fbpx

Solid waste management of MNIT Campus; A Case Study


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Solid waste management of MNIT Campus; A Case Study

Solid waste management of MNIT Campus; A Case Study

Ms Mona Rani, Meena Khwairakpam, and Mr. S. K. Bhagat

1HOD, Civil Engineering, GEC – Panipat, India

2Assistant Professor, National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India

3HOD, Civil Engineering, SBCET, Jaipur, India.

1monarani1012@gmail.com, 2meena.kh@gmail.com, 3suraj_futuretech@yahoo.com

AbstractSolid waste generation is a worldwide phenomena depending upon the various factors viz., season of the year, frequency of collection, characteristics of population, extent of salvage & recycling, public attitude, climatic condition, legislation etc. Improper management of solid wastes causes hazards to the environment and also the people who are residing in that particular area. It is a very big challenge all over the world and it should be overcome. In India there are over 300 universities and 45000 colleges of various types. The objectives of the present studies were to evaluate the current status, identify the problems and Physical characterization of waste generated at MNIT Campus, Jaipur. The solid waste generated at MNIT Campus was not properly disposed off, only dumped un-hygienically. Methodology for this research includes: Collection of population data, existing solid waste management practices as well as physical characterization of solid waste zone wise. The major findings are: Total population of MNIT fraternity was 2883. The total amount of waste generated was around to 5.4 tons/week. Amount of organic fraction generated was 78.88% of the total waste and the remaining 21.12% of the total waste includes dry waste: cardboard, clothes, glass, leather, metal, paper, pebbles/sand, plastic, thermocol and wood.

Index Terms Solid Waste Management, Physical Characterization

In addition to waste generation from different sources, Institutions are also generating solid waste in bulk quantities. They generate large enough amounts of waste to justify individual attention. It is considered advantageous to look at solid waste management at institutional level partly because of large sizes of the institutions, and mostly because the institutions currently manage their waste themselves to a great extent. Considering the research results of the universities/institutions that carried solid waste management it directly implicates that waste generation, could be reduced, recycled and reused which further reduces the pressure of solid wastes at disposal sites. As due to studied by different scientists in different institutes, a waste recovery potential of 71% in their waste management practices, which suggests to have a solid management at every institution, because these institutions bear profound responsibilities to increase the awareness, knowledge, technologies and tools to create an environmentally sustainable future.

Objective of the study

The objectives of present study were

  • Evaluation of current status and identify the problems of the MSW management in MNIT, Jaipur.

  • Physical characterization of waste generated at institute level (MNIT, JAIPUR).

    1. MATERIALS AND METHOD

      1. INTRODUCTION

        Solid waste comprises of all wastages arising from human and animal activities that are normally solids and discarded as useless or unwanted i.e. precious material at wrong place. Solid waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, planning, and engineering functions involved in the whole spectrum of solutions to problems of solid wastes (Tchobanaglous et al., 1997).

        Collection of population data:

        This population data base includes students fraternity, teaching and non-teaching staffs along with their households. Students community data was collected from their respective residential quarters/hostels, and MNIT website whereas teaching and non-teaching staff data base was collected from Administrative section. The population data of faculty quarters collected through door to door census. The total amount of waste generated depends on the population data of the respective zone.

        Existing municipal solid waste agency

        The authorities of MNIT Jaipur have given the responsibility of collecting and disposing the MSW to private company SARWAN & COMPANY.

        • Manpower & charges

          Company has provided manpower which includes 44 workers who charges Rs.194/- per day per person from the institute. Company has charged Rs. 2, 560, 80 per month from institute solely for collection and disposal of solid waste generated in the campus. Workers are given tricycle rickshaw and tractor-trolley for collection of waste and transportation of waste to disposal site.

        • Collection of waste

          Sarwan & Company hired workers for collection and disposal of waste from different sites. Worker are assign for different zones, they collect the waste and put them in dustbins. There are different types of dustbins in campus as shown in figure 1

          Figure 1- Different Type of Dustbin in MNIT Campus

        • Waste management practice of quarters

          Company has assigned 2 workers for collection of waste from quarters (total 146 quarters). One person collects the waste from quarters and other drive tricycle. Tricycle rickshaw as shown in figure 2.

          Figure 2 – Collection of Waste from Quarters

        • Waste Management Practice of Hostels

          Waste is collecting from hostels every day basis, two people assign for cleaning the hostel and put the waste in dustbins which are placed in hostels as shown in figure 3 (a) and two people assign for collection of waste from each hostel; they come every day in afternoon and empty the dustbin in trolley as shown in figure 3 (b).

          Figure 3 (a) Waste Collections inside Girls Hostel-2

          Figure 3 (b) Waste Collections from Girls Hostels-2

        • Disposal of waste

          It is observed that waste collected from institute is not properly disposed off; there is only open dumping without any sanitization. Waste is dumping at three places as behind girls hostel 1, behind H-type quarters and behind book bank as shown in figure 4. These dumping grounds not only affect the environment by air, water and soil pollution but also damage the property in the vicinity. The presence of moisture and rainwater leach the pollutant chemicals produced during degradation to dissolve and flow into the groundwater reserve. The dump sites virtually become a breeding ground for all kinds of diseases.

          Figure 4- Disposal Site of MNIT Campus

          Waste characterization

          The subsequent section explains the procedures for characterization of MSW as shown below in figure 5.

        • Data Collection

          Data collected from all the 8 zones as mentioned above. Population data of respective zones was prerequisite for calculation of total waste generation.

          Figure 5- Flow Chart of Physical Characterization of Waste.

        • Sampling

          The following section deals with sampling sites and sampling methodology which form basis for characterization of the waste.

        • Sampling Sites

          Measurement of wastes were carried of places inside the institute, such as students halls of residence (hostels), administration block, academic block, school, temple etc (Figure 6). The selected places were the ones that are supposed to generate major and typical sources of waste. Collection of solid waste had been done solely at the sampling stations. The entire study area was divided into 8 sub zones and few sampling points had been selected within the sub zones where sample collection should e taken and process of sampling should be carried on (Table 1) .The below table depicts the zone area and their sampling stations.

          transportation of wastes from the concerned sampling points had been carried out daily on regular basis. The collected wastes from sampling points transported to storage points where physical characterization was done. The total quantity of waste so collected was thoroughly mixed and subsequently reduced by the method of quartering till samples of such size was obtained. The sample so obtained was subjected to physical analysis.

        • Characterization technique

        The collected sample is physically sorted out on a sorting platform into various ingredients such as paper, glass, plastics, organic, inorganic wastes, etc. The individual components were stored in bins and weighed. The weights were expressed as a percent of the original sample on a wet weight basis.

        Table 1 Sampling Stations according to Zone/Area

        Area

        Sampling Station

        Academic Building

        Department of Civil Engineering-

        5 teachers cabins

        Administrative

        Building

        Administrative building 1 (Dean

        academic)

        Boys Hostel

        5 Rooms from hostel 8

        Girls hostel

        5 rooms from hostel MSH

        Residential building

        type B

        5 quarters form B

        Residential building

        type C

        5 quarters from C

        Residential building

        type D

        5 quarters from D

        Residential building

        type F

        5 quarters from F

        Residential building

        type H

        5 quarters from H

        Rajkiya uccha

        prathmic vidyalaya

        Rajkiya uccha prathmic vidyalaya

        Temple

        Temple

        Guest house

        Guest house 1

        Figure 6 – Sampling area

    2. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

      Evaluation of current status

      • Population Data

        Population of the entire study area has been calculated and results correlating to the population have been explained in further section. Total population of MNIT fraternity was 2681.

        Name of building

        Population

        Quarters

        441

        Hostels

        1680

        Academic building

        220

        • Sampling Methodology

          The methodology of sampling varies according to the sampling stations which further depend on the area of study. Sample data collected consecutively for a period of 7 days which further be extrapolated to find out total waste generation from that particular zone. Dustbins/plastics bags provided to the concerned residents and asked to discharge their dry and wet wastages separately. The collection and

          Table 2 Population data of MNIT campus

          Administrative section

          52

          School

          196

          Married scholars

          21

          Estate section

          41

          Central library

          10

          Caretaker office

          20

          Total Waste Generated from MNIT Fraternity

          The total amount of waste generated from each building is calculated, and amount of waste generated depends directly on the population of that building. The total amount of waste generated from the entire institute per week was around 5394.26 Kg/wk which is equivalent to 5.4 tons.

          Total Waste Generated from different Buildings of MNIT Fraternity

          Figure 7 Quantity of Waste from each Building

          From the figure 7 it was observed that maximum contribution of the waste was from boys hostel which was 63.54% (3427.57 Kg/wk). It was because of maximum number of students. Rest contributed by academic building, administration building, girls hostel, guest house, MSH, quarters, school and temple which is 37.46% (1966.69 Kg/wk).

          Different type of Waste Generated from MNIT Fraternity

          Different types of waste, their amount and percentage from total waste is calculated. Type of waste and percentages of waste generated from the MNIT fraternity is shown below in figure 8.

          Figure 8 Quantity of Waste generated against each type of Waste

          From the analysis, it was found that amount of organic fraction was maximum which was 78.88% of the total waste (4254.73 Kg/wk) and the remaining 21.12% of the total waste (1139.54 Kg/wk) includes dry waste: cardboard, clothes, glass, leather, metal, paper, pebbles/sand, plastic, thermocol and wood.

          Total Organic Waste Generated from MNIT Fraternity

          Figure 9 shows amount of total organic fraction from different type of buildings.

          Figure 9 Quantity of Organic Waste against each type of Building

          Organic waste included cooked waste, vegetable waste and garden trimming. Total organic waste generated was from boys hostel, girls hostel, guest house, married student hostel, quarters, school and temple and was 78.88% (4254.75 Kg/wk) of the total waste generated from MNIT Fraternity.

          From the figures 9 it was observed that maximum amount of organic waste was generated from boys hostel which was 64.36% (2738.38 Kg/wk) because the population of the boys hostel was too high. Rest of the organic fraction was contributed by girls hostels, guest house, MSH, quarters, school and temple which was 35.64% (1516.37 Kg/wk). Generation of organic waste from girls hostels, MSH and

          quarters was due to cooking practices at regular basis while Generation of organic waste from guest house was due to the garden trimming not due to cooking practices. Generation of organic waste from temple was because of the offering flowers to god by priest and devotees.

          Total Dry Waste Generated from MNIT Fraternity

          Dry waste component includes cardboard, clothes, glass, leather, metal, paper, pebbles/sand, plastic, thermocol and wood.

          Figure 10 Quantity of Dry Waste against each type of Waste

          From the figures 10 it was observed that among all the dry waste components paper was the major components which was 10.28% (554.49 Kg/wk). Rest of the dry waste was contributed by cardboard, clothes, glass, leather, metal, paper, pebbles/sand, plastic, thermocol and wood which was 10.85% (585.05 Kg/wk) of the total dry waste.

    3. CONCLUSIONS

      Current status of MNIT Jaipur

          • It is observed that the population in the hostels and quarters are higher when compared to rest of the buildings in the institute as shown below Hostels>Quarters>Academic Building> School> Administrative Building>Estate section > Married scholars> Caretaker office> Central library.

          • There is no sufficient number of dustbins present in the campus as per the amount of waste generated and no proper arrangement of dustbins in academic building.

          • Dustbins are not provided on the roadside which is very essential; due to it students throw the waste such as rappers, used packets of lassie, chach, kurkure, chips etc.

          • Segregation of waste is not done at source level.

          • It is observed that waste generated at MNIT campus is dumped inside the campus.

            Waste characterization data

          • Total waste generated from MNIT campus is 5.4 tons/wk. Waste generation data is as follows

            Boys Hostel>Quarters>Girls Hostel>Academic Building>Married Scholars Hostel > Guest House>School>Administrative Block>Temple.

          • Increasing order of % of total waste

            Organic waste> Paper> Cardboard> lass> Pebble/sand> Metal>Textile>Wood>Thermocol.

          • The amount of waste generated from hostels is in the following increasing order

            Hostel No.-7> Girls Hostel No.-1> Hostel No.-6> Hostel No.-3> Hostel No-2> Hostel No-5> Hostel No.-1> Hostel No.-4> New Boys Hostel> Hostel No.-1=Ganga> Girls Hostel No.-2.

          • The increasing order of municipal solid waste disposed from the faculty quarters is as follows Type D>Type F>Type H>Type B>Type C.

          • The type of waste generated from the Academic and Administrative buildings are of recyclable nature.

          • Academic building

            Paper>Cardboard>Pebble/sand>Plastic.

          • Administrative building Paper>Cardboard>Plastic>Pebble/sand>Therm ocol.

          • Waste generation from married scholars building is similar to other residential quarters and the as follows

            Organic waste> Plastic> Paper> Cardboard> Pebble/sand> Metal.

          • Waste generation from school (Rajkiya uccha prathkmic vidyalaya) is less when compared to other buildings. The waste generated from school is as follows

            Pebble/Sand>Paper>Organic fraction> Plastic> Cardboard> Thermocol.

          • Waste generated from Guest house varies according to number of guests present at that time. Waste generated from guest house is as follows

            Organic fraction> paper> Thermocol> Plastic> Pebble/Sand>Textile>Glass.

          • Waste generated from temple also varies according to days, as on Monday waste generation is more compared to other days.

      Organic fraction> Cardboard> Pebble/Sand> Paper>Plastic.

    4. REFERENCES

  1. Alamgir, M., McDonald, C., Roehi, K.E., Ahsan, A., Integrated management and safe disposal of MSW in least developed Asian countries-a feasibility study, Waste Safe

    Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Asia Pro Eco Programme of the European Commission, 2005.

  2. Al-Momani, A.H., Solid waste management: sampling, analysis and assessment of household waste in the city of Amman International Journal of Environmental Health Research 1994, 4, 208-22.

  3. Batool, S.A., Chuadhry, M.N., The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan Waste Management 2009, 29, 63-69.

  4. Beigl, P., Lebersorger, S., Salhofer, S., Modeling municipal solid waste generation: a review Waste Management, 2008, 28, 200-14.

  5. Bhatia, S.C., Solid and hazardous waste Delhi: Atlantic Publishers/Nice Printing Press, 2007.

  6. Buenrostro, O., Bocco, G., Solid waste management in municipalities in Mexico: goals and perspectives Resources Conservation & Recycling, 2003, 39, 251-63.

  7. Burnley, S.J., Ellis, J.C., Flowerdew, R., Poll, A.J. Prosser, H., Assessing the composition of municipal solid waste in Wales Resources Conservation and Recycling, 2007, 49, 264-283.

  8. Chanakya, H.N., Ramachandra, T.V., Vijayachamundeeswar, M., Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2007, 135, 119-27.

  9. Chiemchaisri, C., Juanga, J.P., Visvanathan, C., Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2007, 135, 13-20.

  10. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Management of municipal solid waste New Delhi, India: Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2000.

  11. CPCB Status of solid waste generation, collection, treatment and disposal in metro cities Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, 1999.

  12. CPCB Management of municipal solid waste Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, 2000.

  13. CPCB Management of Municipal Solid Waste Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India, 2000a.

  14. CPCB-Publication Manual for municipal solid waste Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, 2003.

  15. CPCB Management of Municipal Solid Waste Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India, 2004.

  16. Diaz, L.F., Savage G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Composting and recycling municipal solid waste USA: Cal Recovery, Inc. 1993.

  17. Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Managing solid wastes in developing countries Waste Management, 1997, 43, 5.

  18. Dutta, D. Pondy faces garbage problem New Sunday Express 2008, 9(43), 6.

  19. Grossmann, D., Hudson, J.F., Marks, D.H., Waste generation models for solid waste collection Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1974, 100, 1219-30.

  20. Jackson M. Soil chemical analysis. London: Constable; 1982.

  21. Jin, J., Wang, Z., Ran, S., Solid waste management in Macao: practices and challenges Waste Management, 2006, 26, 10451051.

  22. Kumar, S., Bhattacharyya, J.K., Vaidya, A.N., Chakrabarti, T., Devotta, S., Akolkar, A.B., Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India An insight. Waste Management, 2009, (29), 883-95.

  23. Medina, M., The effect of income on municipal solid waste generation rates for countries of varying levels of economic development a model. Journal of Resource Management and Technology, 1997, (24), 149-55.

  24. MoEF Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, 2000.

  25. NEERI Strategy paper on SWM in India. Nagpur National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, 1995.

  26. NEERI Report Assessment of status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities and class II towns, 2005.

  27. Nilanthi, J.G., Bandara, J., Patrick, J., Hettiaratchi, A., Wirasinghe, S.C., Pilapiiya, S., Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: a case study Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2007, (135), 319.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *