Study on Bitumen Modified with Crumb Rubber

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Study on Bitumen Modified with Crumb Rubber

Ankit Yaduvanshia , Sunil Sharmaa

a(Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering)

Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta Institute of Technology & Management

Rishabh Kumarb, Nikhilb, Ravi Kumarb,

Abhishek Raib, Rishabh Gourb b(B.tech Student of Civil Engineering, 4th year ADGITM)

Abstract Bitumen is the main component for the road constructions which provides binding and adhesive properties. Bitumen is bio product of refined petroleum products and is used with aggregates for road construction. Bitumen plays a major role in binding of aggregates. This paper investigates the changes in properties of bitumen after adding crumb rubber, varying its percentages in the bitumen. Bitumen is actually the liquid binder that holds asphalt together. The term bitumen is often mistakenly used to describe asphalt. A bitumen-sealed road has a layer of bitumen spread and then covered with an aggregate. This is then repeated to give a two coat covering.

The design and performance of bituminous concrete depends on the quality and percentage of binder used. As a part of this study it is tried to stabilised the bitumen by adding crumb rubber waste in shredded and fine form of particles

Keywords Bitumen, Crumb rubber, Ductility of bitumen, Stability of bitumen.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Bitumen is a black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation. It has water-proofing and adhesive properties which have been used effectively for more than 500 years. It is widely used in roofing, road and pavement applications. However, it is brittle in cold environments and softens readily in warm environments. The largest use of bitumen is for making bitumen concrete for road surfaces. Bitumen concrete pavement mixes composed of 5% bitumen & 95% aggregates.

    Crumb rubber is recycled rubber produced from automotive and truck scrap tires. During the recycling process, steel and tire cord are removed, leaving tire rubber with a granular consistency. Rubber is a non-biodegradable material, so using the non-biodegradable for modifying bitumen will help in increasing the durability of the roads and it will also be beneficial for our environment. Rubber is elastic in nature.

    Therefore, rubber will surely share its elastic property with the bitumen and making it vibration resistant in nature.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

    Bitumen Crumb rubber

    Aggregates of different sizes Benzene

    Studying the behavior of bitumen of grade (80/100) by varying the percentage of crumb rubber.

    Modification percentages (8%, 12%, 16% and 20% crumb rubber is added)

    Then standard bitumen and marshal tests are performed to compare standard values with modified values.

    • Penetration test

    • Ductility test

    • Softening point test

    Crumb rubber size taken- 10mm passing and retaining at 4.75mm for coarse and 600 micron passing for fine rubber particles.

    60% of Coarse and 40% of Fine rubber crumbs.

      1. Penetration Test

        It is measured using penetrometer. The penetration of the bituminous material is the distance in 1/10th of a millimeter, which a standard needle would penetrate vertically into a sample of material under standard conditions of temperature load and time.

      2. Ductility Index Test

        The ductility of bituminous material is measured by the distance in cm to which it will elongate before breaking when a standard briquette specimen of material is pulled apart at a specified speed and a specified temperature.

      3. Softening point test

        (Ring and ball apparatus): The principle behind the test is that the softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a particular degree of softening under specified condition of the test.

        TESTS ON AGGREGATES

      4. Abrasion Test

        Abrasion test is carried out to test the hardness property of the aggregates. The principle of Los Angeles Abrasion Test is to find the percentage wear due to relative rubbing action between the aggregates and steel balls used as abrasive charge.

      5. Impact Test

    The aggregate impact test is carried out to evaluate the resistance to impact of aggregates. The crushed aggregates are allowed to pass through 2.36mm IS Sieve and the impact value is measured as percentage of aggregate passing sieve, to the total weight of the sample.

      1. Specific Gravity and Water absorption Test

        Specific Gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of aggregate to the weight of an equal volume of water. It is the measure of strength or quality of the specific material. Aggregates having low specific gravity are

        generally weaker than those with higher specific gravity values. Water absorption is the content of water absorbed by the aggregates at a given temperature.

        TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIX

      2. Marshal Stability Test

    The properties that are of interest include the theoretical specific gravity, percent air voids, percent of volume of bitumen, percent void in mixed aggregates VMA and percent voids filled with the bitumen VFB.

  3. RESULTS

      1. BITUMEN WITH 8% CRUMB RUBBER

        TESTS

        STANDARD VALUES

        MODIFIED

        PENETRATION(mm)

        8.34

        6.47

        SOFTENING POINT (C )

        43.5

        47.2

        DUCTILITY

        87.2

        33.7

      2. BITUMEN WITH 12% CRUMB RUBBER

        DETAILS

        STANDARD VALUES

        MODIFIED

        PENETRATION(mm)

        8.34

        13.7

        SOFTENING POINT (C )

        43.5

        50.8

        DUCTILITY

        87.2

        27

        DETAILS

        STANDARD VALUES

        MODIFIED

        PENETRATION(mm)

        8.34

        18

        SOFTENING POINT (C )

        43.5

        54

        DUCTILITY

        87.2

        20.1

        DETAILS

        STANDARD VALUES

        MODIFIED

        PENETRATION(mm)

        8.34

        18

        SOFTENING POINT (C )

        43.5

        54

        DUCTILITY

        87.2

        20.1

      3. BITUMEN WITH 16% CRUMB RUBBER

    3.6 MARSHALL TEST With 8% Crumb Rubber

    STABILITY VALUE (KN)

    FLOW VALUE (mm)

    % BITUMEN

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRMB

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRBM

    5.0

    2.633

    4.524

    5.5

    5.3

    5.5

    2.742

    5.332

    5.9

    5.4

    6.0

    2.434

    4.422

    6.3

    5.4

    STABILITY VALUE (KN)

    FLOW VALUE (mm)

    % BITUMEN

    STANDARD VALUE

    RMB

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRBM

    5.0

    2.633

    4.524

    5.5

    5.3

    5.5

    2.742

    5.332

    5.9

    5.4

    6.0

    2.434

    4.422

    6.3

    5.4

    With 12% Crumb Rubber

    STABILITY VALUE (KN)

    FLOW VALUE (mm)

    % BITUMEN

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRMB

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRBM

    5.0

    2.633

    4.823

    5.5

    5.2

    5.5

    2.742

    5.922

    5.9

    4.9

    6.0

    2.434

    4.615

    6.3

    4.8

    With 16% Crumb Rubber

    STABILITY VALUE (KN)

    FLOW VALUE (mm)

    % BITUMEN

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRMB

    STANDARD VALUE

    CRBM

    5.0

    2.633

    4.642

    5.5

    5.0

    5.5

    2.742

    5.422

    5.9

    4.8

    6.0

    2.434

    4.433

    6.3

    4.6

    With 20% Crumb Rubber

    SPECIMEN SEGREGATED

  4. GRAPHS

    For Penetration Test

      1. BITUMEN WITH 20% CRUMB RUBBER

        DETAILS

        STANDARD VALUES

        MODIFIED

        PENETRATION(mm)

        8.34

        23.5

        SOFTENING POINT (C )

        43.5

        52

        DUCTILITY

        87.2

        19.5

      2. SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION OF COARSE AGGREGATES

    Observation Table

    S.No.

    Details

    Readings

    1

    Wt. of sample

    1000

    2

    Wt. of sample + vessel + water (A)

    3302

    3

    Wt. of vessel + water (B)

    2679

    4

    Wt. of saturated and surface dry sample (C)

    983

    5

    Wt. of oven dry sample (D)

    973

    Specific gravity of coarse aggregates

    = D/{C (A B)}

    = 973/{ 983 (3302 2679)}

    = 2.702

    Water abs. = {(C D)/D} * 100 = 1.02%

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Standard value

    Penetration(mm)

    8% CR 12% CR 16% CR 20% CR

    For Softening Point (Celsius)

    Softening point

    Softening point

    60

    60

    50

    50

    40

    40

  5. CONCLUSION

Penetration value of bitumen is increasing with the increase in percentage of crumb rubber in it. Therefore softening of bitumen is increasing or hardness is decreasing because of elastic property of crumb rubber.

Softening point of bitumen is increasing till 16% crumb rubber in bitumen. Therefore it increases its temperature bearing capacity.

Ductility of bitumen is decreasing with the increase in percentage of crumb rubber which reduces its expansion.

Stability of SDMC is maximum on addition of12% of crumb rubber in bitumen.

Flow rate continuously decreasing on increasing of crumb rubber.

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0

Standard 8% CR Value

Standard 8% CR Value

12% CR 16% CR

12% CR 16% CR

For Ductility Test

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Ductility(cm)

REFERENCES

  1. Shankar (2009) Use of Waste Rubber Tyre in Flexible Pavement, International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering and Management.

  2. Bianchetto and Miro(2007) Effect of Calcareous Fillers on Bituminous Mix Aging, Transportation Research Board.

  3. Mahrez And Karim(2014) Rheological Evaluation of Aging Properties of CRMB, Journal of Eastern Asian Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.5.

  4. Patrick and Logan(2012) Use of Rubber Tyre in Bituminous Pavement, International Conference on Future Environment and Energy.

    20% CR

    20% CR

  5. Rishi Singh Chhabra and Supriya Malik(2014) Use of Waste Plastics and Waste Rubber Tyres in Pavement, International Journal of Core Engineering and Management.

  6. IRC SP:16-2004, Guide Lines for Surface Evenness of Highway Pavements.

  7. IRC SP:53-2002, Guide Lines on use of Polymer and Rubber Modified Bitumen in Road Construction.

  8. Cockrell, C.F. And Leonard, J.W.,(1970). Characterization and Utilization Studies of Limestone Modified Flyash. Coal Research Bureau,Vol.60.

  9. IS: 6241 (1971) (Reaffirmed). Method of Test for Determination of Stripping Value of Road Aggregates. INDIAN STANDARD INSTITUTION, New Delhi.

  10. Collins, R.J. And Ciesielski, S.K.(1992). Highway Construction use of Wastes and By-Products. Utilization of Waste Materials in Civil Engineering Construction, Published By ASCE, New York,N.Y.,(140- 152).

  11. "National Highways Development Project: An Overview" (PDF). Government of India. p. 1- 2. Retrieved 7 June 2014. [2]. Roadways (CIA Factbook)". CIA, United States. Retrieved 3 April 2013.

  12. The study of Souza and Weissman (1994) using a binder with 15% rubber content (size of 0.2,0.4 and 0.6mm) in dense- graded bitumen.

Standard Value

8% CR 12% CR 16% CR 20% CR

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