermal conductivity of a PV/T hybrid air collector was calculated for New Delhi's composite atmosphere. A glazed PVT water collector's electrical and thermal outut was evaluated. Compared to a regular PV Module, the suggested PVT collector showed greater overall performance. [29].

        Energy generation technologies are being developed as renewables becomes more popular, and the need for conventional energy sources is declining. Energy production from renewable energy sources, on the other hand, is dependent on weather conditions. Photovoltaic (PV) and other solar systems rely on solar radiation and ambient temperature, on the speed and direction of wind turbines, on the flow of river hydropower plants [30].

      3. Green house photovoltaic system

    Greenhouse technology integrated with photovolatic thermal (PVT), is one of the promising solution to exponential food and energy demands. These combination land and food issues may appear unmanageable, but they can be significantly strengthened by using agri-voltaics (dual land usage both for solar photovoltaics and agriculture) ]34-36[, aqua-voltaics (dual water use for solar photovoltaics and aquaculture) and smart international and cross disciplines. This dual use results in greater self- sustainable productivity overall.

    Many scientists have investigated the problems of greenhouse heating by active method [37-40] and by the passive method in the recent years [41-42]. By water storage, rock bed storage, north wall, mulching, material shift, movable isolation and a thermal barrier, passive heating is possible. A thermal curtain or thermal shield for passive heating methods is one of the most useful and useful ways of reducing energy usage in greenhouses [43-44].

    In the proposed research work, an uneven span greenhouse is considered which is integrated with semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system. Also, a pond is considered inside the greenhouse, which can be used for thermal storage as well as for aquaculture and algaculture applications.

    The researchers have done the study on the BIPV, Hybrid thermal energy and on solar PV. In these studies, the applications of photovoltaic have been described.

    In this paper, an effort has been made to design a self-sustainable hybrid system for aquaculture, which includes uneven span greenhouse integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (GiSPVT) system with aqua pond. Energy balance equations as a function of climatic, operational and design parameters have been formulated and solved in MATLAB R2015b for the climatic conditions of New Delhi (Northern India) for a typical day of 15th January (Type a).

  2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

      1. Uneven Span GiSPVT

        The system consists of uneven span which implies that area of south roof is more than area of the north roof. Also, the walls are made up of glass to allow direct heating. South roof has 10kW PV system installed which enables indirect heating of the greenhouse air and also enables system to be self sufficient. Also, the size of the pond is (30*5*0.9)m as shown in fig 2.

        Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of GiSPVT system

        Table 1: Design Parameters of GiSPVT sytem

        Parameters

        Value

        Parameters

        Value

        Aw

        150.0 m2

        Kg

        0.78 W/m °C

        Ab

        150.0 m2

        Lb

        0.2 m

        As

        63.0 m2

        Ls

        0.3 m

        Aew

        19.0 m2

        Lg

        1.0 m

        Asw

        224.0 m2

        Mw

        75000 kg

        Aww

        19.0 m2

        To

        25 °C

        Anw

        224.0 m2

        V

        614.40 m3

        Asr

        121.23 m2

        v

        0-0.3 m/s

        Anr

        40.410 m2

        w

        0.90

        Cw

        4190 J/Kg o C

        g

        0.95

      2. 10kW PV system installed on south roof

        To build the self sustainable system, a 10kW PV system is installed on the south roof of uneven span GiSPVT system. This includes 136 semitransparent PV modules whose specifications are summarized in Table 1. The efective area covered by PV system is 98m2

        Table 2: Electrical design parameters of GiSPVT

        S.No.

        Parameters

        Value

        1

        Peak Power

        75 Wp

        2

        Peak Voltage

        12 V

        3

        Effective area

        0.72m2

        4

        Short cicuit current

        4.8 A

        5

        Open circuit voltage

        600mV

        6

        Module efficiency

        15%

      3. Working Principle

        During the sunshine hours, solar radiations are incident on uneven span GiSPVT system, a part of which gets transmitted into the system directly through semitransparent PV modules i.e. direct gain from non packing area as well as the some part of it gets transmitted from indirect gain of the packing area. This thermal energy is partially absorbed by greenhouse room air and then by the water in the pond. After absorption in the water, there are convective, radiative and evaporative heat losses from the water to greenhouse room air. Also, heat losses occur from sides and bottom of the uneven span GiSPVT system by conduction.

  3. THERMAL ANALYSIS

    Following assumptions are made before thermal modeling of Uneven Span GiSPVT system

        • No stratification in the water column

        • Heat flow is one dimensional in a quasi steady state condition

        • Absorptivity and heat capacity of the enclosed air is neglected

        • Storage capacity of the material of the roof & walls is neglected

        • No radiative heat exchange between walls & roof Energy balance equation for south roof

    I (t)A

    [U (T _T ) h (T

    T )]A

    I (t)A

    g sc

    sc s SR

    t sc,s a

    t sc,s

    r sr

    sc g

    sc s SR

    [Rate of solar radiation received at PV module] [Rate of heat loss from PV module to ambient] [Rate of heat transfer from PV module to greenhouse air] [Rate of electrical energy generated by the PV module]

    (1)

    Energy balance equation for greenhouse room air

    h (T

    T )]A

    • h (T T )]A

      (UA)

      (T T

      ) 0.33NV

      t sc,s

      r sr

      1. w r w

        eff r w

        [Rate of heat transfer from PV module to greenhouse air ] [rate of heat transfer from solar pond to greenhouse air] [overall heat transfer from room to water ] [ rate of heat transfer due to inflitration]

        (2)

        Energy balance equation for solar pond

        4

        [ 2 (1 )I (t)A A I

        I (t) A

        ] '

        g sc s

        SR g

      2. i g n

      i1

      NR w

      M C dTw h (T T )]A

      U (T _ T )A

      U (T _ T ) A

      w w dt w w r w

      b w b

      s w s

      [Rate of

      incarese of water temperature]

      Also, we know that

      [rate of heat transfer from solar pond to greenhouse air] [Rate of heat transfer from bottom of solar pond] [Rate of thermal energy by conduction lost through sides of solar pond]

      (3)

      (1 (T T )) (4)

      sc 0 o sc,s 0

      Using equation (4) in equation (1), we get :

      ( I ) U T ( I )

      t

      t

      t

      t

      T eff t a eff

      (5)

      sc,s

      U h ( I )

      eff

      where, ( I )

      eff

      (

      (

      g sc sc

      T )I (t

      and ( I )

      eff

      I (t)

      r

      r

      o o o o s

      o o o o s

      g sc o o s

      g sc o o s

      calculating for (Tsc,s T ) , we get

      ( I ) U T ( I ) U Tr h Tr ( I ) Tr

      T T

      eff t a eff t t eff

      (6)

      t

      t

      t

      t

      sc,s r

      U h ( I )

      eff

      Multiplying by ht on both the sides, we get:

      h (T T ) PF ( I )

      ULT UL T

      t sc,s r

      1 eff

      1 a 2 r

      (7)

      where, PF ht , UL htUt ,

      t

      t

      t

      t

      t

      t

      t

      t

      1 h U

      ( I )

      eff

      1 h U

      ( I )

      eff

      UL

      ht (Ut

      ( I )

      eff )

      t

      t

      t

      t

      2 h U

      ( I )

      eff

      using equation (7) & (2), we get

      (PF ( I )

      ULT UL T )A

    • h (T T )A

      (UA)

      (T T ) 0.33Nv(T T )

      1 eff

      1 a 2 r sr

      w w r w

      eff r a r a

      On solving, above equation reduces to:

      PF ( I )

      A (UA)'' T

    • h T A

      T 1

      eff sr

      eff a

      w w w

      w

      w

      r (UA)

      3eff

    • h Aw

      where, (UA)'' UL A

      (UA)' & (UA)

      UL A

      (UA)'

      eff 1 sr

      Solving for (Tw-Tr)

      eff

      3eff

      2 sr

      eff

      h (UA)

      A T PFh

      ( I )

      A A h

      (UA)'' T A

      h (T T )A w

      3eff w w 1 w

      eff sr w w

      eff a w

      w w r w

      (UA)

      3eff

    • h Aw

      w

      w

      Multiplying by hwAw on both the sides, we get:

      h (UA)

      A T PFh

      ( I )

      A A h

      (UA)'' T A

      h (T T )A w

      3eff w w 1 w

      eff sr w w

      eff a w

      w

      w

      w w r w

      (UA)

      3eff

    • h Aw

    h (T T )A

    UL T PF ( I )

    UL T

    (8)

    w w r w

    3 w 2

    eff 4 a

    where,

    h A (UA)''

    PF h A A

    4

    4

    UL w w

    eff

    , PF

    2 w w sr

    hw Aw

    • (UA)

      3eff

      hw Aw

    • (UA)

    3eff

    2

    2

    using equation (8) in (3), we get

    4

    [ 2 (1 )I (t)A A I

    I (t) A

    ] '

    g sc s

    SR g

    i i g n

    i1

    NR w

    (9)

    M C dTw UL T PF ( I )

    UL T U (T _ T )A

    U (T _ T )A

    w w dt 3 w 2

    eff

    4 a b w b

    4

    s w s

    let, ( I )

    [ 2 (1

    )I (t)A

    A I

    I (t)A

    ]'

    1eff g

    sc s

    SR g

    i i g n

    i1

    NR w

    Simplifying, equation (9), we get:

    ( I )

    U T

    A U T

    A PF ( I )

    M C

    dTw (UL UL

    U A U A )T

    1eff

    b b

    s s 2

    eff

    w w dt

    3 4 b b

    s s w

    Above equation can be rewritten as

    f (t) dTw aT

    dt w

    on solving, we get

    w

    w

    T f (t)

    a

    (1

    1 eat

    at

    ) T

    1 eat

    (

    at

    ) (10)

    wo

    wo

      1. Thermal circuit diagram

        Fig. 3 Thermal circuit diagram of Uneven Span GiSPVT system

  4. METHODOLOGY Heat and mass transfer correlations have been taken for the analysis.

    Basic energy balance equations as a function of climatic, operational and design parameters have been written for each component of a given uneven span GiSPVT system.

    Based on basic energy balance equations, analytical expressions for solar PV module, greenhouse room air, and water temperature have been derived.

    For the proposed system, hourly variations in the temperature of water in pond, greenhouse air and solar cell temperature has been determined using IMD Pune weather data for New Delhi India

  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Computational software MATLAB R2015b, has been used to solve the derived thermal model. The physical design considerations of Uneven Span GiSPVT system with aquapond have been given in Table 1. Also, ambient air temperature (Ta), solar intensity (It), wind velocity (v) and relative humidity inside greenhouse are the climatic parameters.

    The hourly variations of solar intensity and ambient air temperature are shown in Fig. 4. Also, Fig.5 shows the hourly variations of greenhouse room air temperature, solar cell temperature, aquapond water temperature and ambient air temperature for a typical day of January, New Delhi (Type a weather conditions). This depicts that during sunshine hours, solar cell temperature increases gradually and reaches maximum to a value of 48.2oC at 1 pm and then gradually decreases. After sunshine hours, solar cell temperature is less than greenhouse air temperature and aquapond water temperature due to zero solar intensity. Also, greenhouse air temperature reaches its maximum value of 26.19oC at 2 pm while aquapond water temperature reaches its maximum value of 23.3oC at 3 pm. After sunshine hours, greenhouse air temperature is more than ambient air temperature by approximately 5oC.

    Fig. 4 Hourly variations of solar intensity & ambient temperature

    Fig. 5 Hourly variations of temperatures of Uneven Span GiSPVT

    Solar cell temperature and electrical efficiency are inversely related as depicted from Fig. 6. The solar cell temperature varies from 10oC to 48.2oC while electrical efficiency ranges from 10.2% to 11.08% for a typical day of January, New Delhi (Type a weather conditions).

    Fig. 6 Hourly variations of solar cell temperature & electrical efficiency

  6. CONCLUSIONS

      • A thermal model has been developed for Uneven Span Greenhouse integrated Semitransparent Photovoltaic Thermal (GiSPVT) system

      • The PV modules electrical efficiency decreases with increase in average solar cell temperature.

      • Attenuation factor of solar flux is 1.0 at the surface of water mass and decreases as the water depth increases.

      • Temperature of the water of solar pond rises to 23.3oC during sunshine hours and later decreases slowly to a value of 9.03oC for a typical day of January, New Delhi, India.

      • Moreover, temperature of greenhouse air is more than the ambient temperature at night by 5oC

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