Role of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind Seed in Water Treatment

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Role of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind Seed in Water Treatment

Prof. T D Raju, Asst Prof. Ahana K Reji, Naji Raheem, Sruthi Sasikumar, Veena Vikraman, Shimil C P, Sneha K M

ILM College of Engineering and Technology, Methala, Perumbavoor

Abstract Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives it. When humans drink polluted water it often has serious effects on their health. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. Purifying water may reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. Commonly the chemical coagulants such as salts of iron and aluminium are used. In this widely used coagulant is aluminium sulphate. Shortly known as Alum, when added to raw water reacts with the bicarbonate alkalinities present in water and forms a gelatinous precipitate. This floc attracts other fine particles and suspended material in raw water, and settles down at the bottom of the container. But this process is costly and also over dosage causes harmful effects on human being. Inorder to overcome these limitations, natural coagulants such as moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder are used. In this present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of chemical coagulant Alum with Natural Coagulant such as Moringa Oleifera and tamarind seed powder. The maximum turbidity reduction of alum, moringa oleifera, tamarind and combined use of moringa oleifera tamarind seed were found as 97.5%, 98.12%, 98.12% and 98.75% with optimum dosage of 300, 250, 300 and 250mg/l. The pH, alkalinity, acidity and total chlorides was determined in treated sample of coagulants and maximum reduction effiieny was found in the combined use of moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder. The Utilisation of locally available natural coagulant was found to be suitable, easier, cost effective and environment friendly for water treatment.

Index Terms Waste Water, Chemical Coagulants, Natural Coagulants

  1. INTRODUCTION

    1. General

      Water is the driving force of all nature. Water is vital to life and development in all parts of the world.The availability of a water supply adequate in terms of both quantity and quality is essential to human existence.Civilization developed around water bodies that could support agriculture and transportation as well as provide drinking water. Recognition of the importance of water quality developed more slowly. Early humans could judge water quality through physical senses of sight ,taste and smell. Not until the biological, chemical and medical sciences developed were methods available to measure water quality and determine its effects on human health and well-being.

      Water pollution is the presence of some inorganic, organic, biological, radiological or physical foreign substance in the water that tends to degrade its quality. Normally, water is

      never pure in a chemical senses. It contains impurities of various kinds dissolved as well as suspended. The polluted water is turbid, unpleasant, bad smelling, unfit for drinking, bath and washing and incompatible in supporting life. Water pollution is also caused by the presence of undesirable and hazardous

      materials and pathogens beyond certain limits. Much of the pollution is due to anthropogenic activities like discharge of sewage, effluence and wastes from domestic and industrial establishments, particulate matter and metals and their compounds due to mining and metallurgy and fertilizer and pesticide runoffs from agricultural activities.

      Waste water need to be treated. Commonly the chemical coagulants such as salts of iron and aluminium are used. In this widely used coagulant is aluminium sulphate shortly known as Alum, when added to raw water reacts with the bicarbonate alkalinities present in water and forms a gelatinous precipitate. This floc attracts other fine particles and suspended material in raw water, and settles down at the bottom of the container. But this process is costly and also over dosage causes harmful effects on human being. Inorder to overcome these limitations, natural coagulants such as moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder are used. The use of Moringa and tamarind seeds have an added advantage over the chemical treatment of water because it is biological and has been reported as edible, ecofriendly, economical and locally available.

    2. Scope

      Modern waste water treatment process is aiming at incorporating cost effective, economic, natural and simple. In conventional water treatment, coagulation is achieved using chemical coagulants such as aluminum sulphate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride, etc. While the effectiveness of these coagulants is well-recognized, nonetheless, their application in water treatment is becoming unsuitable owing to ineffectiveness in low temperature water, relatively high procurement costs, detrimental effects on human health, production of large sludge volumes and the fact that they significantly affect pH of treated water. Hence it is necessary to make an in depth study in the coagulating activity of these seeds substance of moringa oleifera and tamarind and to evaluate the optimum dosage for maximum turbidity removal and pH, Acidity, Alkalinity and chloride content reduction.

    3. Objectives

      • To characterise the collected water sample.

      • To use Moringa oleifera and Tamarind seed as a natural coagulant, an alternative to chemical coagulants.

      • To treat collected samples by Natural and Chemical coagulant.

      • To investigate the required dosage of moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder in same proportion needed in order to reduce turbidity of wastewater.

      • To study the coagulation efficiency of Natural and Chemical coagulants in the collected sample of water.

      • To make comparative study with conventional chemical coagulants.

    4. Materials

      1. Moringa Oleifera

        Fig.1 Moringa oleifera seed and powder

        Moringa oleifera seed powder as natural coagulant. Tree dried Moringa oleifera seeds are harvested when they were fully matured, wings and coat from seeds are removed fine powder was prepared and sieved.

      2. Tamarind Seed Powder

        Fig.2: Tamarind seed and Powder

        Tamarind seed kernel powder, discarded as agricultural waste, is an effective agent to make turbid municipal and industrial wastewater clear. The present practice is to use aluminium salt to treat such water. It has been found that alum increases toxic metals and ions in treated water and could cause diseases like the Alzheimer's. Kernel powder, compared to alum, is not-toxic and biodegradable.

      3. Alum

      Fig. 3 Alum

      Aluminium Sulphate, shortly known as Alum, when added to raw water reacts with the bicarbonate alkalinities present in water and forms a gelatinous precipitate. This floc attracts other fine particles and suspended material in raw water and settles down at the bottom of the container.

    5. Methodology

    Fig.4 Flow Chart of Methodology

  2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

  1. Sample Analysis before Treatment

    The raw waste water sample were analyzed by various physical parameters such as turbidity, pH, acidity, alkalinity and chemical parameters such as chloride content etc

    Fig.5: Water Sample before Treatment

  2. Experimental Procedure

Fig.6: Treatmen Plant

In this experiment natural coagulants such as moringa oliefera seed powder and tamarind seed powder separately, mixture of both seeds in equal proportions and conventional coagulant as alum were used to treat the samples and the process parameters such as pH, turbidity, acidity, alkalinity and chloride content were determined. A conventional treatment plant was used to carry out the batch coagulation process for the treatment of water samples. It accommodates an overhead tank, flocculation tank, sedimentation tank and collecting tank. 15 liter of sample was taken to which varying amount of 100mg/l, 150mg/l, 200mg/l, 250mg/l, 300mg/l and 350mg/l coagulant dosage was added to the flocculation tank followed by variation in pH and settling time were done. Then the apparatus was switched on and the speed of paddles were rotated and thus rapid mixing of about 1 – 2 minutes was done. After rapid mixing, the speeds of paddles were reduced to about 100rpm followed by mixing for 60 minutes. After mixing, the apparatus was switched off and the samples were allowed to settle for 10 –

60 minutes. The treated samples were then analyzed for alkalinity and turbidity level with respect to the effect of varying parameters and the removal efficiencies were obtained.

Table 1: Optimum dosage of Moringa Oleifera

Sl.no

Coagulant Dosage

Turbidity in NTU

2

150

11

3

200

6

4

250

4

5

300

13

6

350

15

1

100

17

Fig 8: Graph of Optimum dosage of Moringa olifera

Optimum Dosage of Tamarind seed Table 2: Optimum Dosage of Tamarind seed

III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Optimum Dosage of Coagulant

    In this study, coagulation efficiency of moringa oleifera, tamarind seed and alum was determined. It was observed that turbidity of waste water decreases with increase of coagulant dosage.The optimum dosage was determined by using jar test. Jar test is simple experiment which will help in determining the optimum coagulant dose required.

    Fig.7: Jar test

    Optimum dosage of Moringa Oleifera

    Sl.no

    Coagulant Dosage

    Turbidity in NTU

    1

    100

    19

    2

    150

    12

    3

    200

    9

    4

    250

    9

    5

    300

    6

    6

    350

    14

    Fig.9: Graph of Optimum dosage of Tamarind seed Optimum Dosage of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed

    Table 3: Optimum Dosage of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed

    Sl.no

    Coagulant Dosage

    Turbidity in NTU

    1

    100

    11

    2

    150

    9

    3

    200

    6

    4

    250

    3

    5

    300

    5

    6

    350

    8

  2. Initial Parameters of Wastewater

    Table 5: Initial Parameters of Wastewater

    Sl.No

    Parameters

    Initial value

    1

    Odour

    Objectionable

    2

    Color

    Brownish

    3

    pH

    8.8

    4

    Turbidity

    320 NTU

    5

    Total Chlorides

    215 mg/l

    6

    Alkalinity

    245.50 mg/L

    7

    Acidity

    15 mg/L

  3. Final parameters of treated water

pH

Fig.10: Graph of Optimum dosage of Combined Use of Moringa oleifera and Tamarind seed

Optimum Dosage of Alum

Table 4: Optimum Dosage of Alum

Sl.no

Coagulant Dosage

Turbidity in NTU

1

100

21

2

150

16

3

200

13

4

250

8

5

300

5

6

350

14

Fig11: Graph of Optimum dosage of Alum

Table 6: Test results of pH after Treatment

Sl.No

Coagulant

Dosage(mg/L)

pH

1

Alum

100

7.7

150

7.6

200

7.5

250

7.3

300

7.3

350

7.2

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

7.6

150

7.6

200

7.5

250

7.3

300

7.2

350

7.2

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

7.6

150

7.5

200

7.4

250

7.3

300

7.2

350

7.2

4

Combined use of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed powder

100

7.3

150

7.3

200

7.2

250

7.2

300

7.1

350

7.1

Turbidity

Table 7: Test results of Turbidity after Treatment

Sl. No

Coagulant

Dosage(mg/L)

Turbidity ( NTU)

1

Alum

100

15

150

13

200

12

250

12

300

8

350

14

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

12

150

11

200

10

250

6

300

8

350

15

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

12

150

10

200

9

250

8

300

6

350

11

4

Combined use of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed powder

100

10

150

9

200

8

250

4

300

8

350

13

Alkalinity

Table 8: Test results of Alkalinity after Treatment

Sl. No

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Alkalinity (mg/L)

1

Alum

100

118.00

150

116.20

200

115.35

250

113.50

300

113.15

350

112.80

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

100.65

150

98.50

200

95.80

250

91.20

300

89.55

350

88.75

3

Tamarind seed

100

110.40

150

108.80

200

102.65

powder

250

99.50

300

98.35

350

97.05

4

Combined use of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind sreed powder

100

90.45

150

88.70

200

85.55

250

82.40

300

81.75

350

80.15

Total Chlorides

Table 9: Test results of Total Chlorides after Treatment

Sl.N

o

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Total Chlorides

(mg/L)

1

Alum

100

170

150

168

200

166

250

165

300

163

350

162

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

135

150

134

200

132

250

130

300

128

350

125

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

138

150

136

200

134

250

132

300

130

350

127

4

Combined use of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed powder

100

116

150

115

200

112

250

110

300

109

350

107

Acidity

Table 10: Analysis of Acidity after Treatment

Sl.N

o

Coagulant

Dosage(mg/L)

Acidity (mg/L)

1

Alum

100

8

150

7

200

6

250

6

300

5

350

4

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

7

150

7

200

5

250

4

300

4

350

3

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

7

150

6

200

6

250

5

300

4

350

4

4

Combined use of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind seed powder

100

6

150

5

200

4

250

4

300

3

350

3

IV COMPARATIVE STUDY

From the results obtained, it was observed that the combined use of Moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder were determined as the most effective natural coagulant among the use of natural coagulants independently and also when compared to the use of alum solution.The combined use of Moringa and tamarind was found to produce an equal and better results. It can be observed that Moringa oleifera and tamarind shows high turbidity removal efficiency when compared to the conventional coagulant as alum, in which both alum and natural coagulant were observed to play an equal role in the water treatment process. The comparative efficiencies of alum and Moringa oleifera, tamarind seed and combined use of moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder were represented in the following tables and figures.

Fig.12: Water Samples After Treatment with Coagulants

pH Reduction Efficiencies of Coagulants

Table 11:pH Reduction Efficiencies of Coagulants

4

Combi-ned use of coagu- lant

100

8.8

7.3

17.0

150

8.8

7.3

17.0

200

8.8

7.2

18.18

250

8.8

7.2

18.18

300

8.8

7.1

19.31

350

8.8

7.1

19.31

Fig 13: Graph of pH Reduction Efficiency Vs Coagulant dosages

Turbidity removal efficiencies of coagulants

Sl. No

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Initial Turbidity

Final Turbidity

Removal Efficiency

%

1

Alum

100

320

15

95.3

150

320

13

95.93

200

320

12

96.25

250

320

12

96.25

300

320

8

97.5

350

320

14

95.62

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

320

12

96.25

150

320

11

96.56

200

320

10

96.87

250

320

6

98.12

300

320

8

97.5

350

320

15

95.3

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

320

12

96.25

150

320

10

96.87

200

320

9

97.18

250

320

8

97.5

300

320

6

98.12

350

320

11

96.56

4

Combine d use of Natural Coagulant

100

320

10

96.87

150

320

9

97.81

200

320

8

97.5

250

320

4

98.75

300

320

8

97.5

350

320

13

95.53

Table 12: Turbidity removal efficiencies of coagulants

Sl. no

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Initial pH

Final pH

Reduction Efficiency

%

1

Alum

100

8.8

7.7

12.5

150

8.8

7.6

13.6

200

8.8

7.5

14.7

250

8.8

7.3

17.04

300

8.8

7.3

17.04

350

8.8

7.2

18.18

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

8.8

7.6

13.6

150

8.8

7.6

13.6

200

8.8

7.5

14.7

250

8.8

7.3

17.0

300

8.8

7.2

18.18

350

8.8

7.2

18.18

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

8.8

7.6

13.6

150

8.8

7.5

14.7

200

8.8

7.4

15.9

250

8.8

7.3

17.0

300

8.8

7.2

18.18

350

8.8

7.2

18.18

Fig 14: Graph of Turbidity Removal Efficiency Vs Coagulant dosages

Alkalinity reduction efficiencies of coagulants

Table 13: Alkalinity reduction efficiencies of coagulants

Fig.15: Graph of Alkalinity Reduction Efficiency vs Coagulant dosages

Sl. No

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Initial Chloride

(mg/l)

Final Chloride

(mg/l)

Reduction Efficiency

%

1

Alum

100

215

170

20.93

150

215

168

21.86

200

215

166

22.79

250

215

165

23.25

300

215

163

24.18

350

215

162

24.65

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

215

135

37.20

150

215

134

37.67

200

215

132

38.60

250

215

130

39.53

300

215

128

40.46

350

215

125

41.86

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

215

138

35.81

150

215

136

36.74

200

215

134

37.67

250

215

132

38.60

300

215

130

39.53

350

215

127

40.53

4

Combined use of Natural Coagulant

100

215

116

46.04

150

215

115

46.51

200

215

112

47.90

250

215

110

48.83

300

215

109

49.30

350

215

107

50.23

Chloride reduction efficiencies of coagulants Table 14: Chloride reduction efficiencies of coagulants

Sl. No

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Initial

Alkalinity (mg/l)

Final

Alkalinity (mg/l)

Reduction Efficiency

%

1

Alum

100

245.50

118.00

51.93

150

245.50

116.20

52.66

200

245.50

115.35

53.01

250

245.50

113.50

53.76

300

245.50

113.15

53.91

350

245.50

112.80

54.05

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

245.50

100.65

59.0

150

245.50

98.50

59.87

200

245.50

95.80

60.97

250

245.50

91.20

62.87

300

245.50

89.55

63.52

350

245.50

88.75

63.84

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

245.50

110.40

55.03

150

245.50

108.80

55.68

200

245.50

102.65

58.30

250

245.50

99.50

59.47

300

245.50

98.35

59.93

350

245.50

97.05

60.46

4

Combined use of Natural Coagulant

100

245.50

90.45

63.15

150

245.50

88.70

63.86

200

245.50

85.55

65.15

250

245.50

82.40

66.59

300

245.50

81.75

66.7

350

245.50

80.15

67.35

Fig 16: Graph of Chloride Reduction Efficiency vs Coagulant dosages

Sl. no

Coagulant

Dosage (mg/L)

Initial Acidity

(mg/l)

Final Acidity

(mg/l)

Reduction Efficiency

%

1

Alum

100

15

8

46.66

150

15

7

53.33

200

15

6

60.0

250

15

6

60.0

300

15

5

66.66

350

15

4

73.33

2

Moringa Oleifera

100

15

7

53.33

150

15

7

53.33

200

15

5

66.66

250

15

4

73.33

300

15

4

73.33

350

15

3

80.0

3

Tamarind seed powder

100

15

7

53.33

150

15

6

60.0

200

15

6

60.0

250

15

5

66.66

300

15

4

73.33

350

15

4

73.33

4

Combined use of Natural Coagulant

100

15

6

60.0

150

15

5

66.66

200

15

4

73.33

250

15

4

73.33

300

15

3

80.0

350

15

3

80.0

Acidity reduction efficiencies of coagulants Table 15: Acidity reduction efficiencies of coagulants

Fig 17: Graph of Acidity Reduction Efficiency Vs Coagulant dosage

V CONCLUSION

Water is the most vital parameter among the natural resources. Turbidity Imparts enormous problem in wastewater treatment. In this present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of chemical coagulant Alum with Natural Coagulant such as Moringa Oleifera and tamarind seed powder. The maximum turbidity reduction of alum, moringa oleifera, tamarind and combined use of moringa oleifera tamarind seed were found as 97.5%, 98.12%, 98.12% and 98.75% with optimum dosage of 300, 250, 300 and 250mg/l. The pH, alkalinity, acidity and total chlorides was determined in treated sample of coagulants and maximum reduction effiieny was found in the combined use of moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder.

The Utilisation of locally available natural coagulant was found to be suitable, easier, cost effective and environment friendly for water treatment.

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