Routing Mechanisms to Reduce Delay in Mobile Ad hoc Networks: A Survey

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Routing Mechanisms to Reduce Delay in Mobile Ad hoc Networks: A Survey

Dr.Calduwel Newton P,

Depart ment of Co mputer Science, Bishop Heber College (Autonomous),

Trich irappalli, India .

Manikandan V,

Depart ment of Co mputer Science, Bishop Heber College (Autonomous),

Trich irappalli, India .

man icstrichy@gma m

Abstract-Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a self- configuring, dynamic, multi-hop and infrastructure less wireless network. Nowadays, MAN ET is used in various applications such as military, navy, multimedia, etc. The main challenge of MANET is to provide Quality of Service (QoS). This paper discusses various mechanisms to reduce the time delay when transferring the heterogeneous data from one node to another node. A survey is done on the existing techniques that reduce the time delay in MANET. This paper also discusses some familiar routing protocols for data transfer in MANET.

Keywords: MAN ET, Quality of Service, Delay, Routing Protocols


    Each device in MANET is free to move independently in any direction. Therefore , the path lin ks changes frequently. In MANET each node transfers the packet from one node to another node without base station control. Each node acts as a host and router. Node can be called as router in MANET. Each device is not depending on the base station or any centralizat ion. MANET cost is very low. It is a ma in advantage of MANET. It has some challenges to provide QoS to the user. Oscan be varied from one application to another. Applications like file transfer and authentication services require high reliability. But other applications like audio, video will require low re liab ility and high speed. QoS para meter can be classified into two types, namely Qualitative QoS parameter and Quantitative QoS para meter.

    • Qualitative is non-measurable para meters which includes security, reliability, manageability, etc.

    • Quantitative is measurable parameters like delay, jitter and bandwidth.

    1. Types of MANET

      • In VANETs Intelligent Vehicu lar Ad hoc Networks make use of artific ial intelligence to tackle unexpected situations like vehicle collision and accidents.

      • Vehicula r Ad hoc Networks (VA NETs) Enables effective co mmunication with another vehicle or helps to communicate with roadside equip ment.

      • Internet Based Mobile Ad hoc Networks (iMANET) helps to lin k fixed as well as mobile nodes.

        Fig 1. MANET presentation

    2. Important Characteristics of MANET

      • In MANET, each node acts as both host and router. Therefore, node can be called as router also.

      • It is mult i-hop wire less network.

      • A base station or centralized firewa ll is absent here.

      • The nodes can join or leave the network anytime, ma king the network topology dynamic in nature.

      • Mobile nodes are characterized with less me mo ry, power and require fewe r resources.

      • MANET has limitations in speed, reliability, efficiency, stability and capacity of wire less lin ks when compa red with wired network

    3. Delays in MANET

      Delay is the main challenge for MANET in providing Qualitative QoS. The user will be looking for high speed connection low cost, security etc. MANET has more limitation on speed. Finding the best route is the important factor to reduce the time delay. Frequently used router is increase delay of the data transfer. Various protocols are used for best route discovery.

    4. Table-Driven (Proactive) Routing

      This type of protocol maintains the route between the nodes by periodically distributing routing table through the network.

      The disadvantage of this protocol is slow reaction on restructuring and failures. Proactive algorithms are Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Babel, etc.

    5. On-Demand (Reactive) Routing

      The protocol finds a route when only needed by broadcast the Route Request packet through the network.

      The disadvantage of this protocol is high latency time when finding route. Reactive a lgorith ms are Ad hoc On-De mand Distance Vector (AODV), Dyna mic Source Routing (DSR), Fast Super Decoupled State (FSDSR) estimator in Rectangular, etc.

    6. Hybrid (Both Proactive And Reactive) Routing

      The protocol combines the advantages of proactive and reactive routing algorithms. The route is init ially established with some proactively prospected routes . It serves the demand fro m additionally activated nodes through reactive flooding.

      Disadvantage is reaction to traffic de mand depends on gradient of traffic volu me. Hybrid algorith ms are Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP). In ZRP, IARP acts as proactive and IERP acts as reactive component.

    7. Hierarchical Routing Protocols

    The protocols the choice of proactive and of reactive routing depends on the hierarchic level in which a node resides.

    Disadvantage of this protocol is reaction to traffic demand depends on meshing parameter. Hierarch ical routing algorith ms are Cluster-Based Routing Protocol (CBRP), Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR), etc.


    YuvrajKumbhare y, et al.,[1] d iscussed to reduce the traffic during route discovery by clustering nodes into groups. The advantage of this paper is reducing the routing overhead and to improve the route discovery by RCBRP a lgorith m that is integrating the inter-c luster on-demand and intra-cluster table driven routing.

    Iftikhar Ahmad, e t al.,[2] described AODV routing protocol provide guarantee for real time traffic in MANET. It imp roves the route discovery mechanis m for AODV routing protocol and the transmission ratio for real time data. Therefore, the transmission delay will be low and throughput will be high. But, it has some limitation because if nu mber of nodes high then the calculation value of the transmission ratio R will be difficult.

    Mamoun Hussein Mamoun, et al.,[3] presented an effective route selection technique using DSR routing protocol for MANET. The goal of paper is minimize the cached route request (RREQ) for the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. Best routing paths are selected to rebroadcast of route discovery packets. The research concentrates on link strength, node energy and number of hops. The limitat ion is that the mechanism will be difficult unless more nu mber of nodes should be perfect.

    P.Cal duwel Ne wton, e t al.,[4] presented A Quality of Se rvice Performance Evaluation Strategy for De lay Class in General Packet Radio Serv ice. It evaluates the performance of data transfer with respect to delay. These techniques are used to understand and analyze the problem. And also used for identify the misbehaving nodes and they are corrected. The limitations that the outcomes of the analysis are theoretical, not imp le mented.

    Rajkumar G, e t al., [5] e xp la ined to reduce the time delay in MA NET using Imp roved Fault Tole rant

    Multipath Routing (IFTM R). Using IFTMR establish a path that is based on the node strength and battery power. Node strength is identified by successful transmitting node and the threshold value. It works effectively only when mult iple intermediate node fails but not suitable for sma ll nu mber of fa ilures.

    Yuche n Fu, et al.,[6] imple mented Research of QoS Routing Algorith m in Ad Hoc Networks Based on Reinforce ment Learn ing. It estimates the link quality between the nodes and chooss the best path for transferring the data between the nodes using SNLQ routing algorith m with re inforce ment learning. Overload will occur on part icular one route because, this algorithm selects only high quality route. Therefore, more transaction has been done through that the route.

    Kumar Prateek[7] discussed proactive and reactive routing algorithms and evaluates these protocols performances such as DSDV, AODV and DSR.

    In DSDV each mob ile station ma intains a routing table. When the data is transfer, the sequence number is assigned to the intermediate nodes by the destination node. The nodes periodically update their routing table to the neighbor node. However, ma intenance of DSDV will be overload.

    In AODV to find a path to the destination, source node broadcast the Route Request (RREQ) to its neighbors. RREQ broadcasts only when needed. Destination node sends Route Response (RRES) to the source node through the reverse path of RREQ when RREQ find the destination. It is an On-demand routing protocol.

    In DSR protocol, each node maintains a route cache itself for route discovery process should rapidly and route maintenance. When source node wants to send a data to the destination, it in itia lly searches in route cache to determine if it a lready contain path to the destination. Therefore, the time to find the destination node will be reduced. If a path is not in route cache then the source node broadcast the RREQ to the neighbor nodes and then finds the destination that the path will be stored in route cache of source node.


    1. YuvrajKumbharey, SuweshShukla and SushilChaturvedi, Renovated Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET, International Journal of Advanced Computer Reasearch, Vol.3, No.1, pp.206-210, March 2013.

    2. Iftikhar Ahmad, HumairaJabeen and Faisal Riaz, Improved Quality of Service Protocol For Real Time Traffic in MANET , International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, Vol.5, No.4, pp. 75-85, July 2013.

    3. Mamoun Hussein Mamoun, A Proposed Route Selection Technique in DSR Routing Protocol for MANET, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 10-13, April 2011.

    4. P.Calduwel Newton and L.Arockiam, A Quality of Service Performance Evaluation Strategy for Delay Classes in General Packet Radio Service, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol.50, pp. 91-98, January 2013.

    5. Rajkumar G and Duraiswamy K, Time Delay Reduction in MANET s using Improved Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol, CARE Journal of Applied Research, 2012, pp. 22-24.

    6. Yuchen Fu and Quan Liu, Research of QoS Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks based on Reinforcement Learning, Elektronikairelektrotechnika, Vol.19, No.2, 2013, pp. 83-87.

    7. Kumar Prateek, MANET- Evaluation of DSDV, AODV and DSR Routing Protocol, International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and T echnology, Vol.2, pp. 99-104, February 2013.


This paper surveyed various routing mechanis ms that reduce the delay in MANET. However, reducing delay is a challenge and potential research proble m.

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