Noise and Emission Control of A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine & Heat Recovery using Aqua Silencer

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Noise and Emission Control of A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine & Heat Recovery using Aqua Silencer

Aman Ajay Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Pratish Prashant Bandawar

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Laris D Britto

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Sarvesh Shailesh Thakur

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Prof. Dipak Chaudhari

Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering

Vidyavardhinis College of Engineering and Technology Vasai, India

Abstract- One of the key threats to society and the environment is known to be air pollution, which has a detrimental impact on human beings and the environment. The main contributor to air pollution is the emission of gasses from vehicles such as carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, etc. In view of addressing this major contributor, the paper concentrated on changing the traditional silencer by incorporating a modified Aqua Silent, which minimizes the generation of such a polluting weapon. Compared to traditional silencer, Aqua Silencer is fitted with small modifications to the engine exhaust tube. The activated charcoal layers manage the emission of the modified aqua silencer. Environment harmful gases are absorbed efficiently within the silencer and keep engines environment friendly. Aqua silencer also addresses the noise pollution concern as sound produced within water is less audible because of small sprockets in water molecules lower its amplitude and so lowers the sound. Also the heat carried away from the exhaust of the engines are wasted here the aqua silencer also works for heat recovery i.e. the heat from the engine is used to heat the water which can be used in the industry or etc for different purposes.

Keywords- Aqua silencer, charcoal layer, perforated tube, emission control, heat recovery system.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Background -The aqua silencer is an attempt in reducing the increasing emission from automobiles and industry engines exhaust system. Aqua silencer is used to minimize the harmful effect of polluting agent in exhaust gases. In addition to the emission control the aqua silencer also lowers the exhaust sound reducing the sound pollution. This report presents an idea regarding design, fabrication

    and installation of an aqua silencer on a stationary single cylinder diesel engine.

    Motivation -It has been long observed that diesel engines play a crucial role in the transport industry, agriculture, mining and many other industries. Considering the available fuel resources and the present technological development, diesel fuel is evidently indispensable. In general, the consumption of fuel is an index for finding out the economic strength of any country. In spite of everything, we cannot ignore the harmful effects of the large mass of the burnt gases, which erodes the purity of our environment every day. An aqua silencer is used to control the noise and emission in IC engines. The reason why we opt for an aqua silencer is that, air pollution and noise pollution causes physical ill effects to human beings and also the environment. The main contributor of air pollution is automobiles releasing gases like carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons, etc. In order to cut down on emission of these gases, we can use an aqua silencer.

    Outline -An aqua silencer consists of a perforated tube which is installed at the end of the exhaust pipe. The perforated tube contains holes of different diameters. Around the circumference of the perforated tube, activated charcoal layer is provided. The charcoal layer absorbs the carbon content in the exhaust and therefore purifies the exhaust. After the charcoal layer the exhaust comes in contact with the lime water which further purifies the exhaust, the lime water used here act as a cleaning agent. The water & charcoal is used so it is called as hybrid Aqua silencer & it is useful in marine & Boats, Automobile etc.

    Fig1 Schematic diagram of aqua silencer

    The emission can be controlled by using the activated charcoal layer and Lime water. Activated charcoal layer is highly porous and possess extra free valences so it has high absorption capacity and lime water chemically reacts with the exhaust gases from the engine and release much less polluted gases to the environment. The noise and smoke level is considerably less than the conventional silencer; there's no need of a catalytic converter and it is easy to install.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED AQUA SILENCER.

    Fig2 2D layout of the system

    This system comprises of 2 stages. The first stage is designed for the purification of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold, and the second stage comprises of a helical copper coil which act as a heat exchanger.

    Exhaust Treatment

    Exhaust inlet to the silencer

    HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

    The exhaust heat when directly exposed to the atmosphere creates harmful effect to the environment resulting increase in global warming. Thus, introducing a copper coil inside the system which conventionally transfers the exhaust heat to the coils further to the fluid flowing in the coil. Resulting decrease in the final exhaust gas heat. moreover, the heated fluid can be further used where preheating is required.

    OBJECTIVE

    The following are the objectives of this project:

    • Emission control of a stationary single cylinder four stroke diesel engine.

    • Reduce the noise of exhaust of the engine.

    • Reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas before releasing in the atmosphere.

    • Providing average hot water to the engine for cooling.

    Exhaust gas from the outlet of combustion chamber enters the silencer this exhaust is at temperature higher than 200

    Perforated tube.

    The mass exhaust will breakdown to small bubbles here in this process. The exhaust from the engine enters the perforated tube and passes from the holes of four different sizes which leads to breakdown of the large mass of exhaust gas to break down into smaller masses.

    Charcoal layer.

    Captures the exhaust particles (carbon, Sulphur & particulate matter). Exhaust gas from the combustion chamber contains harmful contents which are been absorbed by the activated

    charcoal layer here in this process

    Lime water.

    To reduce the noise & act as a wash for the system. The solution here act as a wash for the system the contains trapped by the activated charcoal are still harmful so here in this process the lime water nullifies the effect of the present particles and make it harmless.

    CO(g) +H2O(l) CO2(g) + H2(g)

    2HCL + Ca (OH)2 CaCl2+ 2H2 H2SO4 + Ca (OH)2 CaSO4 +2H2O Ca (OH)2(a)+ CO2(g) CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)

    CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 Ca (HCO3)2 (colourless)

    Exhaust outlet from silencer

    The exhaust having low emission, less noise, low temperature is released in atmosphere. After all the process been done the exhaust which has been fully treated for emission control and noise control is been released out in the atmosphere. This exhaust which is been set free to the atmosphere causes no harm to the environment or human beings.

    Heat Recovery System.

    Water inlet

    The exhaust from the engine is at a high temperature this exhaust contins lots of heat which is of no use i.e. waste

    Here the heat is used to heat fluid which can be used in industries for different applications. Water with the help of pump is been pumped to the silencer (copper coils)

    Copper coils

    It acts as a heat exchanger. The cold water inside the tube gains heat from the exhaust, which makes the water hot and also cools the exhaust. Fluid pumped to the copper coil gains heat from the exhaust present in the silencer and in this way the heat which was been wasted earlier can be used for further industrial applications.

    Water outlet

    Average hot water is obtained at the outlet of the copper coils. which can be used in further industrial applications.

  3. DESIGN

    Aqua silencer & Heat recovery combine unit

    Our project is an essential part of the whole setup, according to which this whole setup is designed. The dimensions of Aqua silencer & Heat recovery unit are done accordingly. This component alone consists of several different components i.e.perforated tube, activated charcoal layer (mesh), copper coils & stand

    Fig 3 Aqua silencer & heat recovery unit.

    Fig 4 3D Cross-section View

    The exhaust tones are calculated using the following Formulae:

    CFR = Engine Speed in RPM/60 . For a two-stroke engine CFR= Engine Speed in RPM/120 For a four-stroke engine EFR = N * (CFR)

    CFR= 2200/120 For a four-stroke engine

    =18.34Hz EFR = n *(CFR)

    =1 *18.34

    =18.34 Hz

    The first 4 harmonics are to be suppressed as higher order has very little effect on noise. The diameter of the holes drilled should suppress these frequencies.

    Volume swept by each cylinder: Swept volume (Vs)

    Vs = (3.143*D*D* L)/4

    = (3.14*0.080*0.080*0.062)

    = 0.3116 lit

    Silencer volume: Volume of silencer must be at least 12 to 25 times the volume considered. Volume can be adjusted depending on the space constraint.

    Factor consider is = 16

    Silencer Volume = Factor Consider x Volume = 0.3116 * 16 = 4.98Lit

    Diameter of hole to be drilled(d) = 1.29 * n0.5 =1.29 * 10.5=1.29 mm

    i.e. d > 1.29mm

    PERFORATED TUBE

    diameter of perforated tube ID:-40mm OD:- 44mm

    And length= 10 * Pipe diameter < L< 16 * Pipe diameter 440< L<704

    Therefore L= 500mm

    Fig 5 Perforated tube

    Size of the activated charcoal layer particles is 8 mm 12 mm in size

    Also in the earlier systems there was no method of refilling the activated charcoal after the maintenance period without destroying the mesh which leads to again make the mesh every time the maintenance is done but here we have made an arrangement which will be easy for refilling the activated charcoal without destroying the mesh.

    COPPER COILS

    Here for the heat recovery system a copper coil of outer diameter

    12.83 mm and inner diameter of 10.12 mm is being circulated in a spherical coil form inside the outer shell

    Material of the coil is selected as copper because it is suited for heat exchange application as it has high heat transfer coefficient.

    Its made up of stainless-steel grade 304 of outer diameter 42 mm, inner diameter 38mm and length 600 mm. stainless steel is selected because the perforated tube is directly in contact with the exhaust gas so it can with stand high temperature and will not rust easily.

    Perforated tube consists of holes of four different sizes i.e. 96 holes of 3 mm diameter

    100 holes of 5 mm diameter

    68 holes of 8 mm diameter

    24 holes of 10 mm diameter CHARCOAL LAYER

    OUTER SHELL

    Fig 7 Copper Coils

    As the diameter of perforated tube is selected as 44mm OD. The diameter of charcoal layer is selected accordingly

      1. .:- 44mm OD:-52mm

        Length :- Same as the length of perforated tube. i.e. 500mm

        Fig 6 Activated charcoal

        Here activated charcoal is used to purify the exhaust i.e. the carbon and other polluting contaminate. This contaminates get absorbed by the charcoal layer.

        It is made up of mild steel outer diameter 195 mm inner diameter 175 mm and 500mm in length

        Flange arrangement is done for maintenance purpose thirteen tapped holes are drilled on the flange paper gasket of thickness 8mm is used between the flanges for making the system leak proof.

        1.5

        1.5

        1.25

        1.25

        EMISSION

        EMISSION

        1

        0.5

        1

        0.5

        0.075

        0.075

        0.053

        0.053

        0

        0

        WITHOUT SETUP WITH SETUP

        WITHOUT SETUP WITH SETUP

        WITH SETUP

        WITH SETUP

        (CHARCOAL LAYER) (CHARCOAL LAYER +

        Setup. CaCO3)

        (CHARCOAL LAYER) (CHARCOAL LAYER +

        Setup. CaCO3)

        "K"

        Light Absorption coefficient.

        "K"

        Light Absorption coefficient.

        Fig 8&9 Outer shell with flange arrangement DETAIL DIMENSIONS

        Fig 10 Graph of Emission Control.

        SR.

        COMPONENT

        MATERIAL

        QTY

        DIMENSION

        (mm)

        1.

        Perforated tube

        SS

        1

        OD= 42 ID=38 LENGTH=600

        2.

        Outer shell

        MS

        1

        OD= 195 ID=175 LENGTH=500

        3.

        Flange

        MS SS

        2

        1

        OD=220 THICKNESS=5

        4.

        Coil

        Copper

        1

        OD=12.83 ID=10.12

        SR.

        COMPONENT

        MATERIAL

        QTY

        DIMENSION

        (mm)

        1.

        Perforated tube

        SS

        1

        OD= 42 ID=38 LENGTH=600

        2.

        Outer shell

        MS

        1

        OD= 195 ID=175 LENGTH=500

        3.

        Flange

        MS SS

        2

        1

        OD=220 THICKNESS=5

        4.

        Coil

        Copper

        1

        OD=12.83 ID=10.12

        WITHOUT SOLUTION VS WITH SOLUTION

        0.075

        "K"

        Light Absorption coefficient.

        "K"

        Light Absorption coefficient.

        0.08

        0.06

        0.04

        0.02

        0

        WITH SETUP (CHARCOAL LAYER)

        0.053

        WITH SETUP (CHARCOAL LAYER + CaCO3)

        Table 1 Measured Dimensions of Components

  4. RESULTS & DISSCUSION

    Table 2 Emission Control Table.

    Fig 11 Graph of without Vs With solution

  5. CONCLUSION

        1. While experimenting with the setup the emission count was 0.053K and 0.075K which lies within the permissible limits i.e. 2.45K

          Experiment

          Light absorption coefficient

          K

          (Permissible Limit 2.450)

          Without Setup

          1.25

          With Setup (charcoal layer)

          0.07234

          With Setup (Charcoal Layer +CaCO3)

          0.05334

          Experiment

          Light absorption coefficient

          K

          (Permissible Limit 2.450)

          Without Setup

          1.25

          With Setup (charcoal layer)

          0.07234

          With Setup (Charcoal Layer +CaCO3)

          0.05334

        2. The emission count with CaCO3 is 0.053K and the emission count without CaCO3 is 0.075K which shows that we have an 29.34% of drop in the emission with CaCO3 Solution.

  6. FUTURE WORK

    To see if any other solution in replacement of CaCO3 can give the same or better resul.

    The copper coils arrangement is to be done in such a way that it extracts more amount of heat from the silencer.

    Making the model smaller in size so it can be used in automobiles.

  7. REFERENCES

  1. Krause, P., Weltens, H., and Hutchins, S., "Advanced Design of Automotive Exhaust Silencer Systems," SAE Technical Paper 922088, 1992,

  2. Renato Barbieri, NilsonBarbieri, Finite element acoustic simulation based shape optimization of a muffler, Applie Acoustics, 67 (4), 2006, Pages 346357

  3. M.G. Prasad, A four load method for evaluation of acoustical source impedance in a duct, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 114 (2), 1987, 347-356

  4. Manoj Kumar Solankia, Sabin Kumar Mishrab, K.K. Shuklac, Jeeoot Singhd, Nonlinear Free Vibration of Laminated Composite and Sandwich Plates Using Multiquadric Collocations, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2 (45), 2015, 30493055

  5. Apurv Kumar, Numerical Study Of Hydrodynamics Und Vacuum Conditions In Bubbling Fluidised Beds International Journal of Advanced Materials Manufacturing and Characterization, 1 (1), 2012.

  6. Mehta Nirava,Sachindra Doshia Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat 364002, India 5th International Conference of

    Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016)

  7. Experimental Investigation on Innovative Modification of Aqua Silencer Haodong Ji, Wenbo Xie, Wen Liu, Xiaona Liu, Dongye Zhao – Sorption of dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons by activated charcoals: Effects of oil dispersants S0269- 7491(19)33308-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113416

  8. Ali Akbar Abbasian Arania,, Reza Moradia, Shell and tube heat exchanger optimization using new baffle and tube configuration

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