Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology for Wireless Systems using HFSS

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV9IS050593

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Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology for Wireless Systems using HFSS

Anil Kumar Patnaik

Department of ECE Raghu Institute of Technology

Visakhapatnam India

G Lakshmi Durga

Department of ECE Raghu Institute of Technology

Visakhapatnam India

S P S Dinesh

Department of ECE Raghu Institute of Technology

Visakhapatnam India

S Dinesh Yadav

Department of ECE Raghu Institute of Technology

Visakhapatnam India

K Abhilash

Department of ECE Raghu Institute of Technology

Visakhapatnam India

Abstract:- This paper gives an approach of powerful integrated transmission lines compatible with planar technologies such as Substrate Integrated Waveguide(SIW), where SIW can be constructed as open wave-guiding structures and associated in the area of millimeter-wave antenna when the uniformity of these guides are disrupted. It can also integrate planar structure like micro strip line and non-planar structure like waveguide together, combining their advantages in return. This technology has wide selection of advanced manufacturing methods that especially focuses on low-cost and high quality factor efficiency. This paper suggests high SIW structure capacity in the communication system and addresses particular advantages in detail.

Keywords-Substrate Integrated Waveguide, millimeter-wave antenna, quality factor efficiency.


Substrate integrated waveguide may be a technique which integrates the planar arrangement like non-planar and micro strip arrangement like waveguide is in stable. Through some metalized holes there are two metal plates are located altogether of the substrate layer(fig.1) and those metalized holes are not used to attach with. This type of structure is straightforward to supply using PCB technology[5]. SIW arrangement retains most of the advantages associated with traditional metal waveguides, namely high Q- factor(low loss) and high capacity handling with self- consistent electromagnetic shielding[1][8]

SIW framework can support only typical waveguide TM modes. the foremost important advantage of SIW technology is its ability to permit the complete integration of all components on an equivalent substratum, including active and passive elements[2]. The SIW technology incorporates the advantage of traditional micro strip circuits like simple production, compact size, low weight and metallic wave guides like low losses, full shielding, high power handling[1]. The appliance of SIW technology tends to be very suitable for the deployment of wireless

components and therefore the integration of full wireless sensor networking systems[7]. Various SIW antennas starting from slotted waveguides to leaky-wave antennas and cavity backed slot and patch antennas[1][6].



underlying substance or a layer on which metallic strip antenna is fabricated and it plays major role in micro strip antenna operating.SIW may be a new sort of the cable with convenience of self-consistent field shielding, low cost and lightweight weight. The SIW is shown in fig.1[1] with metal vias, dielectric substrate and ground planes. An oblong guide is generated within a substrate by adding to metal over a ground plane and enclosure the structure with rows of plated vias on either side.[4]

Fig.1 Representation of SIW

In an EM wave, this design looks like a dielectric-filled rectangular wave guide, with reduced height compared to normal ratio 2:1 i.e, width, height also reduces the impedance

and increases the length. This entire simulation can be designed in a system-on-substrate[2][3].

  1. Single slotted SIW:

    With the next primary measurements of varied dimensions of parameters for substrate, ground, vias and wave ports components, the design is simulated using Ansoft HFSS simulator under similar conditions which are comparable operating frequencies. The results are accomplished with analytically determined parameters. one slot SIW could even be a measured antenna and it is a quite slot antenna. Normally, the width of SIW is shorter than that of the normal waveguide much obliged to the presence of the dielectric substrate and this feed network is extremely complicated and it attains high gain. This slot antenna clearly demonstrates better performance in terms of return losses. The single slot SIW antenna is shown in fig.2[1].

    Fig.2 Single Slot SIW


    Center frequency


    Return losses



    Max =6.1dB Min =-32.3dB

    Radiation pattern

    Range =-30,-32,-34,-36

    Phase =-176deg

    Fig 3: Return Loss Plot of Single Slot SIW

    The above result represents asa S-Parameter Plot. Here,we get frequencies11.4,14.2,17.3 by assuming initial frequency as 12GHz[4].

    Fig 4: Directivity plot for SIW

    The above result represents as Directivity Plot where it ranges from Maximum to Minimum i.e.,6.1dB to -32.3dB respectively[4].

    Fig 5: Simulated radiation frequency at 12GHz

    The above result represents as a Radiation Pattern.Here,the initial frequency is 12GHz and the gain range is -30,-32,-34,- 36 at Phase angle -176deg[4].

  2. Double Slot SIW:

Our main motto in this project is that by increasing the number of slots and there by the effects on return losses which has been studied. By triggering end-to-end reciprocal pairing between adjacent spaces, the slot lengths were to make sure good radiation. The difference between the slot arrays of two elements that we considered is /2. We used an equivalent substrate to design the antenna array which performs at same frequencies;ROGERS RT/Duroid 5880. The metal vias are the extension to the double slot SIW also it attains. Our motto is to increase the number of slots thereby the effects on return losses, the high gain and directivity with an equivalent frequency of 12GHz. The planning is simulated and total simulation design is to urge radiation and return losses by using HFSS 3D electromagnetic simulation software. For 2 adjacent slots, the ideal dimension of radius is 0.5mm. The SIW double slot antenna is shown in fig.6.

Fig.6Double-Slotted SIW


Center frequency


Return losses



Max =2.36dB Min =-37.50dB

Radiation pattern

Range =-35,-30,-35,-40

Phase =90 deg

Fig 7: Return Loss Plot of Double Slot SIW

The above result represents asa S-Parameter Plot.Here,we get frequencies10.06,11.4,13.4,15.9,18.73by assuming initial frequency as 12GHz[4].

The above result represents as a Radiation Pattern.Here,the initial frequency is 12GHz and the gain range is -35,-30,-35,- 40at Phase angle 90 deg[4].


SIW technology emerges after a decade as mature technology for a variety of microwave and millimeter wave applications. Future perspectives include the development of lowcost and environmentally friendly wireless systems on new materials such as paper, plastics and textiles. Recent advances in antennas and array structures have been reviewed and described based on the Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) technology presented in published papers. Issues related todesign, and the different scientific explanations proposed for SIW application in modern antennas and arrays is presented. It is observed from the literature available and the complete conventional rectangular waveguide fed antenna and array structure can be developed with SIW technology.


We appreciate the Raghu Institute of Technology and its management for the motivation that has been extended to us in carrying out this task. We are also thankful to Dr. P. S. R. Chowdary, HOD, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Raghu Institute of Technology, for having all the facilities and resources required to make this research a success.

Fig 8: Directivity plot for double slotted SIW

The above result represents as Directivity Plot where it ranges from Maximum to Minimum i.e.,2.36dB to – 37.50dBrespectively.

Fig 9: Simulated radiation frequency at 12 GHz


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  2. M. Bozzi, D. Deslandes, P. Arcioni, L. Perregrini, K. Wu, and G. Conciauro, Efficient Analysis and Experimental Verification of Substrate Integrated Slab Waveguides for Wideband Microwave Applications, International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer Aided Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 296306, May 2005.

  3. M. Bozzi, S.A. Winkler, and K. Wu, Broadband and Compact Ridge Substrate Integrated Waveguides, IET Microwave Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 4, No. 11, pp. 19651973, Nov. 2010.

  4. K. Nouri, K. Haddadi, O. Benzaim, T. Lasri, and M. Feham, Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) inductive window band-pass filter based on post-wall irises, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 53, p. 33607, 2011.

  5. K. Nouri, M. Feham, M. Damou, and T. Bouazza, Design of substrate integrated waveguide micro-wave planar directional coupler, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 5, issue 2, February 2014.

  6. A. J. Farrall and P. R. Young, Integrated waveguide slot antennas, Electronics Letters, vol. 40, no. 16, pp. 974-975, Aug. 2004.

  7. D. Deslandes and K. Wu, Integrated microstrip and rectangular waveguide in planar form, IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon. Lett, vol. 11, pp. 68-70, February 2001.

  8. F. Xu and K. Wu, Guided-wave and leakage characteristics of substrate integrated waveguide, IEEE Trans. On Microw. Theory and Tech., vol. 53, no. 1, Jan. 2005.

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