Magnetic Abrasive Flow Machining Process Review and its Experimental Investigation

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Magnetic Abrasive Flow Machining Process Review and its Experimental Investigation

Rajbir Singhl1, Sachin Dhull2

1,2Assistant Professor,

Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology, Delhi, India

Abstract:- The present paper explains different work done on conventional and non conventional abrasive flow machining process. This process employs the finishing of internal surfaces of work by extrusion pressure. In the paper different in-house developed polymer media is used having aluminium oxide abrasives embedded into it. The experimentation was performed on magnetic abrasive flow machine. The experimental results were optimized using Taguchi L9 technique and it was found that the experimental values were in close approximation with the desired values os material removal and surface roughness calculated before performance.

Keywords: Abrasive, media, Taguchi


    In abrasive flow machining the fine finishing of workpiece is done and a lot of work has been done in this field It is a non conventional technique of material removal. In this paper, different polymer media were prepared and their practical usage was checked [1]. The effect of ECM voltage, number of extrusion cycles and magnetic supply voltage has been studied in detail and explained graphically. The internal surfaces of the workpiece are finished to nano-scale using the impact force provided by abrasive laden media [2]. The different input parameters taken were rotational speed, extrusion pressure, number of cycles, supply voltage, abrasive mesh size, whereas output response i.e. material removal and surface roughness were optimized using the minitab software. In the paper [3], the preparation steps of electromagnets is studied and different roughness graphs are plotted and studied in details. Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a novel technique having potential to provide high precision and economical means of finishing in a inaccessible areas and complex internal passages on otherwise difficult to machine material and component [4].

    With the use of magnetic field around the work piece in abrasive flow machining, we can increase the

    material removal rate as well as the surface finish [5]. The strength properties of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete was determined by using steel and polypropylene fibres with total volume of fibre fraction of 0.75% and the results were analyzed to determine the optimum combination of fibre which gives better performance in terms of strength [6]. In the paper, the different polymer media viz. styrene butadiene rubber, nitrile and natural rubber based media has been developed and subsequently the XRD and FTIR analysis has been done [7]. In this study, an attempt is made to develop a new abrasive, alumina with Carbon non tubes (CNTs) in viscoelastic medium. CNTs in house produced through chemical vapour deposition technique [9]. A cost effective electrochemomagneto rotational abrasive flow finishing (ECMRAFF) setup has been designed and developed indigenously [15] . The newly developed polymer media, i.e. natural rubber, silicone rubber, nitrile and styrene butadiene rubber based media have been used in the experimentation and it was found that styrene butadiene rubber media usage resulted in highest material removal. Mathematical modeling was done for the output in terms of flux composition. The study reveals that the slag produced is dependent upon the basicity index of the flux and CaF2 used as a flux ingredients [16].


    The setup is integrated to a hydraulic press. The flow rate and pressure acting on piston of the presswere made adjustable. The upward movement of the piston (i.e. stroke length) is controlled with the help of a limit switch. Two strokes make up one cycle. A digital counter is used to count the number of cycles. It was specially designed to accommodate electromagnet poles such that the maximum magnetic pull occurs near the inner surface of the work piece.

    Figure 1: Removal of thermal recast layer (a) before AFM (b)after AFM

    The original 2 µm RaEDM finish is improved to 0.2µm with a stock removal of25 µm per surface. Fig. 1 shows the complete removal of EDM recast layer.

      1. Experimental Design and Analysis:

        Taguchi parametric design methodology was adopted. The experiments were conducted using appropriate orthogonal array (OA). An L9 (a standard 3- level OA) having 8= (9-1) degree of freedom was selected for the present analysis. The selected number of process parameters and their levels are given in the table:

        Table 1:Process Parameters and their values at different levels

        Process Parameters


        Level 1

        Level 2

        Level 3






        No. of Cycles





        Magnetic field intensity





        A properly planned and executed experiment is of the utmost importance for deriving clear and accurate conclusions Taguchi defines quality loss via his loss-function. He unites the financial loss with the functional specification through a quadratic relationship that comes from Taylor series expansion.

        L(y) = K(y-m)2

        Where, L =loss in monetary unit

        M =value at which the characteristic should be set

        The further the products characteristic varies from the target value, the greater is the loss. The loss is zero when the quality characteristic of the product meets its target value.

        In a mass production process the average loss per unit is expressed as:

        L (y) = {K (y1-m)2 + K (y2-m)2 + K (y3-m)2+ ……….. + K (yn – m)2 }


    From the bar diagram (figure 2) it is observed that MRR increases with increasing pressure and the increase is more in transition from level-1 to level-2 than in level-2 to level -3 i.e. MRR increases with decreasing slope.

        1. (b)

    MRR vs Pressure










    10 20 30

    MRR vs Pressure

    Figure 2: (a) Output graphs of mean of SN ratio for pressure, cycle and magnetic strength, (b) Effect of pressure on MRR In the table 2, it is clear that all the levels pressure field and cycles are shown with their delta or deviation values.

    Table 2: Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios


























In abrasive flow machining workpiece surface of internal areas is done and high removalis attained and the process efficiency is increased by making it hybrid. In the present paper different researchers work has been explained in detail. Then the experimentation was performed so that different parameters like pressure, magnetic field and number of cycles is set such that output result is optimized. For this purpose Taguchi and SN ratio technique is used.


  1. Sachin Dhull, R.S.Walia, Q.Murtaza, M.S.Niranjan, Modeling and Simulation of AFM Experimentation of Brass Workpiece Using Different Media, International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research Volume 04 – Issue 03 March 2019 pp. 11-19

  2. Sachin Dhull, R.S.Walia, Q.Murtaza, M.S.Niranjan, Experimental Investigation of Abrasive Flow Machining Process Alongwith Fuzzy Logic and Grey Relation Analysis, International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research Volume 04 – Issue 03 March 2019 pp. 20-27

  3. Sachin Dhull, R S Walia, Q Murtaza, Experimental Investigation and Preparation of Electromagnets and Their Effect on Surface Roughness in Abrasive Flow Machining Process, International Journal of Latest Engineering and Management Research Volume 03 – Issue 03 March 2018 pp. 74-79

  4. Arvind, Rajkumar Duhan, Sachin Dhull, Development and Parametric Optimization of Abrasive Flow Finishing (AFF) process of Aluminium Workpiece using Nylon Fixture, International Journal of All Research Education and Scientific Methods, Volume 4, Issue 7, July- 2016

  5. Sachin Dhull; Harwinder & R.S.Walia, Experimental study of process parameters for magnetic assisted AFM incorporating the drill bit helical flow effect, International Journal of Research (IJR) ,Volume 3, Issue 01, January 2016

  6. Jyoti Vashisth, Sachin Dhull, Experimental Determination Of Compressive, Split Tensile And Flexural Strength Of HFRC Using Steel And Polypropylene Fibres In Different Proportions, Journal of Engineering Research and Application Vol. 8, Issue 10 Oct 2018, pp 44-51

  7. Sachin Dhull, R S Walia, Q Murtaza, M.S.Niranjan, , Development of Different Polymer Media and Experimental Investigation of Abrasive Flow Machining Process International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. Volume 11,

    Number 7 (2018), pp. 1015-1024

  8. Himmat, R.S. Walia, Qasim Murtaza and Sachin Dhull, Study of CNT particle based abrasive media used for finishing workpiece by abrasive flow machining, Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XXIII IIT Roorkee Dec 2014

  9. Sonu Kumar, Q.Murtaza, R.S Walia, S. Dhull, P. K. Tyagi, Synthesis CNTs Particle Based Abrasive Media for Abrasive Flow Machining Process, 5th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 115 (2016) 012034 doi:10.1088/1757- 899X/115/1/012034

  10. Parvesh Ali, Sachin Dhull, R.S.Walia, Q. Murtaza, Mohit Tyagi

    ,Hybrid abrasive flow machining for nano finishing a review,

    Materials Today Proceedings 4 (2007) pp.7208-7218

  11. Sachin Dhull, M.L. Aggarwal, Automation of material handling system using solar energy for light load applications, 4th National Conference on Recent Advances in Manufacturing 26-28 June 2014 pp.202-205

  12. Sachin Dhull ,Computer applications in abrasive flow finishing process and its variants, ICPEICES 2016 DTU Delhi

  13. Sachin Dhull, R.S.W alia, Qasim Murtaza, M.S.Niranjan, Hybrid abrasive flow machining process models and their computer and industrial applications, International Conference on Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering 9-10 Dec 2016 DTU Delhi

  14. Sachin Dhull, R.S.Walia, Effect of aspect ratio on the performance and stability of hyrdrodynamic journal bearings, International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation, vol.4, issue1 (2016) 106-113

  15. Sachin Dhull, R.S. Walia, Q. Murtaza, M.S. Niranjan, Development And Characterization Of Newly Developed Polymer Media And Its Computational Flow Dynamics In Electrochemo-Magneto-Rotational Abrasive Flow Machine Fixture ICAPIE 2018

  16. Brijpal Singh, Sachin Dhull, Modelling of Slag Produced in Submerged Arc Welding, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electromechanical Technologies and Management (26- 27 July 2019) Hmr Institute of Technology & Management Delhi

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