Reuse of Plastic Waste in Paver Blocks

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Reuse of Plastic Waste in Paver Blocks

B. Shanmugavalli*1,

1Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, Virudhunagar

K.Gowtham2, P. Jeba Nalwin2,

B. Eswara Moorthy2

2UG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology,

Virudhunagar

Abstract The aim of this project is to replace cement with plastic waste in paver block and to reduce the cost of paver block when compared to that of convention concrete paver blocks. At present nearly 56 lakhs tones of plastic waste is produced in India per year. The degradation rate of plastic waste is also a very slow process. Hence the project is helpful in reducing plastic waste in a useful way. In this project we have used plastic waste in different proportions with quarry dust, coarse aggregate and ceramic waste. The paver blocks were prepared and tested and the results were discussed.

Keywords P aver block, P lastic waste, C eramic waste

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Paver block paving is versatile, aesthetically attractive, functional, and cost effective and requires little or no maintenance if correctly manufactured and laid. Most concrete block paving constructed in India also has performed satisfactorily but two main areas of concern are occasional failure due to excessive surface wear, and variability in the strength of block. Natural resources are depleting worldwide at the same time the generated wastes from the industry and residential area are increasing substantially. The sustainable development for construction involves the use of Non- conventional and innovative materials, and recycling of waste materials in order to compensate the lack of natural resources and to find alternative ways conserving the environment.

    Plastic waste used in this work was brought from the surrounding areas. Currently about 56 lakh tonnes of plastic waste dumped in India in a year. The dumped waste pollutes the surrounding environment. As the result it affects both human beings and animals in direct and indirect ways. Hence it necessary to dispose the plastic waste properly as per the regulations provided by our government. The replacement of plastic waste for cement provides potential environmental as well as economic benefits.

    With the view to investigate the behaviour of quarry rock dust, recycled plastic, production of plastic paver block from the solid waste a critical review of literature was taken up. An attempt was made by Nivetha C et.al1 to reuse the solid waste quarry dust fly-ash and PET with an aim not to lose the strength far from original Paver blocks. From the observations of test results, PET can be reused with 50% of quarry dust and 25 % of fly-ash in Plastic Paver block. The physical and mechanical properties of materials used in Plastic Paver block were investigated. For the test 6 cubes cube were cast for measuring Compressive strength. Satish Parihar et.al2 used recycled plastic aggregate in various proportions in concrete mix and check there stability. Amount

    of waste plastic being accumulated in 21st centuries has created big challenges for their disposal, thus obliging the authorities to invest in felicitating the use of waste plastic coarse aggregate in a concrete is fundamental to the booming construction industry. Three replacement levels of 10 %, 20

    %, 30 by weight of aggregates were used for the preparation of the concrete. Poonam Sharma3 et. al. discussed about cement concrete paver blocks for rural roads. The study of Joel Santhosh and Ravikant Talluri4 indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

      1. Properties of Materials Plastic waste (LDPE)

        Plastic waste used in making paver block was collected from the surrounding locality LDPE is indicated by resin number 4. It includes plastic bags. The plastic bag used is of about 50 microns. The basic properties are provided below.

        Table I. PROPERTIES OF LDPE

        Sl.No.

        Particulars

        Value

        1

        Melting point

        150

        2

        Thermal co efficient of

        expansion

        100-200X10-6

        3

        Density

        0.910-0.940

        4

        Tensile strength

        0.20-0.40(N/mm2 )

        Quarry dust

        Crushed sand less than 4.75 mm is produced from rock using state of crushing plants. Production of quarry fines is a consequence of extraction and processing in a quarry and collected from the near-by quarry.

        Table II. PROPERTIES OF QUARRY DUST

        Sl.No.

        Description

        Value

        1

        Specific gravity

        2.62

        2

        Grading zone

        Zone II of soil

        3

        Fineness modulus

        2.952

        4

        Water absorption

        1.80

        Coarse Aggregate

        Locally available coarse aggregates were used in this work. Aggregates passing through 12mm sieve and retained on 10mm sieve were sieved and tested as per Indian standard specification IS:383-1970

        Ceramic Waste

        The principle waste coming from the ceramic industry is the ceramic waste. The disposal of these waste require large area. It is very difficult to find a use of ceramic waste produced.

        TABLE III. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CERAMIC WASTE

        Oxides

        %

        Si O2

        63.29

        AI2 O3

        18.29

        Fe2 O3

        4.32

        Ca O

        4.46

        Mg O

        0.72

        P2 O5

        0.16

      2. Mix Ratio

    Block type1- Three paver blocks were casted using mix ratio provided below

    Plastic waste = 1 Quarry dust = 0.75 Aggregate= 0.75

    Block type 2 – Three paver blocks were casted using mix ratio provided below

    Plastic waste = 1 Quarry dust= 1.5

    Aggregate = 2 Ceramic waste = 0.75

    Block type 3 – Three paver blocks were casted using mix ratio provided below

    Plastic waste=1 Quarry dust= 1.5

    Gravel = 2

    Ceramic waste = 0.75

    2.4 Testing of Specimens

    Compressive strength for paver blocks

    Plastic paver blocks of size 215X115X6mm were casted. The maximum load at failure reading was taken and the average compressive strength is calculated using the following equation.

    Compressive strength (N/mm2) = (Ultimate load in N / Area of cross section (mm2))

      1. Preparation of Test Specimens

        Plastic wastes are heated in a metal bucket at a temp of above 150. As a result of heating the plastic waste melt. The materials quarry dust, aggregate and other materials as described in previous chapter are added to it in right

        Oven test

        Fig 3 Experimental Setup for Compression test

        proportion at molten state of plastic and well mixed. The metal mould is cleaned through at using waste cloth. Now this mixture is transferred to the mould. It will be in hot condition and compact it well to reduce internal pores present in it. Then the blocks are allowed to dry for 24 hours so that they harden. After drying the paver block is removed from the moulds and reay for the use.

        Fig 1 Heating and Adding

        Fig 2 Casting and Drying

        As the paver block is made of plastic we need to know its melting point hence over test is performed. The paver block is kept in oven for 2houes in oven and after 2 hours its condition is verified.

  3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength

    Table IV. COMPRESSION STRENGTH RESULT FOR BLOCK TYPE I

    Proportion name

    Plastic waste

    Quarry dust

    C. A.

    Compressive stress (N/mm²)

    PPB-1

    1

    0.75

    0.75

    8.45

    PPB-2

    1

    0.75

    0.75

    9.67

    PPB-2

    1

    0.75

    0.75

    9.89

    Avg

    9.33

    Table V. COMPRESSION STRENGTH RESULT FOR BLOCK TYPE II

    Specimen

    Plastic waste

    Quarry dust

    C. A.

    Cerami c waste

    Compres sive stress (N/mm²)

    PPB-1

    1

    1

    2

    0.75

    10.34

    PPB-2

    1

    1

    2

    0.75

    11.21

    PPB-3

    1

    1

    2

    0.75

    9.67

    Avg

    10.40

    Table VI. COMPRESSION STRENGTH RESULT FOR BLOCK TYPE III

    Specimen

    Plastic waste

    Quarry dust

    C. A.

    Ceramic waste

    Compressive stress (N/mm²)

    PPB-1

    1

    1.5

    2

    0.75

    12.17

    PPB-2

    1

    1.5

    2

    0.75

    13.50

    PPB-3

    1

    1.5

    2

    0.75

    13.43

    Avg

    13.03

    Fig 4 Comparison of Compressive Strength of Blocks

    Oven Test Result

    Since the paver block is made of plastic it is required to know its heat resistance. Hence plastic paver block is placed in oven for 2 hours.

    Specimens

    Temperature

    (ºC )

    Remarks

    SPECIMEN I

    50

    no change

    100

    no change

    150

    Melts

    SPECIMEN II

    50

    no change

    100

    no change

    150

    Melts

    SPECIMEN III

    50

    no change

    100

    no change

    150

    Melts

    Table VII. OVEN TEST RESULT

  4. CONCLUSION

The following conclusions were drawn from the experimental investigation

      • The utilization of waste plastic in production of paver block has productive way of disposal of plastic waste.

      • The cost of paver block is reduced when compared to that of concrete paver block.

      • Paver block made using plastic waste, quarry dust, coarse aggregate and ceramic waste have shown better result.

      • It also shows good heat resistance.

      • Though the compressive strength is low when compared to the concrete paver block it can be used in gardens, pedestrian path and cycle way etc.

      • It can be used in Non-traffic and light traffic road.

REFERENCES

  1. Nivetha, C. Rubiya, M. Shobana, S. Vaijayanathi, G. (2016). Production of Plastic Paver Block from the Solid Waste. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. 11(2).

  2. Ganesh Tapkire. Satish Parihar. Pramod Patil. Hemra, R. Kumavat. (2014). Recycled Plastic used in Concrete Paver Block. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3(09).

  3. Poonam Sharma. Ramesh kumar Batra. (2016). Cement Concrete Paver Blocks for Rural Roads. International Journal of Current Engineering and Scientific Research, 3(1), 114-121.

  4. Joel Santhosh. Ravikant Talluri. (2015). Manufacture of Interlocking Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 6(4), 55-64.

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