Research on Design of Traffic Signals At Non-Signalized Intersections in Lucknow City

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Research on Design of Traffic Signals At Non-Signalized Intersections in Lucknow City

Pranav Kumar Pal

  1. tech Scholar, Transportation Engineering Babu Banarasi Das University Lucknow, India

    Kamal Nabh Tripathi

    HOD-In Charge and Asst. Prof Department of Civil Engineering

    Babu Banarasi Das University Lucknow, India

    Abstract:- In India growth of population plays an important role to increase the congestion at intersection because every person used separate vehicle for movement due to this reason traffic become out of control and create problem like accident, jam at the intersection. As we know every day many people die in road accidents due to lack of traffic control system because all intersections are not well signalized. So, it is not possible to control the movement of vehicles by traffic police due to increase in number of vehicles at intersection. Therefore, all intersections should be well signalized and traffic signals are specially designed for the emergency vehicles like Ambulance, Fire vehicles because emergency vehicles face delay at intersection when traffic at red light and it is very dangerous for our society. In this paper, Design of traffic signal is done with the help of the Indian Road Congress (IRC) and Websters method. Traffic signal is better option for the effective transportation. Traffic signal systems are used to control the flow of vehicles with the help of traffic lights, where many roads meet together and make junction. Traffic volume studies are used to laid down mainly how many vehicles are moving on the road at a particular section during a particular time. Traffic signal is the best way of control vehicle movement at intersections without any accidents and conflicts.

    Keywords- Traffic signal, Traffic volume, Traffic light, PCU, IRC.

    1.INTRODUCTION

    Traffic signals are one of the most effective and flexible active control of traffic and is widely used in several cities world-wide. Traffic signals are used to control the flow vehicles passing through the intersection. The first traffic signal is reported to have been used in London as early as in 1868 and used two lamps red and green to control the traffic for night use at intersection. Traffic signals are placed at intersection and crossing to give the instruction to driver for further movement. Now days traffic signal has three lights Red, Amber and Green. Red light indicates to vehicles driver to stop, amber light indicates to vehicles driver to slow down the vehicle for stop. Green light indicates to driver for go. There are six types of traffic signal used- Traffic Control Signals, Fixed Time Signals, manually operated signals, Traffic Actuated Signals, Pedestrian Signals, Special Traffic Signals. A modern traffic signal containing of three basic subsystems: the signal lights in their housing, the supporting arms or poles, and the electric controller. The signal lights and housing are known as the signal light stack. A traffic signal system generally consists of three main components: a system control, field equipment, and communications. In the installation of traffic signals equipment is the first procured from the supplier then installed on intersection. This includes all poles, heads, push button facilities, detection and cabling. Traffic law follow is the most essential aspects of driving and can increase your safety as well as of the people around you.

    1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

      Tariq Azizr, Er. Neeraj kumar (2021) The purpose of this paper is to design the fixed-timed traffic signal control system for the intersections and to assess performance of the over-time design system. It is compulsory for every vehicle to pass through a signalized intersections for achieve the best performance of intersection without any conflict. Traffic signals give instruction to only one lane users to move at a time while other lane users are stop and wait for their chance by the indication of traffic lights. Traffic signals are designed to control the flow of vehicles at intersection with the help of traffic lights and sensors and provide right way and also limit the stoppage time. Therefore, traffic signal installation is most important at each intersection for fluent flow of vehicle.

      Madhan Kumar V, Renuka Prasad M (2020) The main purpose of this paper is to Signal Re- Design through IRC and Websters Technology in Bangalore Metropolitan. There are two intersection needed Re-design traffic signal first one is G. Palya and second one is Jakkur due to more congestion and precaution. There are re- design traffic signal timings for the present vehicular volume count. For the present traffic IRC method is suitable to redesign of traffic signal timings whereas websters method are not sufficient. IRC method of signal timings implement to avoid the major accidents on particular intersection.

      Wei-Hsun Lee and Chi-Yi Chiu (2020) The main purpose of this paper is to design the smart traffic signal to reduce the traffic congestion and improve the public transport efficiency with the help of ITS applications. Smart traffic signal means, no any fault take place at the time of working of signals. In smart cities, traffic signals are also designed for the emergency vehicles like Ambulance, Fire Fighting vehicles. In United States, there were 3708 accidents involving emergency vehicles between 2004 and 2008. Emergency vehicle drivers also slow down the vehicle due to red light at intersection. Therefore, traffic signal design for emergency vehicles is most important for emergency purpose and also give the first priority to emergency vehicles to pass through the intersection without any conflict.

      Raghavendra S. Sanganaikar et al, (2018) In this paper the design of traffic signal is done according to the IRC93 method of signal design by adopting maximum average passenger count unit (PCU) on the intersection in every direction. In this paper data have taken of the Kundalahalli junction, which is surrounded by 2 shopping malls, restaurants, corporate offices, etc. 3 bus-stand are also near this junction so, there are large amount of people and vehicles passing through kundalahalli junction. Classified traffic volume (cars, two wheelers, buses, trucks) are collected for a period of 12 hours (7:00-19:00) in order to have entire day data and to identify peak and non-peak hours. The data was collected for the interval of 15 minutes for 12 hours for 7 days. The 15 minutes data is then converted to 1 hour to find the traffic volume in PCU/ hour. The PCU values was converted successfully and the maximum 7 days average peak values was found to be 3582.

      Vikram kumar and Neeraj kumar (2018) The purpose of this paper to traffic volume count study at Agrasen Chowk intersection, Yamuna Nagar. Traffic volume studies is done with the help of classification of vehicles like motorcycles, cars, jeep, buses, trucks. So, the traffic volumes are collected by manual counting. In this paper traffic signal for Agrasen chowk is designed by the various traffic surveys. For the scope of the project prediction is very important before the design, Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is common flow utilized in geometric standards for highways, improvement of existing facilities. Average Daily Data is collected only for short time. The studies of Agrasen Chowk intersection conclude better understanding of the problems and finding of the effective measures to overcome all those problems.

      Ishant Sharma and Dr. Pradeep K. Gupta (2015) The main purpose of this paper for provision of Automated Volume Based Traffic Signal System at Intersections. Automatic traffic signal prevents thefuel, time, speed up clearance and make intersection ecofriendly by reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper data is taken from Chandigarh city which is also facing the congestion problem at the intersection. In this paper the existing traffic signals are replaced with automatic traffic signals which sense the real time traffic and provide green time for the clear off traffic at the intersections. So, this paper conclude that existing traffic signals is replaced with the Automatic traffic signals for economic, reduce delay and ecofriendly purposes.

      P. Saranya, Malliga Senthil (2015) The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the Cycle time of vehicle by Traffic controller with the help of Density Based adaptive Traffic Signal System. When a vehicle reached in the area of vehicular network then that vehicle is registered and achieve a certificate from the road Side Unit. Road side unit counts the number of vehicles and transmits that data to Traffic controller. And traffic controller generated the cycle time for this vehicle according to the vehicle density at intersection.

      Lutfun Nahar Nipa, Md. Mohibul Islam (2015) The main Objective of this paper is to decrease the overall waiting time of traffic at intersection with the help of Intelligent Traffic Control System Based on Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm. This work is done with the help of microcontroller for cross the road junction which are so busy. This project is proposed to develop less traffic jam at intersection.

      1. Vidhya, A. Bazila Banu (2014) The main purpose of this paper is designed to develop a Density Based Dynamic Traffic Signal System. Across the world large number of cities face the problem of traffic congestion. Now a days the time of traffic flow fixed lane by lane due to density of vehicles. Sensors are used for observing the movements of automobiles and calculate the number of vehicles on the lane. When the density of lane change then the timing of signal will also change. Traffic congestion increased due to major reason of high number of vehicles caused by population. In this paper density of vehicles measurement done in the signal with the help of open cv in the system.

        Tang-Hsien Chang, Jen-Ting Lin (2000) The main purpose of this paper is designed to Optimal Signal Timing for an Oversaturated Intersection during congestion hour. In this paper two models are used for design first one is Discrete dynamic optimization model and other is Index model. Both proposed models are determined the optimal cycle length and optimal green time for the particular intersection.

    2. DATA COLLECTION The survey work has done at 5 Intersections namely-

        • APTRON INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD, LUCKNOW

        • NAVBASTA KALA INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD, LUCKNOW

        • SHIVPURI INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD, LUCKNOW

        • MACHALI MARKET INTERSECTION NEAR CHINHAT, LUCKNOW

        • KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA INTERSECTION GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOW

      The survey has been done for to give practical relation in the research work and this purpose the first thing I recorded the above intersections for 1-2 hours(12pm-2pm) with the help of camera. And extract the number of commercial vehicles & personal vehicles like Bus, Truck, Tractor, four-wheeler, three-wheeler, two-wheeler, Cycle and Animal drawn. After data extraction, I have changed the number of vehicles in PCU/hr.

        1. APTRON INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD LUCKNOW

          TYPE OF VEHICLE

          NUMBER OF VEHICLE

          PCU VALUE (PCU/hr.)

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          BIKE

          696

          358

          536

          348

          179

          268

          CAR

          319

          80

          245

          319

          80

          245

          AUTO

          92

          20

          76

          92

          20

          76

          CYCLE

          66

          24

          30

          33

          12

          15

          BUS

          23

          8

          12

          69

          24

          36

          TRUCK

          40

          32

          23

          120

          96

          69

          TRACTOR

          13

          18

          7

          39

          54

          21

          TOTAL

          = 1249

          = 540

          = 929

          =1020

          = 465

          = 730

          Table: 3.1 Volume of Vehicles at Intersection

        2. SHIVPURI INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD LUCKNOW

          TYPE OF VEHICLE

          NUMBER OF VEHICLE

          PCU VALUE (PCU/hr.)

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          BIKE

          720

          410

          722

          360

          205

          361

          CAR

          350

          107

          335

          350

          107

          335

          AUTO

          90

          30

          65

          90

          30

          65

          CYCLE

          44

          54

          56

          22

          27

          28

          BUS

          16

          8

          12

          48

          24

          36

          TRUCK

          11

          ——

          9

          33

          ——

          27

          TRACTOR

          9

          4

          6

          27

          12

          18

          TOTAL

          = 1240

          = 613

          = 1205

          = 930

          = 405

          = 870

          Table: 3.2 Volume of Vehicles at Intersection

        3. NAVBASTA KALA INTERSECTION AT DEVA ROAD LUCKNOW

          TYPE OF VEHICLE

          NUMBER OF VEHICLE

          PCU VALUE (PCU/hr.)

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          BIKE

          756

          360

          734

          378

          180

          367

          CAR

          330

          137

          320

          330

          137

          320

          AUTO

          102

          32

          85

          102

          32

          85

          CYCLE

          44

          38

          34

          22

          19

          17

          BUS

          12

          6

          7

          36

          18

          21

          TRUCK

          25

          11

          13

          75

          33

          39

          TRACTOR

          9

          ——–

          4

          27

          ——–

          12

          TOTAL

          = 1278

          = 584

          = 1197

          = 970 PCU/hr.

          = 419 PCU/hr.

          = 861 PCU/hr.

          Table: 3.3 Volume of Vehicles at Intersection

        4. MACHALI MARKET INTERSECTION NEAR CHINHAT TIRAHA LUCKNOW

          TYPE OF VEHICLE

          NUMBER OF VEHICLE

          PCU VALUE (PCU/hr.)

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          PHASE-1

          PHASE-2

          PHASE-3

          BIKE

          640

          420

          366

          320

          210

          183

          CAR

          250

          145

          135

          250

          145

          135

          AUTO

          90

          105

          48

          90

          105

          48

          CYCLE

          18

          86

          64

          9

          43

          32

          BUS

          8

          ——-

          4

          24

          ——-

          12

          TRACTOR

          4

          ——-

          ——-

          12

          ——–

          ——–

          TOTAL

          = 1010

          = 756

          =617

          705 PCU/hr.

          503 PCU/hr.

          410 PCU/hr.

          Table: 3.4 Volume of Vehicles at Intersection

        5. ANDHA MOD INTERSECTION NEAR KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA GOMTI NAGAR LUCKNOW

      TYPE OF VEHICLE

      NUMBER OF VEHICLE

      PCU VALUE (PCU/hr.)

      PHASE-1

      PHASE-2

      PHASE-3

      PHASE-1

      PHASE-2

      PHASE-3

      BIKE

      730

      420

      570

      365

      210

      285

      CAR

      300

      185

      325

      300

      185

      325

      AUTO

      190

      85

      205

      190

      85

      205

      CYCLE

      36

      44

      54

      18

      22

      27

      BUS

      5

      ——

      ——

      15

      ——

      ——-

      TOTAL

      = 1261

      = 734

      = 1154

      888 PCU/hr.

      502 PCU/hr.

      842 PCU/hr.

      Table: 3.5 Volume of Vehicles at Intersection

    3. METHODOLOGY

Traffic signals are the best way to control the congestion at intersections. Instructions are given to driver with the help of traffic lights (Red, yellow and green). Here, we use 2-methods for the design of traffic signal at non-signalized intersection.

  1. Websters method

  2. IRC method

WEBSTERS METHOD- Websters method is a rational approach for signal design. The design is simple and is totally based on formula laid down by webster. In this method, the total cycle of the signal is determined which forms a total least delay occurring at signal.

IRC METHOD- The design of traffic signal according to IRC method by adopting maximum P.C.U on the intersection in each direction. Thus, traffic signal system should be introduced at the intersection with total cycle time of 140 seconds.

The signal design procedure involves six major steps. They include:

  1. Phase Design

  2. Determination of Amber Time and Clearance time

  3. Determination of cycle length

  4. Apportioning of Green Time

  5. Pedestrian Crossing Requirements

  6. Performance evaluation of the design obtained in the previous steps.

  1. Design Procedure for websters Method

    • Normal Flow of Vehicles on Road, Denoted by q.

    • Saturation Flow of Vehicles on Road, denoted by S.

    • Critical Flow Ratio of Vehicles on Road, denoted by Y and Y= q/S.

    • Total Lost Time L= 2n+R (n- number of Phase, R- All Red Time for Pedestrian, 12 Seconds.)

    • Optimum Cycle time, Co= 1.5L+5/1-Y (seconds)

    • Effective Green Time Per Cycle= Co-L

    • Effective Green Time for Phase 1= Y1/Y (Co-L)

    • Effective Green Time for Phase 2= Y2/Y (Co-L)

    • Effective Green Time for Phase 3= Y3/Y (Co-L)

  2. Design Procedure for Traffic Signal by IRC Method

    • Width of Road

    • Pedestrian walking speed= 1.2 m/s.

    • Step-1 Pedestrian Crossing Time= (width of road/1.2) +7

    • Step-2 Minimum Green Time for Traffic= (Pedestrian Crossing Time* Normal Flow) /Minimum Normal flow on Road.

    • Step-3 Revised Green Time for Traffic Signal = (Adding 2.0 seconds each towards Clearance Amber and 2.0 seconds Inter green Period for each Phase)

    • Step-4 Check for optimum signal cycle by Websters Method-

Co= 1.5L+5/1-Y (seconds)

5.1 APTRON Intersection at Deva Road Lucknow

  1. RESULT

    120

    107

    107

    107

    100

    86

    80 75

    75 76 75

    64

    59

    60 53

    44

    41

    40

    29 29

    19 20

    20 14

    2 2 2 2 2 2

    Webster's Method Phase A

    IRC Method Phase A

    Webster's Method Phase B

    IRC Method Phase B

    Webster's Method Phase C

    IRC Method Phase C

    Green Time

    41

    29

    19

    14

    29

    20

    Amber Time

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    Red Time

    64

    44

    86

    59

    76

    53

    Cycle Time

    107

    75

    107

    75

    107

    75

    0

    5.1 Traffic Signal Timing in Seconds

    5.2 SHIVPURI Intersection at Deva Road Lucknow

    120 114

    114

    114

    100 93

    80

    80 72

    60 49

    40

    40 29

    19

    20

    80 80

    75

    65

    52

    37

    26

    13

    2 2 2 2 2 2

    Webster's Method Phase A

    IRC Method Phase A

    Webster's Method Phase B

    IRC Method Phase B

    Webster's Method Phase C

    IRC Method Phase C

    Green Time

    40

    29

    19

    13

    37

    26

    Amber Time

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    Red Time

    72

    49

    93

    65

    75

    52

    Cycle time

    114

    80

    114

    80

    114

    80

    0

    Green Time Amber Time Red Time Cycle time

    5.2 Traffic Signal Timing in Seconds

    5.3 NAVBASTA KALA Intersection at Deva Road Lucknow

    120 114

    114

    114

    100 93

    80

    80 71

    60

    49

    41

    40

    29

    19

    20

    80 80

    75

    65

    52

    37

    26

    13

    2 2 2 2 2 2

    Wester's Method Phase A

    IRC Method Phase A

    Webster's Method Phase B

    IRC Method Phase B

    Webster's Method Phase C

    IRC Method Phase C

    Green Time

    41

    29

    19

    13

    37

    26

    Amber Time

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    Red Time

    71

    49

    93

    65

    75

    52

    Cycle Time

    114

    80

    114

    80

    114

    80

    0

    5.3 Traffic Signal Timing in Seconds

      1. MACHALI MARKET Intersection Near CHINHAT Lucknow

        80

        70 68

        60

        60

        50 45

        40 37

        68 68

        60 60

        53

        50

        46

        43

        30

        21 21

        20

        10

        16 15 13 12

        2 2 2 2 2 2

        Webster's Method Phase A

        IRC Method Phase A

        webster's Method Phase B

        IRC Method Phase B

        Webster's Method Phase C

        IRC Method Phase C

        Green Time

        21

        21

        16

        15

        13

        12

        Amber Time

        2

        2

        2

        2

        2

        2

        Red Time

        45

        37

        50

        43

        53

        46

        Cycle Time

        68

        60

        68

        60

        68

        60

        0

        Table: 5.4 Traffic Signal Timing in Seconds

        ANDHA MOD Intersection Near KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA Gomti Nagar Lucknow

        140

        120 115

        115

        115

        100

        80 75

        90

        77

        70 70 70

        60 55

        45 46

        36

        38

        40

        23 23 22

        20 13

        2 2 2 2 2 2

        Webster's Method Phase A

        IRC Method Phase A

        webster's Method Phase B

        IRC Method Phase B

        Webster's Method Phase C

        IRC Method Phase C

        Green Time

        38

        23

        23

        13

        36

        22

        Amber Time

        2

        2

        2

        2

        2

        2

        Red Time

        75

        45

        90

        55

        77

        46

        Cycle Time

        115

        70

        115

        70

        115

        70

        0

        Table: 5.5 Traffic Signal Timing in Seconds

  2. CONCLUSION

      1. Installation of Traffic Signal at Intersection Reduce Congestion of Vehicles.

      2. Installation of Traffic Signal at Intersection help for movement of Traffic securely without any Collision.

  1. Traffic Signal reduce the number of accidents on roads like pedestrian accident and right- angle collision of Two Vehicles.

  2. Installation of Traffic signal can increase the capacity of traffic handling at intersection without traffic police.

  3. Traffic Lights are seen Easily in all Weather in day and night both.

  4. Traffic Signal is Safe, efficient, accurate, and economical as compared to Traffic Police at Intersection.

  5. Traffic Signal handled the heavy traffic at regular intervals without any interruption.

  6. Main conclusion of my Research is that all Intersections are well signalized for better movement of vehicles at Intersections.

  7. This project is proposed to developed less traffic jam at intersection.

  8. As Traffic Congestion has reached its peak level, we have designed our project much more enhanced and smart infrastructure traffic network.

7. FUTURE SCOPE

Based on this study and findings, it is believed that the better analysis can be done on those intersections where traffic capacity is more.

  1. This Project is useful in developing countries and this Project has a bright future as it is being used at every Intersection in Countries like London, Amerika, Russia, Japan, China.

  2. Traffic signal help us to control flow of Vehicles without traffic Police.

  3. The signals with three Traffic Lights Green, Amber and Red are shown at intersection. So, Driver of Vehicles does not have any type of difficulty.

  4. The vehicle user directly seen the traffic signal Indication at intersection and cross the intersection without any conflict and delay.

  5. This project will lead to increase in technological trends and this will help the people in many ways.

8. REFERENCES

[1] Tariq Azizr, Er. Neeraj kumar TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. Volume:08 Issue:03 Mar2021.

[2] Wei-Hsun Lee and Chi-Yi Chiu Design and Implementation of a Smart Traffic Signal Control System for Smart City Applications. 16 January 2020. [3] Madhan kumar V, Renuka Prasad M SIGNAL RE-DESIGN Through IRC and WEBSTERS Technology International Research Journal of Science,

Engineering and Technology. ISSN: 2395-4752, 2020.

[4] Raghavendra S. Sanganaikar et al., Design of Traffic Signal at Kundahallli Junction Bengaluru Karnataka. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, volume 9, Issue 6, June-2018.

[5] Vikram Kumar & Neeraj kumar Study of Design Traffic Signal International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 5, Issue 12, Dec-2018.

[6] Ishant Sharma & Dr. Pradeep K. Gupta Study of Automatic Traffic Signal System of Chandigarh ISSN: 2277-9655, July 2015. [7] P. Saranya & Malliga Senthil Density Based Adaptive Traffic Signal System January 2015.

[8] Lutfun Nahar Nipa, Md. Mohibul Islam Intelligent Traffic control System Based on Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, Volume 5, Issue 8, ISSN 2250-3153, August 2015.

[9] K. Vidhya, A. Bazila Banu Design Based Traffic Signal System International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. Volume 3, Special Issue 3, March 2014.

[10] Tang-Hsien Chang, Jen-Ting Lin Optimal Signal Timing for oversaturated Intersection Transportation Research Part- B Methodological 34 (6): 471- 491, August 2000.

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