Study of Strength of Earthbrick Reinforced with Coirfibre and Cowdung

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Study of Strength of Earthbrick Reinforced with Coirfibre and Cowdung

Arunima M, Narayani S, Shehna Salim, Shijila

UG Scholars:Dept of Civil Engineering MES Institute of Technology and Management

Shamna J

Assistant professor Dept of Civil Engineering

MES Institute of technology and management

Chathannoor, Kollam, Kerala, India Chathannoor, Kollam, Kerala, India

Abstract The need for locally manufactured building materials has been emphasized in many countries of the world. Earth is one of ma ny alternative materials that can be used in place of residential stick building. A number of binders have been used to stabilize earth, for construction. Such binders are aimed to improving water proofing or wear resistance properties of vulnerable earth based construction. Tropical countries are rich in fine grained cohesive soil, coir fiber and cow dung are naturally available raw material for building construction. But it potential in block making is not yet satisfactorily explored. This study focuses on an experimental investigation for improvising stabilized earthen blocks with coir cutting wastes from coir industry and cow dung from farm houses a reinforced elements. 15%,20%,25% of cow dung and 0.5%,1%,1.5% coir fibers are used for making different combination of stabilized earth bricks. First reference block are prepared using cohesive soil. Then blocks were prepared by stabilizing it further with waste fibrous additives and cow dung tested for strength and durability. Sustainable building materials are highly in demand today. Manufacturing of these blocks are easy and economical. The main objective of this project is to analyze the characteristics of stabilized earthen soil block and investigate the possibility of enhancing its strength and durability by reinforcing with degradable waste material.

KeywordsClay, coir fibte,cowdung, dry compressive strength ,wet compressive strength

sundried for six days and then fired in a kiln for three day and night completely and tested .The abundance of clay, cow dung and coconut fiber in this country, these bricks are used for various construction works such as load bearing or non-load bearing walls for resisting static loading. This will reduce the cost of construction materials and environmental pollution. , although the various table text styles are provided. The formatter will need to create these components, incorporating the applicable criteria that follow.

  1. METHODOLOGY FOR EXPERIMENTATION A Material and Testing

    The various material used as Clay,Coirfibre,Cowdung,water. The various experimental result for the material are shown

    1. Specific Gravity test for Clay

      Mass of pycnometer,m1

      662g

      Mass of pycnometer and soil,M2

      976g

      Mass of pycnometer+soil+water,M3

      1724g

      Mass of pycnometer + water M4

      1534g

      Mass of pycnometer,m1

      662g

      Mass of pycnometer and soil,M2

      976g

      Mass of pycnometer+soil+water,M3

      1724g

      Mass of pycnometer + water M4

      1534g

      Table1 Specific gravity test observation

      1. INTRODUCTION

        Sustainable building materials are highly demand today. Locally available clay is used for building construction. Manufacturing of these blocks are easy, economical and got a comparable strength compared to that of conventional brick. Fibrous material addition as a reinforcing element is one of the promising outcomes of ongoing researches. Kerala state in India produces 60% of the total world supply of coir fiber. This industry produces fibrous waste during the processing. Even though the coir waste is biodegradable, the rate of biodegradation is very slow due to high lignin content. Accumulation of this material causes environmental issues. Utilization of fibrous coir wastes is explored in the production of clay bricks. The main objective of this work is to analyze the characteristics of earth bricks reinforced with cow dung and coir fiber. Investigate the possibility of enhancing its strength and durability by reinforcing with degradable waste material. Some of the major objectives this work are ;to determine the properties of clay ,determine the compressive strength of brick with varying percentages of cow dung and coir fiber which is kept at room temperature for one day and

        Specific gravity, G = (M2-M1) /(M2-M1)(M3-M4)

        = (976-662)/(976-662)(1724-1534)

        =2.53

    2. Compaction test for Clay

    (i) Observation and Calculations Weight of mould (W1) =4.100kg Volume of mould (V) = 942.47 m3 Wet weight of soil = 3kg

    Assume natural moisture content =3 %

    Dry weight of soil (d) = /(1+w) =3/ (1+.03) =2.912 kg Assume amount of water added for first trial =4% d = 116ml

    Provi ng ring readi ng

    Load in kg

    Defo r- matio n dial gaug e readi ng

    Com pr- essio n

    l

    Strai n l/l

    Increas ed c/s area A1=a/1

    -e

    Act u-al stre ss=l oad

    /are a

    2

    0.526

    50

    0.5

    0.00

    6

    11.408

    0.0

    46

    3

    0.789

    100

    1

    0.01

    3

    11.489

    0.0

    68

    3

    0.789

    150

    1.5

    0.02

    11.571

    0.0

    68

    4

    1.052

    200

    2

    0.02

    67

    11.651

    0.0

    90

    5

    1.315

    250

    2.5

    0.03

    3

    11.727

    0.1

    12

    5

    1.315

    300

    3

    0.04

    11.812

    5

    0.1

    12

    6

    1.578

    350

    3.5

    0.46

    7

    11.895

    0.1

    33

    7

    1.841

    400

    4

    0.05

    3

    11.975

    0.1

    54

    7

    1.841

    450

    4.5

    0.06

    12.064

    0.1

    53

    8

    2.104

    500

    5

    0.06

    7

    12.154

    0.1

    73

    8

    2.104

    550

    5.5

    0.07

    3

    12.233

    0.1

    72

    9

    2.367

    600

    6

    0.08

    12.326

    0.1

    92

    9

    2.367

    650

    6.5

    0.08

    67

    12.416

    0.1

    91

    10

    2.63

    700

    7

    0.09

    3

    12.503

    0.2

    10

    10

    2.63

    750

    7.5

    0.1

    12.6

    0.2

    10

    11

    2.893

    800

    8

    0.10

    67

    12.694

    0.2

    28

    11

    2.893

    850

    8.5

    0.11

    3

    12.785

    0.2

    26

    12

    3.156

    900

    9

    0.12

    12.886

    0.2

    44

    12

    3.156

    950

    9.5

    0.12

    67

    12.985

    0.2

    43

    12

    3.156

    1000

    10

    0.13

    3

    13.79

    0.2

    41

    Provi ng ring readi ng

    Load in kg

    Defo r- matio n dial gaug e readi ng

    Com pr- essio n

    l

    Strai n l/l

    Increas ed c/s area A1=a/1

    -e

    Act u-al stre ss=l oad

    /are a

    2

    0.526

    50

    0.5

    0.00

    6

    11.408

    0.0

    46

    3

    0.789

    100

    1

    0.01

    3

    11.489

    0.0

    68

    3

    0.789

    150

    1.5

    0.02

    11.571

    0.0

    68

    4

    1.052

    200

    2

    0.02

    67

    11.651

    0.0

    90

    5

    1.315

    250

    2.5

    0.03

    3

    11.727

    0.1

    12

    5

    1.315

    300

    3

    0.04

    11.812

    5

    0.1

    12

    6

    1.578

    350

    3.5

    0.46

    7

    11.895

    0.1

    33

    7

    1.841

    400

    4

    0.05

    3

    11.975

    0.1

    54

    7

    1.841

    450

    4.5

    0.06

    12.064

    0.1

    53

    8

    2.104

    500

    5

    0.06

    7

    12.154

    0.1

    73

    8

    2.104

    550

    5.5

    0.07

    3

    12.233

    0.1

    72

    9

    2.367

    600

    6

    0.08

    12.326

    0.1

    92

    9

    2.367

    650

    6.5

    0.08

    67

    12.416

    0.1

    91

    10

    2.63

    700

    7

    0.09

    3

    12.503

    0.2

    10

    10

    2.63

    750

    7.5

    0.1

    12.6

    0.2

    10

    11

    2.893

    800

    8

    0.10

    67

    12.694

    0.2

    28

    11

    2.893

    850

    8.5

    0.11

    3

    12.785

    0.2

    26

    12

    3.156

    900

    9

    0.12

    12.886

    0.2

    44

    12

    3.156

    950

    9.5

    0.12

    67

    12.985

    0.2

    43

    12

    3.156

    1000

    10

    0.13

    3

    13.79

    0.2

    41

    Table 2 Proctor Compaction test observaton TABLE 3 UCC TEST OBSERVATION

    Sl no

    Wt of mould + compacted soil(kg)

    wt of

    compacted soil(w2-w1)

    Wet density

    Dry density

    1

    5.5

    1400

    1.485

    1.442

    2

    5.64

    1440

    1.527

    1.427

    3

    5.776

    1476

    1.566

    1.411

    4

    5.838

    1538

    1.631

    1.418

    5

    5.98

    1880

    1.994

    1.675

    6

    5.95

    1850

    1.962

    1.595

    Fig 1 Compaction Curve

    Maximum drydensity=1.84g/cm3 Optimummoisturecontent=12%

    3 UCC

    Sample diameter =3.8

    Cross section area of sample = /4 *d2

    = /4 (3.82 )

    = 11.34

    Height of sample = 75 mm Strain rate = 1.25 mm/min Proving ring constant = 0.263

    Least count of deformation dial gauge= 0.01 Sample calculation (sample no .2)

    Proving ring reading= 3 Load in kg= 0.789

    Deformation dial gauge reading= 100 Compression l= 100*0.01

    =1.00

    Strain, e= l/l

    =1/75

    =0.013

    Increased cross section area of sample, A1 = A/1-e

    =11.34/1-0.013

    =11.48 cm2

    Actual stress= Load/A1

    = 0.789/11.48

    =0.068kg/cm2

    4 ATTERBERGS LIMITS

    1. Liquid limit

      TABLE 4 DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT

      No. of blows

      Water content (%)

      35

      32.2

      33

      33.2

      31

      34.2

      28

      35.2

      25

      36.2

      23

      37.2

      19

      38.2

      Fig 2 Flow Curve

      Table 5 Plastic Plastic limit

      Weight of dish (W1)

      48gm

      Weight of dish + wet soil(W2)

      65gm

      Weight of dish+ dry soil(W3)

      63gm

      Weight of water,W2-W3

      2gm

      Weight of dry soil,W3-W1

      15gm

      weight of water/ weight of dry soil

      = (2/15) *100

      = 13.3 %

      Plasticity index, Ip = WL-WP

      = 36.4-13.3

      = 23.1%

    2. Discussion:

    Plastic index is obtained as 23. 1%. Liquid limit> Plastic limit.

    MANUFACTURING OF REINFORCED SPECIMEN

    Reinforced bricks are prepared by mixing the clay with different percentages of cow dung and coir fiber. 20% and 25% of cow dung (out of total weight of clay) and 1%and 1.5% (out of total weight of clay) of coir fibers are used for the making of reinforced bricks .Using 20% of cowdung and 1% of coir fiber, 3 bricks are casted. Similarly using 20% of cowdung and 1.5% of coir fiber, 3 bricks are casted. Likewise bricks are casted in the combinations of 25% cowdung and 1 % coir fiber and also in 25% cowdung and 1.5% coirfiber. Three bricks are

    casted from each batch. Otherthan these 3 bricks with only clay are also casted.

    Water used for mixing is 30% of that of total weight. The mixing, moulding , compacting as well as curing process were same as that of reference block preparation. Here th testing is done on the 7th day after firing in the kiln. First it is kept at room temperature for one day. Then it is sundried for 6 days. After that it is fired in a kiln for 3 days completely and tested after 7 days.The procedure is as follows.

    1. Coir fibers are cut into small piece.

      Fig 3Cutting Coir Fiber

    2. Cowdung is dried and crushed into smaller particles passing through the sieve of 4.75 mm.

      Fig 4 Dried Cow Dung

    3. Clay is crushed and sieved through IS sieve of 4.75mm.

      Fig 5 Crushed Cow Dung

      Fig 6 4.75mm Sieve

    4. Clay coir fiber and cow dung are weighted and separated in different proportions.

    FIG 7 Different Proportion Of Cow dung And Coir fiber

    5Dry mix of raw materials are done.

    Fig 8 Dry Mix

    6 Water is added and wet mix is prepared.

    Fig 9Water mix

    7Greece is applied on mould.

    Fig 10 Applying Greece

    8The mixture is kept in the mould and tamped using tamping rod.

    Fig 11 Tamping

    1. Brick is removed from the mould.

      Fig 12 Brick removed from mould

    2. Bricks are kept in room temperature for 1 days and then kept under sunlight for 6 days.

      Fig 13Sun dried of brick

    3. Bricks are fired at kiln for 3 days

    Fig4.20 kiln

    Fig 4.21 Brick after burned kiln

    TESTS CONDUCTED ON SPECIMEN

    1. DRY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

      All electrically operated s compression machine was used for the compressive strength test on the reference and earth brick reinforced with cow dung and coir fiber. The blocks were subjected to compressive strength at 7TH day after taking from

      the kiln and 2 replicas for each mix and average compressive strength was calculated. In crushing test care was taken to ensure that blocks were properly positioned and aligned with the axis of the thrust of compression machine to ensure uniform loading on blocks. The bearing surface of the testing machine was cleaned and the specimen was placed in such a manner that load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the block specimen. The movable portion was gently rotated by hand and as it touches the top of surface of specimen and the load was applied gradually at the rate of 140Kg/cm²/min till the specimen fails. The maximum load was noted and recorded.

      loading on blocks. The bearing surface of the testing machine was cleaned and the specimen was placed in such a manner that load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the block specimen. The movable portion was gently rotated by hand and as it touches the top of surface of specimen and the load was applied gradually at the rate of 140Kg/cm²/min till the specimen fails.The maximum load was noted and recorded.

      Sl.

      No.

      Percentage Cow dung

      Percentage Coir Fiber

      Load (KN)

      Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

      1

      0

      0

      121

      6.05

      2

      20

      1

      142

      7.1

      3

      20

      1.5

      138

      6.9

      4

      25

      1

      134

      6.7

      5

      25

      1.5

      128

      6.2

      Sl.

      No.

      Percentage Cow dung

      Percentage Coir Fiber

      Load (KN)

      Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

      1

      0

      0

      121

      6.05

      2

      20

      1

      142

      7.1

      3

      20

      1.5

      138

      6.9

      4

      25

      1

      134

      6.7

      5

      25

      1.5

      128

      6.2

      Table7 wet compressive strength

      Table6 Dry compressive strength

      Sl.no

      Percentage cow dung

      Percentage coir fiber

      Load (KN)

      Compressive strength (N/mm²)

      1

      0

      0

      170

      8.5

      2

      20

      1

      179

      8.95

      3

      20

      1.5

      172

      8.6

      4

      25

      1

      177.5

      8.876

      5

      25

      1.5

      178.2

      8.91

      fig 13 Dry Compressive Strength

      Fig 14 Max Dry Compressive strength

      Graph shows the relationship between the compressive strength and different combinations of cow dung and coir fiber. The maximum dry compressive strength obtained is 8.875 KN/m², which is obtained by the addition of 20% cow dung and 1% coir fiber. But after 1% and 20% addition the dry compressive strength decreases.

    2. WET COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

    The compressive strength after immersion in water for 24 hour at the age of 7 days.In crushing test care was taken to ensure that blocks were properly positioned and aligned with the axis of the thrust of compression machine to ensure uniform

    Fig15 wet compressive strength

    Fig 5.7 Maximum Wet Compressive Strength

    The observation clearly indicates that the earth brick reinforced with coir fibre and cow dung provided with 20%cowdung and 1% coir fibre exhibits maximum compressive strength as compared to normal bricks.immersion in water for 24 hour reduced the compressive strength for cow dung and 1% coir samples compared to the compressive strength in their dry state. Furthermore, complete disintegration of un- stabilised specimens was observed in a few minutes after immersion in water. Again bricks with 20% cow dung and 1% coir fiber content as stabiliser had the highest wet compressive strength of 7.1 N/mm

  2. CONCLUSION

Strength and durability characteristics of earth brick reinforced with coir fiber and cow dung was found to be improved than the normal bricks. The earth bricks stabilized with 20% cow dung and 1% coir fiber exhibits maximum compressive strength and abrasive strength which indicates the best combination.

Considerable improvement in compressive strength and and reduction in mass were exhibited by earth bricks reinforced with cow dung and coir fiber.

Dry compressive strength: Coir has potential to increase the compressive strength of bricks. An increment in compressive strength with increase in % of coir fibre upto 1% and cow dung upto 20% was observed. Further addition of cow dung and coir fiber leads to the reduction of compressive strength.

Wet compressive strength : Immersion in water for 24 hour reduced the compressive strength compared to the compressive strength in their dry state.

Environment and economy : Use of cow dung and coir fiber minimizes the environmental problems of waste deposition in addition to the cost of construction of building .

It is cost effective because of the quantity of clay is more in conventional brick compared to the reinforced brick. The coir fiber and cow dung are easily available and cheap value which makes the modified brick as cost effective by minimizing quantity of clay required,so we can save money.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility to complete the project and its report.First and foremost, we thank THE ALMIGHTY for giving us life, health and strength for the successful and timely completion of the project.We are extremely grateful to Prof. (Dr.) J NAZAR, Principal, MESITAM, Chathannoor for providing all the necessary facilities in the campus to make life easier.We express our profound and sincere thanks to Prof. ABI BASHEER B, Associate Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering for giving us the opportunity to present this project and also for his timely suggestions.

We owe our heartfelt gratitude to our project coordinators

Prof. RAZNA RAHIM and Prof. NEETTA S KUMAR,

Assistant Professors, Department of Civil Engineering, for their advice, support and valuable suggestions.We avail this opportunity to express our ardent and sincere gratitude to our project supervisor Prof. SHAMNA J, Assistant professor, Department of Civil Engineering, for the tutelage, encouragement and guidance for translating our efforts to fruition.We are also indebted to all the teaching and non- teachingstaff, Department of Civil Engineering, for their heartfelt co-operation and tremendous support.

REFERENCE

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  2. Peter-paa and Dorothy manu (2013). Strength and durability properties of cow dung stabilized earth brick, Vol.3,No.13

  3. M G Sreekumar and Deepa G Nair(2013).Stabilized lateritic blocks reinforced with fibrous coir wastesInternational Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology (ISSN: 2180- 3242) Vol. 4, No 2

  4. Agwa J I and Gimba A E (2012). Optimal mix of coir reinforced blocks for maximum compressive strength vol.4

  5. Hanifa, B., Organ, A., and Tahir, S. (2008) Investigation on Fibre Reinforced Mud Brick as Building Material, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 19, pp 313-318.

  6. Aguwa J. I. (2009) Study of Compressive Strength of Laterite- Cement Mixes as Building Material, Assumption University Journal of Technology, Vol. 13, No 2, pp 114- 120.

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  9. Aguwa JI, Tsado TY (2011). Effect of Mixing Water Content on the Compressi Strength of Laterite Blocks as Walling Units in Buildings. Environ. Technol. Sci. J. (ETSJ) 4(1):6067.

  10. Moisés Frías Iñigo Vegas, Raquel Vigil de la Villa and Rosario García Giménez. (2012). Recycling of Waste Paper Sludge in Cements: Characterization and Behavior of New Eco-Efficient Matrices. Intergrated Waste management, Vol. II, pp 302-318.

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