Revolution Design of Eco-Friendly Electric Solar Vehicle Inspired by Nature

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Revolution Design of Eco-Friendly Electric Solar Vehicle Inspired by Nature

Vinit Shrimali, Ayush Pandiyar, Himanshu Panwar, Vikas Salvi

B.E. Automobile Department Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur

Abstract As we all know, that there is no future of vehicles propelling from I.C. Engines. Because it is well known to all that fossil fuel is limited and it is coming to its end. This vehicle also causing the global environmental issues like global warming, ozone layer depletion.

So, we have to move towards eco friendly vehicles like vehicles propelled by electric motors, bio fuel etc. As we know, solar energy is everywhere so it is more convenient to move towards electric solar vehicles. Which are eco friendly as well as providing free energy to propel the motor.

The designing and simulation of solar vehicle is done by various software some of them are Solidworks, Catia V5. Surface designing is done in Autodesk alias autostudio.

Keywords Eco friendly, solar vehicle, green vehicle

I. INTRODUCTION

Fossil fuel, which is given by the earth. And it is limited, although we are using it limitlessly from a long time for producing electricity, vehicle propulsion and many more.The burning of this fossil fuel causes pollution and it is limited too. In pollution burning of fuel in I.C. engines have a big role. This pollution resulting in front of us in the form of climate change.Now, we have to take a step towards the eco- friendly vehicle. Here solar electric vehicle may play a vital role. Since it is electric so there are environmental issues. There is combination of battery and solar vehicle which increases the range or reliability of the vehicle.This features of the EVs giving strong option towards us as a replacement of conventional I.C. engine automobiles.

Research Survey

The main initial step of any product design is market research and taking ideas or data from the past and the present. By doing this we can get the exact idea that what we have to do with our product.

After a long survey of the existing market we had feel that there is revolution of electric vehicles which will take over the whole automobile market very soon. The research of past attempts of this type of electric vehicles we extracted the cons. These can be easily removed by the current technologies.By applying all this research and survey we can ensure that there will no cons.

III. DESIGN IDEA

As we all know that the god is the best creator, designer, inventor. So, in order to prepare the best design for the vehicle we had used the bio mimicry. Here we had taken the inspiration from crimson sunbird. Here is some design (sketches) which shows the initial steps of our designing.

Figure 1 Initial Sketches of Vehicle

Figure 2 Vehicle Proportions

Figure 3 vehicle packaging

Figure 4 Perspective Sketches

IV FABRICATION OF SOLAR VEHICLE

As we had our inspiration through birds following frame has been design accordingly to give that different cut from other and to create the correct rhythm. Here some pictures to demonstrate-

This motor has following performance parameter as plotted in the graph below

SPEED

(V)

Figure 5 Isometric view of the frame

Table 1 Vehicle Dimensions

Length of the vehicle

102 inches

Width of the vehicle

58 inches

Height of the vehicle

42 inches

Wheel base

70 inches

Ground clearance

3.25 inches

Tyre size

DIA:12 inches

Chassis

Seamless circular pipe dia:1-inch, thickness: 1 mm

The above table shows the basic dimensions of the vehicle. Here circular cross-sectional pipe is used in order to give it to a structural rigidity and stability. Due to the use of circular cross-sectional pipe frame becomes light in weight and having enough strength. These dimensions give the basic idea about the designing of the vehicle. From this we can say that

Figure 4 Graph between Speed and Voltage

POWER

(V) 50.5 50 49.5

49 48.5 48 47.5

47 46.5 46 45.5

Figure 5 Graph between Power and Voltage

this design is prepared by keeping in the mind the safety and

the comfortability of the occupant. In this vehicle rear wheel drive is used driven by electric motor. This motor is powered by li-ion batteries having following specifications as shown in table below.

TORQUE

Table 2 Battery specification

In order to propel the vehicle, we are using BLDC motor of power 2000W delivering peak torque of 7.5 Nm at 2917 rpm. Other details regarding the motor is as shown below

Table 3 Motor specification

(V) 50.5 50 49.5

Battery type

Voltage per battery

12 V

Current

84 Ah

Discharge time

2.64 Hrs.

Weight

40 Kg

No. of battery used

4

Battery type

Voltage per battery

12 V

Current

84 Ah

Discharge time

2.64 Hrs.

Weight

40 Kg

No. of battery used

4

49 48.5 48 47.5

47 46.5 46 45.5

Figure 6 Graph between Torque and Voltage

Type

Permanent magnet BLDC

Voltage

48 V

No load current

5 A

Rated current

45 A

Rated speed

3000±100 RPM

Rated torque

7.6 Nm

Max. output torque

22 Nm

Rated power

2000 W

Max. power output

3000 W

Efficiency

>83%

Type

Permanent magnet BLDC

Voltage

48 V

No load current

5 A

Rated current

45 A

Rated speed

3000±100 RPM

Rated torque

7.6 Nm

Max. output torque

22 Nm

Rated power

2000 W

Max. power output

3000 W

Efficiency

>83%

In order to drive the vehicle as long as possible we have to keep charging the battery pack. To recharge the power pack unit, we had installed solar unit having following specifications

Table 4 Specification of solar panel

Cell type

Mono crystalline

No. of panels

2

Total available area of panel

3312 incp

Max. power

300 Watts per hour

Connector type

MC4 compatible

To support all the components, we have to provide a suitabe frame which provide enough strength and stability. In order to fulfil these requirements, we had used the seamless pipe of material AISI 4130. The mechanical properties of the material are as follows

Element

Weight %

Poission ratio

0.285

Tensile strength

731 MPa

Yield strength

460 MPa

Mass density

7850 Kg/m3

Element

Weight %

Poission ratio

0.285

Tensile strength

731 MPa

Yield strength

460 MPa

Mass density

7850 Kg/m3

Table 5 Material specification

vehicle wiring system is also required. A good wiring can improve the efficiency of the vehicle by some instant. The wiring of the vehicle is shown in diagram

Figure 7 Wiring diagram

The power produced by the solar panels has to utilized efficiently. In order to make sure the maximum utilization a PWM controller is used. The controller will collect the energy from solar cells and send it to the battery to charge it at constant rate although the environmental condition is varying outside.After installation of all the component the vehicle will look like this as below

Figure 8 Assembled isometric view prepared in Solidworks and rendered in keyshot 6

    1. Calculation for Various Parameters: Static structural analysis

      1. Front impact

        Figure 9 Front impact (FOS)

        Figure 10 Front impact (displacement)

        Figure 11 Front impact (stress)

        \

        Figure15 Roll over (FOS)

        Table 6 Front Impact

        Impact Type (front)

        Max. Value

        FOS

        2

        Displacemen t

        1.63 mm

        Stress

        3.077e+007

        N/m^2

      2. Rear impact

        Figure12 Rear impact (FOS)

        Figure13 Rear impact (displacement)

        Figure14 Rear impact (stresses)

        TABLE 7 Rear Impact

        Impact Type(rear)

        Max. Value

        FOS

        2

        Displacement

        0.964mm

        Stress

        1.597e+007 N/m^2

      3. Roll over

Figure 16 Roll over (displacement)

Figure 17 Roll over (stress)

  1. Calculation

      1. Braking calculation

        In order to provide efficient braking hydraulic disk brakes are used.

        Force transmitted = Fapp × g × Leverage =61.183 × 9.81 × 6

        =3601.23 N

        Braking force = 4 × Fclam =4× 18188 =7275 N

        Force on tire = 2Tb / Rolling radius =(2 × 727.5) / 0.254

        =5714.56 N

        Total force = 4 × 5714.56 =22858.24 N Stopping distance = v2 / (2A)=402 / (2 × 142.86)=4.59 m

        Time to stop = (v × m) / Ftotal =40×160/22858.24=3.975 sec

        Figure 18 Hydraulic Disk Brake

      2. Suspension calculation

        To ensure driver comfortability and vehicle stability double wishbone suspension is used.

        Figure 20 Double Wishbone Suspension

        Weight carried by rear side of cycle = (total weight ofcycle)

        *(weight distributor in rear side) / (no. of suspension inrear side)

        = 165*0.543/2 =45 kg. Fmax= 45.0*9.81 = 441.45N Fmin=441.45/2 = 220.725N

        Mean force (Fm) =(Fmax+Fmin)/2. Fm= 331.0875N. Stress amplitude (Fa) = (Fmax-Fmin)/2.

        Fa=110.3625 N.

      3. Steering Calculation

        To provide good and easy control rack and pinion type steering system is used.

        Max inner angle = 45°

        For safety and decreasing lateral forces: Let i = 38°

        tan i = L / (r – (t / 2)) r=70-tan i*26.25/tan i r=70.1 R = (70 – 20.23) / 0.78 =63.8"

        Turning Radius =3.5m R=(b/sin)-{(a-c)/2} R=(70/sin27.3)- {(52.5-46.5)/2}

        R=3.5m

        • Low maintenance. Since no. of moving parts are less.

        • High efficiency. Less no. of moving parts means less friction, greater efficiency.

        • Subsidized. Since these vehicles are eco-friendly, therefore lot of attractive schemes from Govt.

        • Smooth drive. No explosive fuel, no combustion, resulting in smooth drive.

          • Instant torque. Since motor is used therefore instant torque can be achieved.

  2. CONCLUSION

The electric solar vehicle can be playing a key role in green vehicle segment. Our primary aim is to make great use of this pollution less green vehicle in real world so our dependency on fossil fuels reduces. Although Solar vehicles do have some disadvantages like small speed range, initial cost is high less

rate of conversion of energy. But these drawbacks can be overcome by conducting further research in this area; like efficiency. The vehicle like electric solar has great scope in future.

REFERENCES

      1. V.S. Rathor, R. Bachara, M. Kumawat, A. Tandon., Review on alternate energy resoueces for pollution free smart environment,

        International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering

      2. F. SouzaNetoa,D. Nevesb,O. M. M. Silvab, M. S. F. Limac,A. bdallac, an analysis of the mechanical behaviour of AISI4130 steel after TIG and Laser welding process., 1st International Conference on Structural Integrity.

      3. Electric Vehicle TechnologyExplained by James Larminie, John Lowry.

      4. Feedback control theory by john Doyle, Bruce Francis, Allen tannenbaum.

      5. Development of generalisedphotovoltaic cell model using MATLAB

        / Simulink by Huan-Liang Tsai, Ci-Siang Tu, and Yi-Jie Su,Member, IAENG. Drives engineering handbook by Rockwell automation.

      6. Feedback control systems by Dr Mustafa M Aziz.

        Ackerman angle =tan-1[ L / {(L/tan)-t}] = 40.008degree Ackerman percentage/rolling percentage = ( / inside) × 100

        = (40.008 / 38) × 100

        Figure 22 Rack and Pinion Steering System

        VI. Result

        As we all know that in present scenario we all have to take steps towards the eco-friendly technology. Since in automobile market has a big role in the global environment thats why we should use vehicle propelling from the electric motors.

        There are some advantages of solar electric vehicle over the

        I.C. engines vehicles:

        • Zero emission from the tailpipe. No pollution from vehicle.

      7. Dynamic performance of a pure electricvehicle experimental analysisby Wang tan-li,chin chang-hong, Gao shi-zhan, li xing-quan and yuying Xiao.

      8. Hardware design considerations for an electric bicycle using BLDC motor by srivatsa raghunath.

      9. Kelly ebike brushless motor controller users manual.

      10. Regenerative braking of BLDC motors by Daniel Torres.

      11. Ac machines controlled as dc machines by Hamid a toliyat.

      12. Powering wireless communications from www.batteryuniversity.com.

      13. A status report of possible risksof base metal alloys by LH pierce

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