Performance Evaluation of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltic Plant using PVSYST Software

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Performance Evaluation of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltic Plant using PVSYST Software

Siddhant Changkakati, Abhishek Kumar Sahu, Riyan Syed, Shubham Kumar, guided by J P Kesari Mechanical Engineering Department

Delhi Technological University

Abstract Due to increase in the price of fossil fuel and decrease in the coal resources, renewable energy has become the new future of energy generation of India. The time of coal based power generation has come to its end, thus its imperative to look for new and innovative ways to generate energy. Renewable energy is slowly but surely making its way into every household. The focus of our project is Out of all the available renewable energy sources, Solar Energy is the most abundant, and is basically an infinite source of energy. This energy has to be put to proper use in order for humanity to reach new levels in innovation and technology. There is a huge scope solar energy in India in states like Karnataka, Telengana, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu, Gujarat etc. There are about 23,789 sq kilometer area of land in non productive use. Rajasthan is a desert and it receives ample amount of solar energy throughout the year and very little rain fall. Therefore it is an ideal place for the construction of a solar power plant. PVsyst is a software used to design solar panels or even a solar power plant.

Keywords PVsyst (Photovoltaic System), solar plant, renewable energy

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Due to increase in the price of fossil fuel and decrease in the coal resources, renewable energy has become the new future of energy generation of India. The time of coal based power generation has come to its end, thus its imperative to look for new and innovative ways to generate energy. Renewable energy is slowly but surely making its way into every household. The focus of our project is Out of all the available renewable energy sources, Solar Energy is the most abundant, and is basically an infinite source of energy. This energy has to be put to proper use in order for humanity to reach new levels in innovation and technology.

    There is a huge scope solar energy in India in states like Karnataka, Telengana, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil nadu, Gujarat etc. There are about 23,789 sq kilometer area of land in non productive use. Rajasthan is a desert and it receives ample amount of solar energy throughout the year and very little rain fall. Therefore it is an ideal place for the construction of a solar power plant. PVsyst is a software used to design solar panels or even a solar power plant.

  2. METHODOLOGY

    There are various components in PVsyst software. The specifications for these components are researched and entered in the software. The software collects all the data and stimulation is run on the software and result is produced. The various components whose specifications are researched and entered are the geographical site and its weather conditions throughout the year, the orientation of solar panel, the various components of the system, the details of losses, the horizon and the stimulation is generated

    1. Meteo data base

      So since we have selected the site we have we have to enter the geographical data of the particular location. There is feature called interactive map where we can select the geographical location of the site. The latitude of the site is 28.2900 north and the longitude 74.2343 east. Altitude 249 above sea level. Other data like horizontal global irradiation, horizontal diffusive irradiation, temperature, wind velocity, linke turbidity, relative humidity on a per month basis throughout the year could be found from the Meteonorm. Thefigure 1 below will give u the data

      Fig 1. Meteonorm data of Asasar

    2. Orientation

      The orientation of the solar panel decides the tilt angle and the azimuth angle. There are various field types available. For this project, seasonal field type is used. Due to the sun path and geographical we kept a summer tilt of 16 degree and winter tilt of 47 degree and because the is no elevation the azimuth is 0 degree. This is kept to ensure minimum amount of loss during the summer and winter months. In Rajasthan winter falls from October to march so tilt will be kept 47 degree and from April to September it is kept 16 degrees.

      Fig 2. Tilt and Azimuth angle

    3. Configuration of the system

      The simplified schematic diagram of the system is given below

      Fig 3. Schematic diagram of the system

      The pv array is connected to an pv inverter which is then connected to a battery where the energy is stored. As show in figure 3

      1. PV array

        Solar cell:- A solar cell is a p-n junction diode made of silicon. A current is produced when electrons are moved in the diode due to hitting of the suns rays. As shown in figure 4.

        A number of solar connected in series forms a Solar Module. Then a number of solar modules connected in series are called a Solar String. Then a number of solar strings connected in series is called a solar array. As shown in figure 5.

        The no. of sub-arrays used in this project is 1 The no. of modules in series is 16

        The no. of strings is 125

        Fig 4. Solar cell Fig 5. Solar Panel

      2. PV module

        PV module that is being used in this project is 250 wp 26V Si-mono 250 wp 60 cells Bifacial since 2015. The details of the PV module used are given below.

        Internal model result tool

        Operating condition GOper =1000W/m2 TOper = 25°C

        Size Length=1640mm Width= 992mm Thickness = 50mm Weight = 19.8kg

        Module area=1.67m2

        Cell

        In series= 60 In parallel=1

        Cell area=237cm2 Total no. of cell=60

        Cell area=1.422m2

        Max power point Pmpp=249.9W Temper. Coeff =-44%/° Current Impp=8.15A Vmpp=30.7V

        Short-circuit Current Isc 8.63 A Open circuit Voc=37.4V

        Efficiency/cells area 17.57% Model area=15.36%

        1. Manufacturer Specifications – Obtained from Datasheets: These parameters are the

          Module technology and specifications

          Frame: Aluminum Structure: 3.2 mm tempered Connection: MC-4

          Generic module for DEMO

          Model summery

          R shunt=300 Gamma=0.913 Rsh (G=0) =1200 IoRef=0.02nA

          R series model 0.29 muVoc= -140mV/°C

          R series max. = 0.45 muPMax fixed = -0.45/°C R series Apparent = 0.45

          main electrical module characteristics, available on any manufacturer data sheets. They are usually given for STC, but the program accepts measurements performed under other conditions to establish the model from on-site measurements in outdoor conditions. These parameters therefore include:

          • Gref and Tref: the reference irradiation and module temperature conditions during reference measurements (usually standard test condition STC)
          • Isc and Voc: module short circuit current and open circuit voltage at these given conditions.
          • Impp and Vmpp: any operating point in the region of the maximum power point at these given conditions.
          • muIsc: temperature coefficient for Isc. This has only weak influence on the module behavior. When not known, it can be taken as about 0.05%/°C

            Manufacturer specifications or other measurement

            Reference condition Gref=1000W/m2 Short-circuit current Isc=8.630A

            Temperature Coefficient music=4.3 mA/°C Open circuit voltage Voc=37.40V

            Tref = 25°C

            Vmpp=30.70V

            These are the 2 main parameters of the one-diode model. PVsyst always proposes default values which may be recovered by clicking the “Default” checkboxes.

            Rshunt: It is the inverse of the slope -dV/dI of the I/V crve around the Isc value. The default value proposed by PVsyst corresponds to a given fraction of the slope (Isc-Impp) / Vmpp. With modern crystalline modules the Rshunt is high (i.e. the curve is very flat) and the associated loss is therefore low, so that an accurate determination is not crucial

            Rseries is the internal series resistance of the one- diode model. It is one of the parameters of the model at STC, not directly measurable using the I/V curve. Its determination is crucial, and has consequences on the low-light performances

            Model summery

            R shunt=300 Gamma=0.913

            Rsh (G=0) =1200 IoRef=0.02nA

            R series model 0.29 muVoc= -140mV/°C

            R series max. = 0.45 muPMax fixed = -0.45/°C R series Apparent = 0.45

        2. Bifaciality factor: In PVsyst, such “Bifacial modules” will be characterized by their “Bifaciality Factor”, i.e. the ratio of the nominal efficiency at the rear side, with respect to the nominal efficiency of the front side. Remember that the nominal efficiency is simply the nominal Power (under STC) expressed in [kWp], divided by the area of the PV module [m²].

          Bi-Facial module Bifaciality factor = 0.800

        3. Model parameters

          Rshunt : 300 Rseries 0.289

          Series resistance maximum for the model:0.310 Series residence dv/dI:0.54

          Diode saturation current IoRef 0.024nA Diode quality factor Gamma 0.91-0.001/K

          Voltage temperature coefficient muVoc-140.3mV/°C

          The I/V characteristics has to pass through the three gi Mpp

          Diode saturation current and voltage temperature coeffi determined by this requirement

          Fig 6. Graph Current (A) vs Voltage (V)

          Fig 7. Graph Power (W) vs Voltage (V)

          Fig 8. Graph Relative efficiency (%) vs Incident global (W/m2) Fig 9. Graph Rshunt as a function of Irradiance

          R Shunt exponential Rshunt at ginc = 0 :1200 Exponential parameter 5.5 Temperature coefficient

          muPMax and muVoc temperature coffient settings muPMax and muVoc Temperature coefficient are output parameters of the standard one-diode model, which are dependent on Gamma choice

          Fig 10. Graph voltage & Power vs temperature

          Pmpp temperature coefficient ( at STC) : -0.450%

          => Gamma temperature coefficient: -0.066%

        4. Additional data

          Customized IMA

        5. Secondary Parameters
          • MuIsc: (often named Alpha) is specified on the main page of the parameters, and used as

            Incidence angle: The incidence effect (the designated term is IAM, for “Incidence Angle Modifier”) corresponds to the decrease of the irradiance really reaching the PV cells surface, with respect to irradiance under normal incidence. This decrease is mainly due to reflex ions on the glass cover, which increases with the incidence angle.

            The front glass used: Fresnel normal glass

            TABLE 1 INCEDENT ANGLE MODIFIER

            Incident anIAM
            10.01.000
            230.00.998
            350.00.981
            460.00.948
            570.00.862
            675.00.776
            780.00.636
            885.00.403
            990.00.000

            such in the model. For crystalline modules, its value lies usually between 0.04 and 0.08

            %/°C

            Specified muVsc:-127mV/°C

            • Absorption Coefficient for temperature:

              Absorptivity coefficient (alpha) : 0.9 This is the Irradiance global absorption

              coefficient involved in the thermal balance for

              determination of the array temperature

            • Reverse characteristics:

              Single cell reverse characteristics Quadratic factor BRev: 3.2 mA/V2

              NB. This reverse parameter is only used in the framework of the array behavior special tools (partial shading on modules).

              It value is not essential and can be taken as the proposed default.

              Number of by-pass diodes: 3/module Diode direct voltage: -0.7V

              Diode maximum current: 0A

              Fig 11. Graph Incidence Angle Modifier

        6. PV Module model: graphs: In the PV module definition dialog, the page “Graphs shows the general behavior of the model. You can display the following sets of curves:
          • Current vs Voltage (often named “I/V curves”)
          • Power vs voltage (often names “P/V curves”),
          • Efficiencies as a function of the irradiance.
          • Efficiencies as a function of the temperature.

            These plots show sets of parametric curves, i.e. for different Irradiances, Temperatures, Series resistance or Shunt resistance

            Graph parameter: Incident radiance

            red: 1000W/m2 green:800 W/m2 purple: 600 W/m2 blue: 400 W/m2 grey

            : 200W/m2

            Fig 12. Graph Current vs Voltage Fig 13. Graph power vs Voltage

            Fig 14. Graph Efficiency vs temperature

            Graph parameter: temperature

            red: 10°C green: 25°C purple: 40°C blue: 55°C grey : 70°C

            Fig 15. Graph Current vs Voltage Fig 16. Graph power vs Voltage

            Fig 17. Graph Efficiency vs temperature

            Graph parameter: Series resistance

            red: 200 green: 400 purple:600 blue: 800 grey : 1000

            Fig 18. Graph Current vs Voltage Fig 19. Graph power vs Voltage

            Fig 20. Graph Efficiency vs irradiance Fig 21. Graph Efficiency vs temperature

            Graph parameter: Shunt resistance

            red: 200 green: 300 purple:400 blue: 500 grey : 600

            Fig 22. Graph Current vs Voltage Fig 23. Graph power vs Voltage

            Fig 24. Graph Efficiency vs irradiance Fig 25. Graph Efficiency vs temperature

        7. PV module model optimization

        Module Behavior according to incident irradiation (W/ms)

        Fig 26. Graph I(V) curves irradiance Fig 27. Graph I(V) vs Temperature

        Fig 28. Graph PV curve Fig 29. Graph Efficiency vs Irradiance

      3. Solar inverter

        PV inverter is a type of

        electrical converter which converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into

        a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial

        electrical grid or used by a local, off- grid electrical network.

        The inverter used in this project is 12kw 350-600v TL 50/60 Hz 12kWac inverter since 2012. 33 of these inverters are connected. The specifications of the inverter are given below.

        Operating Voltage: 350-600V Input maximum Voltage:800V Global Inverters power:396 kWac

        Input side (DC PV field) Minimum MPP voltage: 350V Nominal MPP Voltage: 450V Maximum MPP Voltage: 600V Absolute max. PV Voltage 800V Minimum Input Current: n/a A Min. voltage for PNom: n/a V

        Output side (AC grid)

        Triphased 50/60Hz

        Grid voltage 400 V Nominal AC power 12 kVA Nominal AC current 17A Maximum AC current 22A

        Contractual specification, Without real Physical meaning

        Nomial PV power 15kw Maximum Pv power 18 kw Maximum PV current 38A Efficiency

        Maximum efficiency 98%

        EURO efficiency 97.50%

        1. Grid inverters – Efficiency curv: The inverter’s efficiency is characterized by a power transfer function during normal operation, depending on the instantaneous power.This transfer is usually given in terms of efficiency as function either of the input or of the output power. That is, it is represented by a non-linear curve, with a threshold input power which may be understood as the inverter’s own consumption.

          Defining the efficiency curve: The efficiency curve is rarely explicitly given by the manufacturers. For some inverters the database gives the efficiency curve measured by independent institutes.

          Effctive output limit: 12kW

          res factor: 3

          Pthreshold efficiency. 47W

          TABLE 2 VALUES OF GRAPH

          valuesP in (DC)Efficiency
          threshold0.060.00
          0.3686.61
          0.6091.73
          1.2095.53
          2.4097.31
          3.6097.81
          7.2098.00
          12.0097.66

          Fig 30. Graph Efficiency graph of inverter

        2. Output parameters of the inverter

          The nominal AC power is defined as apparent power(kWA)

          • Power factor

            Tan (phi) min: -0.395 Tan (phi) Max: 0.395

            Maximum AC Power f(temperature) Nominal ac power 12kVA upto 50°C Maximum AC Power 14 kVA at 25°C Power limit #1=9 kwac at 60°C Power limit absolute =4kwac at 70°C

            Temperature evolution for Limits

            In the stimulation, by default the inverter temperature is the external ambient temperature (outdoor installation)

            Technology Specificities

            Technology: 16 KHz, IGBT

            Protection: -25 – +60°C, IP 65: outdoor installation

            Control: LCD, 2×6 Char. Generic device DEMO

            Size

            Width 468 mm

            Depth 242 mm Height 613mm Weight 35kg

            Fig 31. Graph inverter power output

      4. Overall PV system

        Global system summary Number of modules: 2000 Module area: 3254m2 Number of inverter 33 Nominal PV Power 500 kWp

        Maximum PV power 476 kWdc

        Operating condition Vmpp (60°C) 411V Vmpp (20°C) 502V VoC (-10°) 675V

        Plane irradiance 1000 W/m2

        Impp (STC) 1022 A Isc (STC) 1079 A

        Maximum power at 1000W/m2 50°C = 443kw Array nom. Power (STC) 500kW

        1. Sizing principle

          In PVsyst, the inverter sizing is based on an acceptable overload loss during operation, and therefore involves estimations or simulations in the real conditions of the system (meteor, orientation, losses).

          Taking the following into account:

          Overload behaviour: With all modern inverters, when the Pmpp of the array overcomes its PnomDC limit, the inverter will stay at its safe nominal power by displacing the operating point in the I/V curve of the PV array (towards higher voltages). Therefore it will not undertake any overpower; simply the potential power of the array is not produced. There is no power to dissipate, no overheating and therefore no supplementary ageing. Loss evaluation: In this mode the only energy loss is the difference between the Pmpp “potential” power and the PnomDC limit effectively drawn. We can see on the power distribution diagrams, that even when the inverter’s power is a little bit under the maximum powers attained by the array in real operation, this results in very little power losses (violet steps with respect to the green ones, quasi-invisibles). The simulation – and the analysis of the overload loss – is therefore a very good mean for assessing the size of an inverter.

          Fig 32. Graph Array Voltage Sizing

          Fig 34. Graph Inverter output distribution AC Energy as kW/m2

          Fig 35. Graph Irradiations distribution as function of irradiance as kW/m2

          Fig 36. Graph Hourly Distribution of irradiance

    4. Details of Loses:

      While generation of electricity by the solar panel there are numerous factors which can contribute to loss of energy or the generation of current.

      There are various factors which may include to los of generations of electricity some of these factors are environmental factors, technical factors, ageing etc

      1. Thermal parameter

        The parameters of the Thermal behavior of the field are defined in the “Array Losses”. The thermal behavior of the field – which strongly influences the electrical performances – is determined by an energy balance between ambient temperature and cell’s heating up due to incident irradiance.

        Thermal loss factor: U=Uc+Uv*wind velocity

        Constant factor loss Uc: 20W/m2K

        Wind loss factor Uv: 0.0 W/m2k

      2. Ohmic losses

        Definition: The ohmic resistance of the wiring circuit induces losses ( ELoss = Rw· I² ) between the power available from the modules and the power at the terminals of the sub-array. The relevant parameter for the simulation is the Rw value, which is an equivalent resistance as “seen” from the input of the global sub-array (i.e. the set of MPPT inputs defined in this sub-array). You should define one Rw value for each sub-array in your system.

        Gobal wiring resistance: 7.23mOhm

        Loss fraction at stc : 1.5%

      3. Module quality loss
        • Module Quality

        Deviation of the average effective module efficiency with respect to manufacturer specifications (negative value indicates over-performance)

        Module efficiency loss: -0.8%

        • Module mismatch losses

          The “Mismatch loss” is mainly due to the fact that in a string of modules (or cells), the lowest current drives the current of the whole string.

          Power loss at MPP : 1%

          Loss when running at a fixed voltage 2.5%

        • LID-Light Induced Degradation

          LID (Light Induced Degradation) is a loss of performances arising in the very first hours of exposition to the sun, with Crystalline modules. It may namely affect the real performance with respect to the final factory flash tests data delivered by some PV module providers.

          LID loss factor: 0.0%

        • String voltage mismatch

        The new tool “String Mismatch” (in “Detailed Losses”) provides a pedagogic description of the principles of different mismatch modes.

        This shows namely that the current mismatch (within a string) is very important, because the current in the whole string is governed by the current in the “weakest” string. While the voltage mismatch between strings has much lower effects.

        Power loss at MPP: 0.1%

      4. Soiling loss

        Accumulation of dirt and its effect on the system performance is an uncertainty which strongly depends on the environment of the system, raining conditions, etc

        Taking into consideration of the dust in the desert region and we are taking an approximate value of 3%

    5. Horizon

    The horizon profile may be defined manually by a set of (Azimuth/Height) points in degrees. These may be from on-site measurements (using land- surveyors instruments like compass).

    They can also be imported from several sources:

    • Solmetric SunEye instrument: This is a computerized instrument using a fisheye- type camera for the recording of the environmental masks. It provides an horizon height for each degree of Azimuth (i.e. 360 points).
    • Carnaval: is a free open source software. It is based on a geo-referred grid for calculating the horizon line at any place between longitudes 6°W to 10°E, and latitudes 41° to 52° N, therefore largely covering France, East of Spain, etc. It uses satellite data from the spatial US programme SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), giving a grid of altitudes with a 3” resolution (about 92 x 65 m).

    The horizon of far shadings part is the simplest way for defining shadings in PVsyst. But this is only suited for treating shadings of objects sufficiently far, as we can consider they act on the PV field in a global way: at a given instant, the sun is or is not visible on the field. Typically the distance of these shading objects should be higher than, say, ten times the PV field size.

    Defining a horizon profile is a very simple operation with the PVsyst graphical tool. The horizon is a broken line superimposed on the sun path diagram, which can hold any number of height/azimuth points.

    Horizon measurements (list of height and azimuth of some significant points) can be obtained on-site with a compass and theodolite (clinometer), a detailed map, panoramic or fish-eye photographies, etc

    Saving Horizon profile: A horizon profile can be saved for reusing it in another project or meteo calculation. It is stored in the \Shadings\ subdirectory with an extension .HOR.

    NB: A file with PVsyst format is not an ASCII file and cannot be exported to other software.

    Hemispherical (horizontal)

    Diffusive factor 1.00

    Tilted plane attenuation factor

    Diffusive factor 1.00 Albedo factor1.00

    TABLE 3 AZIMUTH VS HEIGHT

    No.Azimuthheight
    1.119.27.3
    2.-91.40.0
    3.92.20.0
    4.120.68.5

    Fig 37. Sun path diagram

  3. RESULT

    All the above data is researched and entered into the PVsyst software. After the data is entered into the software, the software runs a stimulation of the data and generates the a report on how the solar will work if it were actual made functional. Thus here is the result and let us analyze the results.

    Before we proceed any further, let us look into the specifications of the system again.

    The PV modules used are 250Wp 60 cells Bifac.

    Inverter used is a 12kW AC inverter. The no of inverters used are 33.

    The MPP current and voltage is 8.1 A and 30.7 V. The Nominal power is 500kWp.

    1. Result overview

      The data that we have entered into the software provides us with an overview of the resultant generation of energy. This system is expected to produce about 866 MWh/year and is has a specific production of 1731 kWh/year. A higher Performance Ratio is always desired. The average Performance Ratio that we have been able to achieve using the given configuration is 0.770. The daily production rate of solar energy will be 4.74 kWh/day. An average home in India requires about 10-15 kWh of power per day.

      As in every system, there is bound to be some losses, as no system can be 100% efficient. These losses might take place due to inefficient transfer of power, wire losses, etc. Each array is expected to lose 1.31 kWh/day and the system losses is 0.11 kWh/day

    2. Stimulation variant on hourly basis

      The graph in figure 38 gives

      Left axis: sun height

      Right axis: sun azimuth, Incidence angle, Profile angle, Horizontal diffuse irradiation, Ambient Temperature, Diffuse isotropic-Horizontal, Circumsolar- horizontal, Horizon Band-Vertical

      The graph above contains sun height on the left axis. The X-axis represents the time of the day. As seen in the graph, Horizontal global irradiation peaks at noon time and continues to rise and fall

      uptill 3:00 PM after which there is a steep decline. The same can be seen for the horizontal diffusion irradiation. The Sun Height reaches its peak at around 12 in the noon, after which the output starts to increase.

      Fig 38. Graph Stimulation variant on hourly basis

    3. Stimulation result on monthly basis

      PVsyst software generate table on the performance on the solar plant in monthly basis throughout the year

      TABLE 3 AZIMUTH VS HEIGHT

      TABLE 3 AZIMUTH VS HEIGHT

       

      TABLE 4 METEOR AND INCIDENT ENGERGY

      TABLE 5 EFFECTIVE INCIDENT ENERGY

      TABLE 6 OPTICAL FACTOR

      TABLE 7 DETAILED LOSSES IN A SYSTEM

      TABLE 8 DETAILED INVERTER LOSSES

      TABLE 9 BALANCE AND MAIN RESULTS

      TABLE 10 ENERGY USAGE

    4. The result report produced by the software

    The PVsyst software produces detailed report of the solar plant which shows in details about the about various aspects on the solar power plant.

    Fig 39. Report 1

    Fig 40. Report 2

    Fig 41. Report 3

    Fig 42. Report 4

    Fig 43. Report 5

  4. CONCLUSION

    As per the results that we have derived with the help of PVsyst, constructing a 500 kW power plant in Asasar is deemed feasible. The average cost of such a power plant will be around the range of Rs. 2 crore. Constructing a coal based power plant of the same power will cost much more and will be detrimental in the long run. Solar power generation is yet to be perfected, but based on the history of the accomplishments of mankind, it’s only a matter of time and patience. The sooner we shift towards renewable sources of energy, lesser the chances of us causing irreparable damage to the environment.

  5. SUMMARY

    The paper explains in detail about a 500kw solar power plant in Asasar, Rajasthan. It explains in detail about the PV module used, the inverter and the losses that may occur during the running of the solar power plant. There are 16 modules in series and 125 strings in this power plant spread across an area of 3254 m2. The module and the inverter is properly studied and researched and explained with proper graph. The different types of probable factors of loss are studied and explained in this paper. The PVsyst software uses data from Meteonorm and other sites to for the various weather conditions which are explicitly described in the paper. Since the site is made on a desert there is no possibility of shadow therefore there is no near shading given to the software. The horizon and the sun path in that region are also calculated and the data is given to the software. Then the software has a feature of running stimulation based of the data entered. The result of the stimulation gives the various data month in a year and also hourly in a day. The report given by the software is given in the paper and also it is explained.

  6. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

    The project report is prepared considering limited time, resources and maintaining strict social distancing requirements. Due to increase in the price of fossil fuel, carbon emission, draining of foreign exchange and depletion of coal resources, Government of India(GOI) has taken decisive steps towards increasing alternative energy sources. A decision was taken by GOI to bring down crude oil import by 10%. Amongst others, special impetus was given for development of solar energy across India.

  7. There has been a steady growth of installed capacity of solar PV as depicted in the graph. With cases schemes like Atma Nirbhar bharat and solar power plant in Rewa the is a huge scope of this project. This is going to create jobs and provide energy to household and also taking care of the environment.

ACKNOWLEDGLEDGEMENT

First of all, we would like to express my special gratitude to our university, Delhi Technological University, the Vice Chancellor, Professor Yogesh Singh sir and to our professor who guided us through the project, Professor J.P Kesari sir, for providing us the necessary help. We also thank our friends and colleagues for their contribution and advice. We owe the completion of this paper within the limited time to all of them. The research the we did for the project has increased or knowledge to a great extent and has made us more informed on the topic.

APPENDIX

GOper- This is the internal model result tool of the PV module. It gives information about the operating characteristic which says about the power per meter square.

TOper- This is the internal model result tool of the PV module. It gives information about the operating characteristic which says about the operating temperature.

Isc-(short circuit current) Short Circuit Current is how many amps (i.e. current) the solar panels are producing when not connected to a load but when the plus and minus of the panels wires are directly connected to each other.

mpp/Pmax- (Maximum Power Point) it is the sweet spot of the solar panel power output, located at the knee of the curves in the graph above. It is where the combination of the volts and amps results in thehighest wattage (Volts x Amps = Watts).

VoC-( Open circuit volatage) Open circuit voltage is how many volts the solar panel outputs with no load on it. If you just measure with a voltmeter across the

plus and minus leads, you will read Voc. Since the solar panel isnt connected to anything, there is no load on it, and it is producing no current.

Si-mono- Monocrystalline silicon, more often called single-crystal silicon.

STC- (Standard Test Conditions) STC is the set of criteria that a solar panel is tested at. Since voltage and current change based on temperature and intensity of light, among other criteria, all solar panels are tested to the same standard test conditions.

Impp- (Maximum Power Point Current)The Impp is the current (amps) when the power output is the greatest. It is the actual amperage you want to see when it is connected to the MPPT solar equipment under standard test conditions.

Vmpp-( Maximum Power Point Voltage ) The Vmpp is the voltage when the power output is the greatest. It is the actual voltage you want to see when it is connected to the MPPT solar equipment (like

an MPPT solar charge controller or a grid-tie inverter) under standard test conditions.

Gref and Tref-The Gref and Tref are the values for definition of the model according to Isc, Voc, Impp, Vmpp (normally the STC values)

ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Interchange

BRev- it is the quadratic factor for reverse characteristics

Nominal voltage- is defined as a value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class

IGBT- insulated-gate bipolar transistor

Pnom- nominal power

PnomDC- nominal power of DC current

muIsc, muPMax,muVoC-The temperature behavior of the Pmpp, Voc and Isc values (at STC) are usually specified on the manufacturer’s datasheets. In PVsyst we denote by the prefix “mu” all temperature coefficients

REFERENCES

[1]. 2020 PVSYST V6.81

August2020

[2]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_inverter [3].https://www.altestore.com/blog/2016/04/how-do-i-read-

specifications-of-my-solar-panel/#.X39dnmgzbIU

 

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