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Strength and Durability Characteristics of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete using Partial Replacement of Laterite Sand as Fine Aggregate

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Strength and Durability Characteristics of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete using Partial Replacement of Laterite Sand as Fine Aggregate

Sulith.S

PG Student

Dept. Of Civil Engineering

Younus College of Engineering And Technology Kollam,Kerala

Sreejith.R

Assistant Professor Dept. Of Civil Engineering

Younus college of Engineering And Technology Kollam,Kerala

Abstract-Concrete is a widely used vital material in the construction world. The cost of cement and sand is steadily increasing and concrete is mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, with or without admixtures. Nowadays, there is a large scarcity of natural sand. So it is very important to find alternate materials which can be used instead of the constituent materials of concrete, so that the concrete become economical. Laterite is one of the locally available materials, which is used from ancient time as a building material .It is very cheap and also abundantly available. The use of laterite to replace fine aggregate of concrete is becoming wide spread in building construction

.Copper slag(CS) is a byproduct obtained during the smelting and refining of copper .In this paper, copper slag is replaced by cement .Silica fume(SF) is a byproduct of the smelting process in the silicon and ferrosilicon industry. Silica fume is used in concrete to improve is properties. In this study cement is replaced by silica fume and copper slag and fine aggregate is replaced by laterite sand. In this study six mixes of M25 grade are used. The replacement level by silica fume and copper slag are 0%SF 0%CS, 20%SF 0%CS, 15%SF 5%CS, 10%SF 10%CS, 5%SF 15%CS, 0%SF 20%CS for each mix

respectively. Also fine aggregate is replaced by laterite sand for 25% for each concrete mix.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opuscaementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, and cement. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to be used in the presence of water Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, it sets as the cement dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It can be attacked by some aggressive chemicals after setting. Hydraulic cement is made by replacing some of the cement in a mix with activated aluminium silicates, pozzolanas, such as fly ash. This allows setting in wet condition or underwater and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack

    (e.g., Portland cement). The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash (activated aluminium silicates). Presently cheaper than volcanic ash, fly ash from power stations, recovered as a pollution control measure, or other waste or by products are used as pozzolanas with plain cement to produce hydraulic cement. Pozzolanas can constitute up to 40% of Portland cement. Hydraulic cement can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical attack. The most important uses of cement are as a component in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.

    Cement replacement reduces the overall carbon dioxide emission of the concrete. Improved surface finish of the completed structure. Reduces the permeability, shrinkage, creep. Give greater resistance to chloride ingress and sulphate attack. Improves long term strength, performance and durability.

    The objectives of the present study are

    • To study the workability

    • To study the compressive strength

    • To study the splitting tensile strength

    • To study the flexural strength

    • To study the durability characteristics

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    The properties of the materials used for the preparation of concrete plays a vital role in fresh as well as hardened properties of concrete.Tests were conducted on each material for getting their properties. Experimental investigation were carried out to determine the strength characteristics of concrete with different percentages of silica fume and copper slag and a fixed percentage of laterite sand as replacement for cement and fine aggregate and thereby to arrive at the optimum replacement percentage of cement and also to study the durability of concrete.

    1. Materials Used

      • Port land cement(53 grade)

      • Potable water

      • Copper slag

        Copper is one of the basic chemical elements which is a soft and ductile metal, known for its high thermal and electrical conductivity and has a reddish-orange surface in its pure state. It is commonly used in electrical, construction and transportation industries. Pure copper is rarely found in nature, but is usually combined with other chemicals in the form of copper ores. The process of extracting copper from copper ore varies according to the type of ore and the desired purity of the final product. Each process consists of several steps in which unwanted materials are physically or chemically removed, and the concentration of copper is progressively increase

      • Silica fume

        Silica fume is a by- product in the production of silicon alloys such as ferro-chromium, ferro-manganese, calcium silicon etc.It consists primarily of amorphous (non- crystalline)silicon dioxide

      • Laterite sand

        Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Historically, laterite was cut into brick-like shapes and used in monument-buildings

      • M sand

      • Coarse aggregate

    2. Test on constituent materials

      Cement: Ordinary Portland Cement of 53 grade, conforming to IS: 12269-1987 was used. Different laboratory tests were conducted on cement to determine standard consistency, initial and final setting time and compressive strength as per IS: 4031-1988

      Ingredient

      Percentage

      Lime(CaO)

      62

      Silica(SiO2)

      22

      Alumina(Al2O3)

      5

      Calcium sulphate (CaSO4)

      4

      Iron oxide(Fe2O3)

      3

      Magnesia(MgO)

      2

      Sulphur(S)

      1

      Ingredient

      Percentage

      Lime(CaO)

      62

      Silica(SiO2)

      22

      Alumina(Al2O3)

      5

      Calcium sulphate (CaSO4)

      4

      Iron oxide(Fe2O3)

      3

      Magnesia(MgO)

      2

      Sulphur(S)

      1

      TABLE 1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CEMENT (OPC 53 GRADE)

      TABLE 2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT (OPC 53 GRADE)

      Sl.No.

      Properties

      Test results

      Requirement as per IS: 12269-

      1987

      (Reaffirmed 2004)

      1

      Specific Gravity

      3.15

      2

      Standard Consistency (%)

      35

      26 -38

      3

      Initial Setting Time (minutes)

      60

      Not less than 30 minutes

      4

      Final Setting Time (minutes)

      420

      Not more than 600 minutes

      Silica fume: Silica Fume (Amorphous SiO2) named Micro silica from Sree Muruga Industries Pvt Ltd.,Kerala was used for the experiments. The specific gravity of silica fume was 2.4.

      TABLE 3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SILICA FUME

      Chemical components

      % Weight

      Silica (SiO2)

      90-96

      Lime (CaO)

      0.1-0.5

      Iron oxide (Fe2O3)

      0.2-0.8

      Alumina (Al2O3)

      0.5-0.8

      Magnesia (MgO)

      0.5-1.5

      Fig.1. Silica Fume

      Fine aggregate: Commercially available M sand passing through 4.75mm IS sieve and conforming to grading zone II of IS: 383-1970 was used for experiment. Sieve analysis was done to determine the fineness modulus and grain size distribution of M sand.

      TABLE 4 PROPERTIES OF FINE AGGREGATE

      Sl No

      Properties

      Test Results

      1

      Specific gravity

      2.392

      2

      Bulk density (g/cc)

      1.81

      3

      Porosity(%)

      24

      4

      Void ratio

      0.26

      5

      Fineness modulus

      3.11

      TABLE 5 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FINE AGGREGATE

      Sieve size(mm)

      Weight retained in each sieve(g)

      % Weight retained in each sieve

      Cumulative

      % weight retained

      %

      Weight passing

      4.75

      0

      0

      0

      0

      2.36

      184.2

      18.42

      18.608

      81.392

      1.18

      256.2

      25.62

      44.228

      55.772

      0.60

      214.79

      21.479

      65.707

      34.293

      0.30

      178.9

      17.89

      83.597

      16.403

      0.15

      152.43

      15.243

      98.84

      1.16

      Pan

      11.6

      1.16

      100

      0

      Fineness modulus of fine aggregate = 3.11

      Copper slag: Copper is one of the basic chemical elements which is a soft and ductile metal, known for its high thermal and electrical conductivity and has a reddish- orange surface in its pure state. It is commonly used in electrical, construction and transportation industries. Pure copper is rarely found in nature, but is usually combined with other chemicals in the form of copper ores.

      It was procured from Laxmi Industries Pvt. Ltd., Tamilnadu. Its specific gravity was found to be 3.4.

      Fig.2. Copper Slag

      Property

      (% wt)

      Iron Oxide Fe2O3

      42 48

      Silica SiO2

      26- 30

      Aluminium Oxide Al2O3

      1 3

      Calcium Oxide CaO

      1.0 2.0

      Magnesium Oxide MgO

      0.8 1.5

      Property

      (% wt)

      Iron Oxide Fe2O3

      42 48

      Silica SiO2

      26- 30

      Aluminium Oxide Al2O3

      1 3

      Calcium Oxide CaO

      1.0 2.0

      Magnesium Oxide MgO

      0.8 1.5

      TABLE 6 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COPPER SLAG

      Laterite :Laterite is a highly weathered material, rich in secondary oxides of iron, aluminium or both. It is being extensively used as building block from the early civilization. Laterite obtained from natural source was used for replacing fine aggregate.

      The specific gravity and fineness modulus of laterite used were 2.31 and 2.96 respectively.

      Fig.3. Laterite

      Coarse aggregate: Coarse aggregate used in this study were 20mm nominl size. The physical properties were tested and it conformed to the IS 383:1970.The coarse aggregate used was found to belong to belong to standard zone. Specific gravity and fineness modulus of coarse aggregate used were 278 and 6.51 respectively.

      Water: Potable water was used for the experimental investigation. Water available in the college water supply system was used for casting as well as curing of the test specimens.

    3. Mix Design

      As per IS:10262-2009 M25 mix was designed and the mix proportion was obtained as 1:1.4:2.81. Water cement ratio was 0.48. Six mixes were made namely TBC 0, TBC 1, TBC 2, TBC 3, TBC 4, TBC 5. TBC 0 was the control mix with 25 % Laterite sand and 0 % silica fume,0 % copper slag.

      TABLE 7 MIX DESIGNATION FOR DIFFERENT MIXES

      Sl No

      Mix

      Silica Fume(%)

      Copper Slag(%)

      Cement(%)

      Laterite Sand(%)

      Fine Aggregate(%)

      Coarse Aggregate(%)

      1

      TBC0

      0

      0

      100

      25

      75

      100

      2

      TBC1

      20

      0

      80

      25

      75

      100

      3

      TBC2

      15

      5

      80

      25

      75

      100

      4

      TBC3

      10

      10

      80

      25

      75

      100

      5

      TBC4

      5

      15

      80

      25

      75

      100

      6

      TBC5

      0

      20

      80

      25

      75

      100

      TABLE 8 QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR M25 MIX FOR 1M3

      td>

      513.547

      Material

      Mix designation

      Mix designation

      Mix designation

      Mix designation

      Mix designation

      Mix designation

      TBC0

      TBC1

      TBC2

      TBC3

      TBC4

      TBC5

      Coarse Aggregate (kg/m3)

      853.32

      853.32

      853.32

      853.32

      853.32

      853.32

      Fine Aggregate (kg/m3)

      385.160

      385.160

      385.160

      385.160

      385.160

      Laterite (kg/m3)

      0

      128.386

      128.386

      128.386

      128.386

      128.386

      Cement (kg/m3)

      323

      258.4

      258.4

      258.4

      258.4

      258.4

      Silica fume(kg/m3)

      0

      64.6

      48.45

      32.3

      16.15

      0

      Copper slag(kg/m3)

      0

      0

      16.15

      32.3

      48.45

      64.6

      water(kg/m3)

      186

      186

      186

      186

      186

      186

    4. Specimen details and casting of specimens

      Standard cubes of size 150x150x150mm for compressive strength test,cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm height for compressive and splitting tensile strength test, beams of size 500x100x100mm for flexural strength test. For durability study small cubes of sizes 100x100x100mm and for RCPT study 150mm diameter and 50mm thick concrete specimens were used. The compressive strength test was carried out at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The flexural and splitting tensile strength and the durability studies were carried out for all the six mixes.

      Sl no

      Specimen

      Properties

      Size(mm)

      No.

      1

      Cube

      Compressive strength

      150×150×150

      90

      2

      Cylinder

      Split tensile strength

      150

      Diameter×300 Height

      36

      Compressive strength

      3

      Beam

      Flexure tensile strength

      500 × 100×100

      18

      4

      Small cube

      Durability study

      100 × 100

      ×100

      108

      5

      Disc

      RCPT

      50 Diameter ×

      150 Height

      18

      Sl no

      Specimen

      Properties

      Size(mm)

      No.

      1

      Cube

      Compressive strength

      150×150×150

      90

      2

      Cylinder

      Split tensile strength

      150

      Diameter×300 Height

      36

      Compressive strength

      3

      Beam

      Flexure tensile strength

      500 × 100×100

      18

      4

      Small cube

      Durability study

      100 × 100

      ×100

      108

      5

      Disc

      RCPT

      50 Diameter ×

      150 Height

      18

      TABLE 9 SPECIMEN DETAILS

      Requried numbers of concrete cubes,cylinders,beams were casted .Also for durability studyrequired numbers of small cubes were casted and for RCPT study concrete specimens were casted. Specimens were demoulded after 24 hours of casting and were kept in a curing tank for water curing.

    5. Tests on specimens

      The specimens after casting and curing were subjected to testing.Testing the specimens determines the strength and also the quality of concrete.Tests were performed on the concrete both in fresh states and hardened states for getting workability ,strength and durabilityof concrete with silica fume ,copper slag and fine aggregate with constant percentage of laterite.The test performed were

      1. Tests on workability of concrete

        • Slump Test

        • Compacting Factor Test

      2. Tests on strength of concrete

        • Compressive Strength Test

        • Splitting Tensile Strength Test

        • Flexural Strength Test

      3. Test on Durability Of Concete

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Properties of fresh concrete

    Fresh concrete properties were studied for all the mixes and it is determined by slump test and compaction factor test.The test results are shown in Table 10andTable

    11. From the result obtained ,it is found that workability increases form TBC 0 to TBC 5.

    TABLE 10 VARIATION OF SLUMP VALUE WITH DIFFERENT MIXES

    Sl No

    Mix Designation

    Slump(mm)

    1

    TBC 0

    30

    2

    TBC 1

    32

    3

    TBC 2

    33

    4

    TBC 3

    35

    5

    TBC 4

    38

    6

    TBC 5

    41

    Sl No

    Mix Designation

    Compacting factor

    1

    TBC 0

    0.80

    2

    TBC 1

    0.82

    3

    TBC 2

    0.84

    4

    TBC 3

    0.86

    5

    TBC 4

    0.88

    6

    TBC 5

    0.90

    Sl No

    Mix Designation

    Compacting factor

    1

    TBC 0

    0.80

    2

    TBC 1

    0.82

    3

    TBC 2

    0.84

    4

    TBC 3

    0.86

    5

    TBC 4

    0.88

    6

    TBC 5

    0.90

    TABLE11 VARIATION OF COMPACTING FACTOR WITH DIFFERENT MIXES

  2. Properties of hardened concrete

    1. Cube Compressive Strength

      Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

      Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

      Cube Compressive test was carried out for cube of size 150mmx150mmx150mm in compression testing machine for all the six mixes at the age of 3,7,28,56 and 90days.From test results TBC 2 showed maximum compressive strength compared to all other mixes.From the compression test ,TBC 2 was obtained as the optimum mix.percentage increase 7 day compressive strength is 26% and 28 day compressive strength is 34%.

      80

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      3 Day Compressive Strength

      7 Day Compressive Strength

      28 Day Compressive Strength

      56 Day Compressive Strength

      80

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      3 Day Compressive Strength

      7 Day Compressive Strength

      28 Day Compressive Strength

      56 Day Compressive Strength

      TBCTBCTBCTBCTBCTBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

      Mix Designation

      TBCTBCTBCTBCTBCTBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

      Mix Designation

      90 Day Compressive Strength

      90 Day Compressive Strength

      Fig.4. Variation of compressive strength of cube

    2. Compressive Strength of Cylinder

      Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

      Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

      The cylinder compressive strength test of concrete was carried out for six mixes. From these results ,it can be seen that the compressive strength of cylinder of TBC 2 was higher than other mixes.

      14

      12

      10

      8

      6

      4

      2

      0

      28 Day

      14

      12

      10

      8

      6

      4

      2

      0

      28 Day

      TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

      Mix Designation

      TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

      Mix Designation

      Fig.5. Variation of compressive strength of cylinder

    3. Splitting tensile strength of cylinder

      Split Tensile Strength(N/mm2)

      Split Tensile Strength(N/mm2)

      Splitting tensile strength test was done for six mixes at the age of 28 days of water curing From these results,it can be seen that the splitting tensile strength of cylinder of TBC2(15%SF,5%CS,25% Laterite sand) was higher than all other mixes.percentage increase in splitting tensile strength at 28 day is 44%.

      3.5

      3

      2.5

      2

      1.5

      1

      0.5

      0

      28 day

      3.5

      3

      2.5

      2

      1.5

      1

      0.5

      0

      28 day

      Mix Designation

      Mix Designation

      Fig.6. Variation of splitting tensile strength

    4. Flexural strength of Beam

    Flexural Strength(N/mm2)

    Flexural Strength(N/mm2)

    Flexural strength test was done for six mixes at the age of 28 days of water curing From these results,it can be seen that the Flexural strength of beam of TBC2(15%SF,5%CS,25%Laterite sand) was higher than all other mixes.percentage increase in Flexural strength at 28 day is 41%.

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    28 day

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    28 day

    Mix Designation

    Mix Designation

    Fig.7. Variation of Flexural strength

  3. Durability study of concrete

Durability of concrete is the ability to resist weathering action,chemical attack,abrasion or any process of deterioration or it is the ability to last a long time without significant deterioration. Concrete ingredients their proportioning interactions between them, placing and curing practices determine the ultimate durability and life of the concrete. Durability studies were carried out for six mixes at the ages of 56 and 90 days.

  1. Alkali Attack Test

    Percentage Weight loss(%)

    Percentage Weight loss(%)

    This test was performed on six mixes. TBC 0,TBC 1,TBC 2,TBC 3,TBC 4,TBC 5.Sodium Hydroxide was used for this study.This was done to find out the effect of alkali on the concrete mixes.From the results obtained ,it is found that the percentage strength loss was more for TBC 0 and less for TBC 2.This indicates that TBC 2 shows good resistance than control mix.

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    56 Day

    90 Day

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    2

    1

    0

    2

    1

    0

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Fig.8. Percentage weight loss in alkaline solution

    20

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    20

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    Fig.9. Percentage strength loss in alkaline solution

  2. Acid Attack Test

    This test was done for TBC 0,TBC 1,TBC 2,TBC 3,TBC 4,TBC 5 mixes at the ages of 56 and 90 days after the exposure to sulphuric acid solution.From the test results it is found that comparing the six mixes the percentage strength loss was less for optimum mix ie,TBC 2.

    30

    25

    20

    15

    56 Day

    30

    25

    20

    15

    56 Day

    10

    10

    90 Day

    90 Day

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Fig.10. Specimens immersed in sulphuric acid solution

    Percentage Weight Loss(%)

    Percentage Weight Loss(%)

    Fig.11. Formation of efflorescence

    9

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    9

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    Fig.12. Percentage weight loss in acid solution

    TBC 0 TBC 1 TBC 2 TBC 3 TBC 4 TBC 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC 0 TBC 1 TBC 2 TBC 3 TBC 4 TBC 5

    Mix Designation

    5

    0

    5

    0

    Fig.13. Percentage loss in compressive strength in acid solution

  3. Sulphate Attack Test

    Percentage weight loss(%)

    Percentage weight loss(%)

    The compressive strength and weight of the specimens were determined and compared with specimens subjected to water curing .This test was done for six mixes at the ages of 56 and 90 days after the immersion of sodium sulphate solution.From the result it is found that the strength loss and weight loss is more for TBC 5. When compared to TBC 0 and TBC 2 optimum mix show slight poor resistance to sulphate attack than control mix.

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    56 Day

    90Day

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    56 Day

    90Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    1

    0

    1

    0

    Fig.14. Percentage weight loss in sodium sulphate solution

    20

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    20

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    percentage Strength Loss(%)

    percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Fig.15. Percentage loss in compressive strength in sodium sulphate solution

  4. Sea Water Attack Test

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    Percentage Weight Loss(%)

    Percentage Weight Loss(%)

    After exposing the specimens in sea water percentage strength loss and percentage weight loss was determined at 56 and 90 days.From the results it is clear that percentage strength loss is lesser for TBC 2.This indicates that TBC 2shows better durability property than the other five mixes.

    V. CONLUSION

    From the experimental study the conclusions arrived are:

    • Workability of mix increases from TBC0 to TBC5

    • The maximum compressive strength was found for TBC2

    • The compressive strength of optimum mix is greater than of control mix

    • The compressive strength increased by 34% in 28 days.

    • The splitting and flexural strength was also found to be greater in TBC2 mix.

    • The splitting tensile strength increased by 44% in 28 days.

    • The flexural strength increased by 41% in 28 days.

    • In alkaline solution curing TBC 2 showed good response than that of control mix.

    • The strength loss and weight loss due to sea water attack is lower for TBC 2 than that of other mixes.

    • In sulphate attack test control mix show slightly lower strength loss and weight loss than that of optimum mix TBC 2.

    • From the observations TBC2(15% SF,5% CS,25% Laterite Sand) is most suitable to both strength and durability.

    • The optimum mix TBC 2 show good acid resistant than control mix.

    1

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    1

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Percentage Strength Loss(%)

    Fig.16. Percentage weight loss due to sea water attack

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    56 Day

    90 Day

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC TBC 0 1 2 3 4 5

    Mix Designation

    Fig.17. Percentage loss in compressive strength

    REFERENCES

    1. N. K. Amudhavalli and Jeena Mathew Effect of silica fume on Strength and Durability Parameters of Concrete, International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies, Volume 3,28-35,2012.

    2. Ansu john and elson john,Study on the partial replacement of fine aggregate using induction furnace slag,American journal of engineering research,vol-4,pg-10-15,2013.

    3. Chung.D.D.L, Review improving cement based materials by using silica fume , Journal of material science,vol-37,pg673-679,2002.

    4. Debabrata pradhan and D.Dutta,Influence of silica fume on normal concrete, Int.Journal of engineering researchand applications,vol- 3,pg79-82,2013.

    5. Elsayed.A.A,Influence of silica fume,fly ash,super pozz and slag cement on water permeability and strength of concrete, Jordan Journal of civil Engg,vol-5,pg245-253,2011.

    6. Felix udoeyo etal, Influence of specimen geometry on the strengths of laterized concrete,IJRRAS,vol-3,pg143-151,2011.

    7. Jayaraman.A et al,Compressive and tensile strength of concrete usinglateritic sand and Lime stone filler as fine aggregate,Inter national Journal of Research in engineering and technology,vol- 3,pg447-453,2012.

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