- Open Access
- Authors : Steffi Philip Mulamoottil, Satya Sravani Sadhu, Deepa Patnaik
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV9IS02007
- Volume & Issue : ICDML – 2020 (Volume 09 – Issue 02)
- Published (First Online): 03-02-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Internet of Things for Sustainable Development in Preserving Natural Resources
Mrs. Steffi Philip Mulamoottil
Department of ECE
Sridevi Womens Engineering College
Ms. Satya Sravani Sadhu
Department of ECE
Sridevi Womens Engineering College
Mrs. Deepa Patnaik
Department of ECE
Sridevi Womens Engineering College
Abstract: Alongside the quick developments in urban areas, the requests for more offices and assets are developing step by step. The usage of natural resources is increasing tremendously. Global energy requirements are continuously increasing. Conventional methods of producing more energy to meet this growth pose a great threat to the environment. To address issues in improvement of the city, efficient use of the Internet of Things and smart frameworks are the vigorous and profitable sources. The alliance and correlation of number of IoT gadgets with each other over the internet brings about producing enormous measure of information. The reunion of benefits of IoT alongside the immense information organising in a systematized path for the advancement of a smart city is a censorious activity. To conquer this problem, a framework is used for limiting the use of resources in the light of IoT along with utilizing Big Data analytics. In this study, a structure based on social systems which integrates the physical system with the human factor is proposed for citizens use. With the proposed system, citizens take the major role actively in the processes. The problems observed by the citizens are reported directly to the system. Alongside human intervention, the utilization of sensors can keep the processes updated. The field teams of the system will analyze the problems and the task assignments are done accordingly. So the management of task assignment can be done in an optical way. Thus by efficient management, the least use of natural resources with regard to the active role by citizens is achieved.
Keywords: Resources, IoT, Big data, Energy, Environment, Smart city
Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices which are connected through the internet. It is a recent communication paradigm in which objects of everyday life will be equipped with microcontrollers, transceivers etc for digital communication and with suitable protocols which will make them able to communicate with each other and with the users becoming an integral part of the internet. The infringement in IoT is affecting the expectation for everyday comforts of a person in a valuable way. The majority of nations have ventured forward continuing national systems to actualize IoT following the consummation of pitiful administration level stages. As a result of joining present treacherous processing the live pattern has been changed day by day.
Many works have been done which are related to infrastructure issues and solutions related to smart cities with IoT and cloud. The existing works describe the cloud
computing infrastructure which is useful for smart cities. But those only deal with technology to support processing and storage of captured data. These works described how data can be managed in the cloud, not focusing on how resources can be saved simultaneously. The following sections explain the various ways for managing resources using IoT and Big Data alongside the development of smart cities.
The main and most inevitable resources for daily needs of human beings are air, water, fuel etc. Conservation of those resources meant, giving a way to protect earths natural ecosystem from destruction. The rising demand for water supply has become a big challenge for the world. The use of water, climate change and misuse of the city also reduced resources. The best way to save water is by going for waste water treatment in an efficient manner.
Similarly air pollution monitoring is also an important factor which affects living beings. In previous works, the proposed model sensors to measure the percentage of pollutants present in the particular areas of the city. By using Bluetooth manager the collected data will be sent to the server. Then we apply the ID3 data mining algorithm which is useful for the calculation of percentage of pollutants. With the help of a data mining algorithm, future predictions will be given to the particular area in the city and can also provide alarm to highly polluted areas.
The proposed method is for detection and analysis of exhaust gases produced by the gasoline vehicles by incorporating the commercially available gas sensors. Likewise fuel consumption has also been increased globally within a decade. Current works had developed vehicle activities such as fuel monitoring, vehicle location tracing, finding the nearest fuel pump and getting alert notification. The existing methods only alert the fuel level for a vehicle whereas the proposed method suggests fuel saving method using traffic light monitoring.
By the side of preserving natural resources, the proposed work introduces methods to save energy and waste management. The percentage of energy used through lighting is about 20% globally. The misuse of energy through street lights can be reduced by monitoring them. An improper treatment of Waste disposal will make all human efforts into failure. To make our natures assets pollution reluctant, proper waste management systems should be incorporated.
Water is the main constituent and vital part of all
booths etc. The vehicle which passes through the area will be sensed for the emitted gas. If the amount of gas emitted from the vehicle is above the set threshold value, then the vehicle
known forms of life. Water plays an important role in the world economy. The water needs also increased throughout the world during the past few decades. This increasing demand of water has become a major challenge. Water scarcity is more in urban areas compared to rural. In urban areas natural sources of water are less compared to rural areas which lead to scarcity.
Waste water treatment system: In order to avoid water scarcity the paper presents a new idea of water reuse management system. Waste water which can be recycled is collected in large pipes from different parts of the city like homes, industries etc. The collected water is conveyed to the wastewater reclamation facility for treatment. Water collected on a daily basis from different parts of the city will be sent to purification treatment. The amount of usage of water and the quantity of waste water obtained from an area is obtained by using Big Data collected from the area. The information is sent to the officials through IoT. After water purification it will undergo quality tests and once it passes the test, purified water will be supplied through pipelines to different parts of the city. This method of water treatment helps in reducing water scarcity problems.
Waste from industries is collected and dumped into the reservoir. These reservoirs will be mounted with leakage detection sensors and water level detectors. So the information from the reservoir is passed through IOT to the cloud storage database on a large scale. Once the reservoirs are filled with waste water then the treatment process starts.
Figure 1: Water management system
Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole. Air pollution is caused by the solid and liquid particles and certain gases that are suspended in air. These particles and gases can come from autmobiles, industries, dust etc. Here is an idea of reducing air pollution from automobiles.
Automobile pollution reduction system: In the modern world, automobiles are becoming an indispensable part of life. But the gases that are emitted from the exhaust system of a vehicle create a lot of pollution. This type of air pollution is not completely avoided but can be controlled in an efficient manner. With the help of semiconductor sensors that detect various gases, the vehicle that violates the rule of pollution board will be found. The pollution detector sensors are placed in different parts of the city like at the traffic junctions, toll
registration number is listed and sent to the central station through IoT.
The central station collects the list of vehicle registration numbers and matches the owner of the vehicle from the database. Then the concerned owner will get alert information about the fine.
Figure 2: Air pollution Management system
The conservation of fuel through energy efficient technologies may help to extend the current reserves of petroleum for future. The conservation of fuel slows the rate of atmospheric warming helps the earth to heal itself. This paper proposes a smart traffic management system using IOT which helps to provide a milestone towards smart city.
Traffic management system: Smart traffic lights are vehicle traffic control systems that combine traditional traffic light with sensors and artificial intelligence to sketch vehicle and pedestrian traffic. A large amount of fuel is wasted due to such traffic jams of vehicles. A better organized traffic system meant for the flow of vehicles on the road without idling the vehicles for a long time in traffic jams.
The proposed system counts the number of vehicles and activates the traffic light accordingly. In this system, two vehicle detecting sensors are used. One sensor is connected 500metres away from the traffic light and the second sensor is connected 1 kilometre away from traffic light. The data collected from the sensors will be sent to the operating station through an internet module. The traffic light will be operating according to the data collected.
The data from the sensors is continuously monitored and updated in the database of the operating station. This data is stored and can be used for analysis. By using this method the fuel wastage can be reduced
Figure 3: Traffic management system
Street light monitoring system: Street lights are the fatal part of any place as it gives proper lighting facility for rural as well as urban areas. It provides better night vision, secure roads and exposure to public areas. The amount of electricity consumption is more in the traditional lighting process. The overuse of energy can be avoided by incorporating smart street lights. These lights have inbuilt motion sensors which can sense the movements. Depending upon the motion detected by the sensor, the street lights will go ON and OFF. Thus this intelligent street light system saves 80 percent of electricity. The main advantage of this system is the cost of maintenance which is very less.
Figure 4: Energy-saving streetlight system
This system is equipped with LED bulbs which are triggered by motion sensors. As a person or car approaches it will be detected by a motion sensor in the closest street light and it communicates with the next light via a wireless module. The system precedes and follows the traveller or object wherever they go so that any obstruction in the area is clearly visible in advance.
Waste management system: Waste management is becoming a global concern these days. The world generates
billion tonnes of municipal solid waste annually, with at least 33% of it not managed in an environmentally safe manner, as per The World Bank Report.And it is further projected to grow to 3.40 billion tonnes by 2050. This has prompted efficiency concerns, considering the growing cries for the action on climate change. IOT is providing an effective solution across various areas. The growing use of IOT along with smart devices and sensors and machine to machine connectivity has the potential to reduce unnecessary expenses because of operational inefficiencies in trash collection processes. The Urban waste collection process holds the key to it as it is quite complex and time as well as resource consuming. Improper management of waste will be a serious threat for air, water and fuel simultaneously.
Optimization: Disposal unit loads can vary by the day, week and season. Municipalities or waste management companies can attach a sensor to a disposal unit to measure the fill level of it. These smart disposal units can then transmit the real time fill level information to waste collectors. Using this data, the IOT solution can select optimum routes for waste collectors with areas in urgent need of cleanup on priority while avoiding the units that still have room. This results in an efficient pickup process, which does not consider empty trash bins, saving fuel as well as manpower costs.
Figure 5: Waste management system
In this study, a system based on cyber physical social system methodology is proposed to allow citizens to report easily the problems they encountered. So, the problems reported by the citizens can be solved faster by the municipality crews. Mobile Phones of citizens and the devices of the field teams form the physical layer of the systems. The information gathered by the devices is stored in a cyber layer. In this layer, task assignments to the teams are actualized by the help of the knowledge of problems and field team statuses. The communication of cyber and physical layers is actualized by the internet connection. Although cyber Physical spaces diverge, they are highly integrated. With the help of the internet, integration is done and the information gathered from the physical space can be seen by the cyber space with no delay in time.
Figure 6: Maintenance System
This paper deals with various ways to save natural resources thereby establishing a smart city. Natural resources are the unavoidable part for humans as well as all living beings for their existence. With the help of emerging technologies like IoT and Big Data, a smart city will be moulded alongside saving natural resources. An air pollution tag can be installed for vehicles which can help in speeding up the air pollution management system. Implantation of solar LED panels for the smart street lights leads to the reduction of energy consumption by 10%. By 2050 the world's most of the population will be in cities. It is more important to mould a smarter city for better living without making an imbalance to the ecosystem.
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Mrs. Steffi Philip Mulamoottil is working in Sridevi Womens Engineering college Hyderabad as an assistant professor in ECE department. She is having 5 years of experience in teaching and 1 year of industrial experience in software. Her areas of interest include VLSI, Embedded systems, Communication systems, IOT, and Big Data analytics.
Ms. Satya Sravani Sadhu is working in Sridevi Womens Engineering college Hyderabad as an assistant professor in ECE department. She is having 7 years of experience in teaching. Her areas of interest include VLSI, Embedded Systems, Microwave Engineering, IOT, and Big Data analytics.
Mrs. Deepa Patnaik is working in Sridevi Womens Engineering college Hyderabad as an assistant professor in ECE department. She is having 8 years of experience in teaching. Her areas of interest include Embedded systems, Signal Processing, Control systems, IOT, and Big Data analytics.