 Open Access
 Authors : Mohammed Aslam. A
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV8IS07024
 Volume & Issue : ECLECTIC – 2020 (Volume 8 – Issue 07)
 Published (First Online): 02052020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Performance Analysis of Solar Water Heating System using PCM
Mohammed Aslam. A
Department of Mechanical Engineering Bharathidasan Engineering College, Natrampalli, Tirupattur, Tamil Nadu India
Abstract: In the contemporary era, phase change material (PCM) is used in the solar water heaters to store the extra amount of heat energy available during the full sunshine hours. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the performance of PCM incorporated solar water heating system using the flat plate collector as a heat source. In this study, a cylindrical aluminium PCM tank acts as the thermal energy storage unit. Paraffin wax is used as the PCM. Water is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) to transfer heat from the flat plate collector to the storage tank. The charging has been carried out on clear days without and with PCM under actual operating conditions. It shows that from the experiments, the PCM improves the performance on the system by bettering the charging energy efficiency and thermal efficiency of the Storage tank.
Keywords: Component, Sensible Heat, Latent Heat, PCM

INTRODUCTION
1.1. SENSIBLETHERMAL ENERGY STORAGE
That is, the internal energy of the storages material is influencing by the energy going stored, which would raise the temperature of the materials [1].
Expressed equation
Q= mCp (T1T2)
Where Q is heat transfer
Cp is specific heat of water
1.2 LATENT THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE
In latent TES, the heat storages material undergoes a phase transformation process for storing or discharging the heat energy [2]. The phase change material either from solid to liquid or near isothermal condition.
Latent heat energy Q = m Cp + mH
Q= mCp (T1 T2) mH

PHASE CHANGING MATERIALS
Thermal energy storage through PCM is capable of storing and releasing large amount of energy. The system depends on the shift in phase of the material for holding and releasing the energy [6].

PARAFFIN WAX
Paraffin wax refers to a mixed of alkanes that fall with 20 n 40 range. They are found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to either liquid phase approximately 37Â°C.
Fig.1 Thermal energy storage using PCM


EXPERIENTAL SETUP
COMPONENTS

Thermal storage tank

RTD

Temperature indicator

Insulation material

Phase change material

Flow meter

Pressure gauge

THERMAL STORAGE TANK
Fig.2 Thermal storage tank
Thermal storage tank is heat water storage in occupies space. Tank has manufacturing stainless steel. The tank is two position one outer tank and other inner tank. There are two physical systems namely LHS system and SHS system considered in the present analysis [3]. The LHS system considered for the analysis is a cylindrical storage system
of height 1100 mm and diameter 500 mm. It consists of three zones.

RTD
RTD is a temperature sensor which measure temperature using the principles that the resistance of the metal charge with temperature.
Fig.3 PT100 RTD Sensor of Platinum Resistance Eelement

Outer diameter: 6 mm

Length of platinum element: 4 inch or 101.6 mm

Cable length or lead wire: 4 meter

Cable insulation: pt fe insulation

Configuration: 3 wire configuration
S.NO
DESCRIPTION
VALUE
1
Melting temperature
65Â°C
2
Thermal conductivity (solid)
0.1383 W/mÂ°C
3
Thermal conductivity (liquid)
0.1383 W/mÂ°C
4
Specific heat (solid)
2890 J/kg.K
5
Specific heat (liquid)
2890 J/kg.K
6
Density (solid)
947 kg/m3
7
Density (liquid)
750 kg/m3
8
Latent heat
190 J/kg
S.NO
DESCRIPTION
VALUE
1
Melting temperature
65Â°C
2
Thermal conductivity (solid)
0.1383 W/mÂ°C
3
Thermal conductivity (liquid)
0.1383 W/mÂ°C
4
Specific heat (solid)
2890 J/kg.K
5
Specific heat (liquid)
2890 J/kg.K
6
Density (solid)
947 kg/m3
7
Density (liquid)
750 kg/m3
8
Latent heat
190 J/kg

Temperature range: 20Â°C TO 540Â°C Table: 1 Variation Values of PCM
Fig.4 Thermal Insulation


INSULATION MATERIAL
Thermal insulation is blocking or reducing heat transfer between two objects (heat transfer is energy moving from one thing to another because of a difference in temperature) [4]. Thermal conductivity is 0.028 W/m.k

PUMPS
C.R.I. Self priming mono block pump sets is powerdriven by a totally enclosed fan cooled AC induction two pole motor, suitable for continuous duty.

PRESSURE GAUGE
Pressure gauge, instrument for measuring the condition of a fluid (liquid or gas) that is specified by the force that the fluid would exert, when at rest, on a unit area, such as pounds per square inch or new tons per square centimeter. Pressure gauge ranges from 0 to 5bar.

MASS FLOW METER
A mass flow meter, also known as an inertial flow meter is a device that measures mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through a tube. The mass flow rate is the mass of the fluid traveling past a fixed point per unit time.

TEMPERATURE INDICATOR:
Temperature indicators used to indicate or measuring the temperature at corresponding area. Using thermal indicators are 12 cable connections with two segments (red and white). Temperature range measure 20Â°C to 550Â°C. Digital temperature is measured.
Fig.5 Temperature Indicator
Sensible Heat energy
Time
Mass flow meter reading
Ta
Ti
To
T1
T2
T3
10 AM
12
LPM
40oC
42oC
40oC
40oC
40oC
40oC
11 AM
12
LPM
48oC
49oC
48oC
48oC
48oC
48oC
12
NOON
12
LPM
58oC
60oC
59oC
58oC
58oC
58oC
1 PM
12
LPM
70oC
71oC
70oC
70oC
70oC
70oC
2 PM
12
LPM
74oC
75oC
74oC
7oC
73oC
74oC
3 PM
12
LPM
76oC
77oC
76oC
76oC
75oC
76oC
4 PM
12
LPM
76oC
77oC
76oC
76oC
75oC
76oC
Sensible Heat energy
Time
Mass flow meter reading
Ta
Ti
To
T1
T2
T3
10 AM
12
LPM
40oC
42oC
40oC
40oC
40oC
40oC
11 AM
12
LPM
48oC
49oC
48oC
48oC
48oC
48oC
12
NOON
12
LPM
58oC
60oC
59oC
58oC
58oC
58oC
1 PM
12
LPM
70oC
71oC
70oC
70oC
70oC
70oC
2 PM
12
LPM
74oC
75oC
74oC
74oC
73oC
74oC
3 PM
12
LPM
76oC
77oC
76oC
76oC
75oC
76oC
4 PM
12
LPM
76oC
77oC
76oC
76oC
75oC
76oC


EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS Table: 2 Analysis of Sensible Heat

EFFICIENCY PARAMETER WITHOUT PCM
Table: 3 Variations of Values without PCM
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
VALUE
VOLUME
V
215
litres
INITIAL TEMPERATURE
Ti
28Â°C
HEAT RADIATION
Rin
945.28
W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED
1 hr
FINAL TEMPERATURE
To
76Â°C

LATENT HEAT ENERGY
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
VALUE
VOLUME
V
215
8.835 =
206.165
INITIAL TEMPERATURE
Ti
28
HEAT RADIATION
Rin
910.58
W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED
1 hr
FINAL TEMPERATURE
To
78
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
VALUE
VOLUME
V
215
8.835 =
206.165
INITIAL TEMPERATURE
Ti
28
HEAT RADIATION
Rin
910.58
W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED
1 hr
FINAL TEMPERATURE
To
78
Table: 4 Analysis of Latent Heat Energy

CALCULATION
VOLUME OF THE TANK:
VOLUME= AREA* LENGTH
Area (A) = Â¶/4 *D2
V tank= 0.200 mÂ³ (or) 200 litres
VOLUME OF PCM:
= (4/3) Â¶(D/2)3(4) ()Â³
9. CONCLUSION
Paraffin wax is a good PCM for energy storages in latent heat storages system. It has a suitable storages system. It has a suitable transition temperature range of 28 Â°C to 78
Â°C and relatively high latent heat of 190 KJ/kg. So that sensible heat is 35.11KJ is compare to latent heat energy is 44.724 KJ it is greater than of sensible heat. Comparing
= (4/3) Â¶(0.075
3 2
/2)3
with SHE and LTES is 9.614 KJ of energy is excess energy storage.
= 0.22 m per single PCM ball
TOTAL VOLUME OF THE PCM = 40 *0.22
PCM = 8.83 mm or 8.83 litre
SENSIBLE HEAT ENERGY
ENERGY ABSORBED PER ONE HOUR
Q = m Cp (TfTw)
m = 215 litre or 0.215m Cp = 4.18 KJ/kg
Final temp Tf = 40.4Â°C
Initial temp Ti =34Â°C
Q= 0.200 4.18 (40.4 34)
= 5.7516 KJ
HEAT STORAGE PER HOUR IS 5.57516 KJ
In time interval of 12 noon to 1 pm is
= 4.18(70.258.6)
= 8.424 KJ
LATENT HEAT ENERGY:
Q= mcp(T1T2)+m(^H)+Mpcm cp(TfTw)
Volume of with PCM =volume of water tank – volume of PCM
= 2008.83 = 191.17 litre
Amount of energy storage /hour
= 191.17 4.18(68.4 – 59) + (5.2*190) Q = 8100.84 J + 988 J
Q = 9.088KJ
In time interval of 11 am to 12 noon is
= 191.17 4.19 (68.4 59) + 5.2(190) + 5.2(2.89)(5968.9)
= 9.540 KJ

RESULT AND DISCUSSION COMPARE SHE AND LHE

COMPARE THE AMOUNT ENERGY
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
100
80
60
40
20
10 
11 
12 
1 
2 
3 
4 
42 
49 
60 
71 
75 
77 
77 
41 
49 
65 
69 
72 
78 
80 
10 
11 
12 
1 
2 
3 
4 
42 
49 
60 
71 
75 
77 
77 
41 
49 
65 
69 
72 
78 
80 
0
SENSIBLE HEAT
LATERAL HEAT
Fig.5 Comparative Analysis of SHE & LHS
10. REFERENCE

Shuhong Li, Yongxin Zhang, Kai Zhang, Xianliang Li, Yang Li, Xiaosong Zhang, Study on performance of storage tanks in solar water heater system in charge and discharge progress, Energy Proc. 48 (2014) 384393.

Luisa f.cabeza.( 2015), Advanced in thermal energy storage system, method and application, woodhead publication, pp.185344

A.S. Ramana, R. Venkatesh, V. Antony Aroul Raj, R. Velraj (2014), Experimental investigation of the LHS system and comparison of the stratication performance with the SHS system using CFD simulationhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.solener.2014.02.0090038 092X/2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Y.B. Tao, YaLing He (2018) A review of phase change material and performance enhancement method for latent heat storage system, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.028 Received 9 December 2016; Received in revised form 17 April 2018; Accepted 13 May 2018 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 93 (2018) 245259 13640321/ Â© 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

G.Murali ,K.Mayilsamy ,B.Mubarak Ali , A Review of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems Vol. 787 (2015)

Dr. C. Dhandapani Study of Squeeze Casting on Metal Matrix Composite – AlSic (P) Substance, International Journal of Information And Computing Science (IJICS), Volume 5, Issue 9, 2018.