 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 24
 Authors : Bansi D. Raja, R. L. Jhala
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV4IS10028
 Volume & Issue : NCIMACEMT – 2016 (Volume 4 – Issue 10)
 Published (First Online): 30072018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers using TeachingLearning based Optimization Algorithm
Bansi D. Raja
Department of Mechanical Engineering Indus University
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
R. L. Jhala
Department of Mechanical Engineering Marwadi Education Foundation Rajkot, India
Abstract This study explores the application of teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, a recently developed advanced optimization technique, for design optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers from economic view point. Minimization of total annual cost is considered as an objective function. Three design variables such as shell internal diameter, outer tube diameter and baffle spacing are considered for optimization. Two different case studies are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. The results of optimization obtained using TLBO algorithm is compared with those obtained by using other optimization algorithm.
Keywords Teachinglerning based optimization algorithm; Shell and tube heat exchanger; optimization;
INTRODUCTION
Heat exchangers are used in industrial process to recover heat between two process fluids. Shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) are the most widely used heat exchangers in process industries The design of STHEs, including thermodynamic and fluid dynamic design, cost estimation and optimization, represent a complex process containing an integrated whole of design rules and empirical knowledge of various fields [1, 2].The design of STHEs involves a large number of geometric and operating variables as a part of the search for an exchanger geometry that meets the heat duty requirement and a given set of design constrains.
There are many previous studies on the optimization of
[8] carried out comparison between actual installed heat exchangers, designed resorting to a leading commercial software tool, and the corresponding equipment configurations obtained by a genetic algorithmbased software tool, developed for optimal heat exchangers design. Asadi et al. [9] approach the design optimization problem of STHE using Cuckoosearchalgorithm. Hadidi and Nazari [10, 11] adopt the biogeographybased algorithm and imperialist competitive algorithm to solve the STHE problem from economic view point. Several other investigators [1219] used different strategies for various objectives to optimize shell and tube heat exchanger design.The main objectives of this study are to optimize the influential parameter of STHEs from economic point of view using recently developed teachinglearning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. Ability of the considered algorithm is demonstrated using two different case studies. The results obtained using the TLBO are compared with those obtained by using GA and traditional method.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELL AND TUBE HEAT ESCHANGERS
Evolution of heat exchanger performance in the present work is based on Kerns methodology.
A. Tubeside heat transferand pressure drop
According to flow regime, the tube side heat transfer coefficient (ht) is computed from following correlation,
heat exchanger. Several investigators had used different
k Re Pr d
1/3
optimization techniques considering different objective
h t 1.86
t t i
If Re
2300
functions to optimize heat exchanger design. Selbas et al. [2] t d
L t
(1)
used genetic algorithm (GA) for optimal design of STHEs, for achieving optimal design parameters. Ozcelik [3] considered mixed integer nonlinear programming problem of STHE
i
k
t t
f Re Pr
taking in to account the sizing and exergy cost of the STHE.
h t 2 (2300<Re <104 )
(2)
Caputo et al. [4] carried out heat exchanger design based on economic optimization using GA. Fesanghary et al. [5] carried out the optimization of influential parameter of STHE from economic point of view by applying harmony search
t d
i 1.07 12.7
k
f 0.5
2
t
Pr 2 / 3 1
t
0.14
algorithm. WildiTremblay and Gosselin [6] used GA to
h 0.023 t Re 0.8 Pr 1/3 t
For Re
10000
(3)
d
i w
minimize the STHE cost. The author had considered the t t t t
maintenance of STHE also. Rao and Patel [7] used Particle
swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the design optimization of shell and tube heat exchanges. Caputo et al.
Flow velocity for tube side is found by,
v 4mt
NP
P 1 m P m P
t d 2
N
(4)
t t s s
(11)
t t t
Nt is number of tubes and NP is the number of tube passes. Tube side pressure drop include distributed pressure drop along the tube length and concentrated pressure losses in elbows and in the inlet and outlet nozzle [1].
Where, mt and ms is the tube side and shell side mass flow rate respectively in kg/s.
C. Cost estimation
Adopting Halls correlation [20], the capital investment Ci
v 2 L
P t t f
p N
p
is computed as a function of the exchanger surface area.
i
t 2 d t
(5)
C a a Aa / 3
(12)
1 2
i
Constant p is given different values by different authors. Kern [1] suggested p = 4 and same value utilized in the present work.
B. Shellside heat transferand pressure drop
Kerns formulation for segmental baffle shell and tube
Where, a1 = 8000, a2 = 259.2 and a3 = 0.93 for exchanger made with stainless steel for both shell and tubes [20].
The total discounted operating cost related to pumping power to overcome friction losses is computed from the following equation,
exchanger is used for computing shell side heat transfer coefficient hs [1].
Co PCe H
(13)
0.14
ny C
k
C o
od
h 0.36 t Re 0.55 Pr 1/ 3 s
(6)
x 1 1 i x
(14)
d
e
s s s
wts
Where, de is the shell hydraulic diameter. Cross section area normal to flow direction is determined by [1],
Where, Co and Cod is the annual operating cost (/yr) and total discounted operating cost (). H is the annual operating time (h/yr) and i is the annual discount rate (%).
s s
A D B 1 do
t
S
(7)

Objective function
Total cost Ctot is taken as the objective function, which
Where, Ds is the shell diameter, do is the tube diameter, B
is baffle spacing and St is the tube pitch.
includes capital investment (Ci), energy cost (Ce), annual operating cost (Co) & total discounted operating cost (Cod) [4].
The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) depends on both
Ctot Ci Cod
(15)
the tube side and shell side heat transfer coefficient and correction factor F is calculated using [1] as,
U 1
1 R do R 1
Above equation is considered as objective function in the present work. The procedure is repeated computing new value of exchanger area (A), exchanger length (L), total cost (Ctot) and a corresponding exchanger architecture meeting the
specifications. Each time the optimization algorithm changes
h
i t
s
(8)
the values of the design variables do, Ds and B in an attempt to minimize the objective function.
Where, Rfs and Rft is the shell side and tube side fouling factor respectively. Considering overall heat transfer coefficient, the heat exchanger surface area (A) is computed by,
TEACHING LEARNING BASED OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM (TLBO)
Teachinglearning method is the core of any education system. Inspired by the idea of teaching and learning, Rao et
A Q
U F LMTD
(9)
al. [2122] introduced an innovative approach called teaching learningbased optimization (TLBO) algorithm. The algorithm simulates two fundamental modes of learning: (i) through
Where, F is the fouling factor. The length of heat exchanger is calculated using this heat transfer area calculated from the above equation. The shell side pressure drop is estimated by,
v 2 L D
teacher and (ii) interacting with the other learners. TLBO is a population based algorithm where a group of students (i.e learner) is considered as population and the different subjects offered to the learners is analogous with the different design variables of the optimization problem. The grades of a learner in each subject represent a possible solution to the
P f s s s
(10)
optimization problem (value of design variables). The best
s s 2
B de
solution in the entire population is considered as the teacher.
Considering pumping efficiency (), pumping power (P) computed by.
The working of TLBO algorithm is split in to two parts as explained below.

Teacher phase
In this section of the algorithm, learners learn through a teacher. The mean of class depends on the quality of learners. A good teacher tries to bring the level of learners to his or her level in terms of knowledge, but to achieve the same level not only depends on the teacher but also depends on the capability of learners in the class to capture the knowledge shared by the teacher. So, it follows the random process depending on different factors.
Assume that number of learners (i.e. population) is n, number of subject (i.e. design variables) is m, M is the mean of the learners (population) and T be the teacher (best solution). T will try to move M toward its level. Let TF is a teaching factor that decide the value of the mean to be changed, and r is a random number whose value is in the range of [0, 1]. The solution is modified in the teacher phase according to the difference between the existing and the new mean. The Modified solution is expressed as:
cases. The resulting optimal exchangers architectures obtained by TLBO were compared with the results obtained using GA and with original design solution given by the Kern [1]. In order to allow a consistence comparison, cost function of all the approaches were computed as described in previous section. In the TLBO approach following upper and lower bounds for the optimization variables were imposed: Shell inside diameter (Ds) ranging between 0.1 m to 1.5 m; Tubes outer diameter (do) ranging between 0.015 m to 0.051 m; Baffle spacing (B) ranging from 0.05 m to 0.5 m. All value of discounted operating costs were computed with ny =10 yr, annual discount rate (i) =10%, energy cost (Ce) =0.12 /kW h and an annual amount of work hours H =7000 y/hr. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is implemented.
Anew Aold r T
T M
Fig.1 STHE geometry with tube pitch pattern arrangement
i, j i, j ij j F j
(16)
Where, i=1,2,,n, j=1,2,,m. TF is set to either 1 or 2 and decided randomly with equal probability given as TF = round[1 + rand(0, 1){21}].

Learne phase
In the second section of the algorithm, Learners increase their knowledge through the interaction between themselves. A learner interrelates randomly with other learners with the help of formal communications, presentations, group discussions, etc. A learner learns something better or new if the other learner has better knowledge than him/her.
In the learning phase, two random solutions i &k are selected and the solution is updated as:
If (f (Ai) < f (Ak))
Table 2 shows the optimized parameters of the first case study obtained using TLBO and its comparison with the optimized parameters obtained using GA and traditional method.
TABLE 1. PROCESS INPUT AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
A A r A A
new old old old i, j i, j ij i, j k , j
A A r A A
Else
new old old old i, j i, j ij k , j i, j
where i k
where i k
(17)
Case1 
Case2 

Shell Side: Methanol 
Tube side: Sea water 
Shell Side: Kerosene 
Tube side: Crude oil 

Mass flow (kg/s) 
27.80 
68.90 
5.52 
18.80 
Tinput (C) 
95.00 
25.00 
199.00 
37.80 
Toutput (C) 
40.00 
40.00 
93.30 
76.70 
Density (kg/m3) 
750.00 
995.00 
850.00 
995.00 
Specific heat (KJ/kg K) 
2.84 
4.20 
2.47 
2.05 
Viscosity (Pa s) 
0.00034 
0.0008 
0.0004 
0.00358 
Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 
0.19 
0.59 
0.13 
0.13 
Fouling resistance 
0.00033 
0.0002 
0.00061 
0.00061 
(18)
Accept if it gives better function value. Next section describe the application of TLBO algorithm for the design optimization of STHE/
CASE STUDY AND RESULT DISCUSSION
The usefulness of the present approach using TLBO in design optimization of Shell and tube heat exchanger is assessed by analyzing two case studies which was earlier assess by Caputo et al. [4] using GA approach. The schematic diagram of STHE with tube pitch pattern is shown in Fig.1.
Case1: 4.34(MW) duty, methanol Sea water exchanger
Case2: 1.44(MW) duty, kerosene crude oil exchanger.
The original design specifications, shown in Table 1 were supplied as an input to the described algorithm for both the
It is observed from the result that a significant increase in number of tubes reduces the tube side flow velocity which consecutively reduces the tube side heat transfer coefficient in the present approach. The reduction in shell diameter increases the shell side flow velocity which consecutively increases the shell side heat transfer coefficient in the present approach. So, the overall effect of this higher shell side heat transfers coefficient result in increase in overall heat transfer coefficient which in turn leads to reduction in heat exchanger area and length in the present approach. Because of reduction in heat exchanger area the capital investment is also decreased
corresponding to 4.83% in the present approach. The reduction in tube side flow velocity reduces the tube side pressure drop while the high shell side flow velocity increases the shell side pressure drop. Therefore, increment in the annual pumping cost about 4.55% was observed in the present case. Overall the combined effect of capital investment and operating costs led to a reduction of the total cost of 3.82% in the present approach as compared to GA approach.
TABLE 2. PROCESS INPUT AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Output Parameters 
Literature Value 
GA [4] 
TLBO 
L (m) 
4.83 
3.379 
3.283 
do (m) 
0.02 
0.016 
0.015 
B (m) 
0.356 
0.5 
0.5 
Ds (m) 
0.894 
0.83 
0.7953 
St (m) 
0.025 
0.02 
0.0187 
Nt 
918 
1567 
1592 
vt (m/s) 
0.75 
0.69 
0.6769 
Ret 
14925 
10936 
10772.2 
ft 
0.028 
0.031 
0.0308 
Pt (Pa) 
6251 
4298 
5426.1 
vs (m/s) 
0.58 
0.44 
0.466 
Res 
18381 
11075 
10976.3 
fs 
0.33 
0.357 
0.3567 
Ps (Pa) 
35789 
13267 
14211 
U (W/m2K) 
615 
660 
705.4 
A (m2) 
278.6 
262.8 
246.18 
Ci () 
51507 
49259 
46876.8 
Cod () 
12973 
5818 
6095.8 
Ctot () 
64480 
55077 
52972.6 
to
ala 54500
Fig. 2 shows the convergence of the objective function using both the approaches. It is observed from the figure that the convergence rate of TLBO algorithm is very fast compared to GA approach.
57500
57000
56500
)( 56000
oc 55500
un 55000
TLBO
GA
T 54000
53500
53000
52500
0
100
200
300
400
500
Function evaluations
Fig. 2 Convergence of GA and TLBO algorithms
Table 3 shows the comparison of the optimized parameter obtained for the second case study using present approach with the earlier optimized parameter obtained using GA and traditional method. The original design assumed a heat exchanger with four tube side passage (with square pitch pattern) and one shell side passage. The same configuration is retained in the present approach. In this case higher tube side flow velocity increases the tube side heat transfer coefficient; similarly high shell side flow velocity increases the shell side heat transfer coefficient. Because of combined increment in
tube side and shell side heat transfer coefficient an 8.85% increment in overall heat transfer coefficient was observed in the present approach. As a result of high overall heat transfer coefficient, reduction in heat exchanger area and length was observed in the present approach. The capital investment therefore decreased by 5.1% in the present approach. The higher tube side and shell side flow velocity increases the tube side and shell side pressure drop. Therefore, increment in the pumping cost was observed in the present case. Overall the reduction in capital investment and increment in pumping cost results in 1.87% reduction in total investment is observed using present approach.
TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
Output Parameters 
Literature Value 
GA [4] 
TLBO 
L (m) 
4.88 
2.153 
1.56 
do (m) 
0.025 
0.02 
0.015 
B (m) 
0.127 
0.12 
0.1112 
Ds (m) 
0.539 
0.63 
0.59 
St (m) 
0.031 
0.025 
0.0187 
Nt 
158 
391 
646 
vt (m/s) 
1.44 
0.87 
0.93 
Ret 
8227 
4068 
3283 
ft 
0.033 
0.041 
0.044 
Pt (Pa) 
49245 
14009 
16926 
vs (m/s) 
0.47 
0.43 
0.495 
Res 
25281 
18327 
15844 
fs 
0.315 
0.331 
0.337 
Ps (Pa) 
24909 
15717 
19745 
U (W/m2K) 
317 
376 
409.3 
A (m2) 
61.5 
52.95 
47.5 
Ci () 
19007 
17599 
16707 
Cod () 
8012 
2704 
3215.6 
Ctot () 
27020 
20303 
19922.6 
al 20600
un
Fig. 3 shows the convergence of the objective function using both the approaches. Here also convergence rate of TLBO algorithm is very fast compared to GA approach.
21600
21400
21200
TLBO
GA
ts 21000
la 20800
ato 20400
20200
20000
19800
0
100
200
300
400
500
Function evaluations
Fig.3 Convergence of PSO, CSO and HTS algorithms
T
Overall, the combined effect of reduction in capital investment and increment in operating costs result in reduction of the total cost of about 4.33% (compared to GA), 0.82% (compared to PSO), 0.32% (compared to CSO) observed using proposed algorithm. Fig. 2 shows the convergence of the objective function using all the approaches. It is observed from the figure that the convergence rate of HTS algorithm is very fast compared to rest of the approaches.
CONCLUSION
This study demonstrates successful application of TLBO algorithm for the optimal design of shell and tube heat exchanger from economic view point. In the present work three design variables were optimize in order to identify the cheapest possible solution. The algorithms ability was demonstrated using a case study and the performance is compared with GA and traditional method. Referring to results, saving in total cost observed using TLBO as compared to GA and traditional method. Moreover, TLBO converge to optimum value of the objective function within few function evaluations which shows the improvement potential of the TLBO algorithm for heat exchanger optimization. Furthermore, TLBO is simple in concept, few in parameters and easy for implementation. These features boost the applicability of the TLBO algorithm particularly in thermal system design, where the problems are usually complex and have a large number of variables and discontinuity in the objective function
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