Household Waste Management and Electricity Production using Biotechnology

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Household Waste Management and Electricity Production using Biotechnology

Mukhtar V. Basheer1, Afeef Muhammed2, Aslam Jabbar3& K. S. Selman4

1,2,3,4 UG Students Department of Civil Engineering,

Mangalam College of Engineering,Kottayam, Kerala

Abstract:- Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a bio- electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria. It converts chemical energy into electrical energy without combustion reactions. In our research soil, MFC was constructed and bio-electricity was harvested from four different types of soil samples: River soil, Paddy cultivated soil, Waste deposited soil, and Vegetable soil. Production of electricity is measured and also waste management is linked with this research.

Keywords:- Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC); River soil; Paddy cultivated soil; Waste deposited soil; Vegetable soil; Household waste management.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Increased economic growth and Social development are leading to a large gap between energy demands and the availability of fossil fuels, leading to the depletion of it. New energy sources are a major concern as the world is predicted to run out of its fossil fuels within the next fifty years. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) technology represents a new form of renewable energy as they generate an electric current from organic matter which would otherwise be considered as waste. The concept of MFC was introduced in 1970's. An MFC can be defined as a biochemically catalyzed system, in which fermentative micro-organisms generate electricity by oxidizing bio-degradable organic matter.

    Nowadays energy plays an important role in our life. fossil fuels are depleted and the demand for alternative energy generation has an increasing trend. Renewable energy may be a suitable alternative for existing energy sources. Power generated from Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is considered renewable energy.

    The basic principle of Microbial fuel cells is the fermentation of the provided substrate by an organism. An MFC consist of two electrodes of special types of bio-fuel cells. It is a device that converts chemical energy into electricity through the catalytic activity of microorganisms.

  2. METHODOLOGY

    1. Sample Collection

      The sample is taken from the soils such as:

      • The soil was taken from the River

      • Paddy cultivated soil

      • Waste deposited soil

      • Vegetable cultivated soil

    2. Components of MFC

    1. Anode: Conductive, bio-compatible, and chemically stable with the substrate. Stainless steel mesh or graphic plates.

    2. Cathode: Electron and Proton recombine at the cathode. Oxygen is reduced to water.

    3. Soil

    4. Water

    5. Wire

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF MFC

    A microbial fuel cell was constructed using the basic principle. A plastic container was used as the cell in which led functions as an electrode, an anaerobic anode and an aerobic cathode. The container was filled with waste material like kitchen garbage with soil and the anode was placed deep inside the container. The cathode was placed above the waste material in a way that it is exposed to the air. Both the electrodes were connected to an electronic multimeter using copper wire. Collected soils for construction of MFC are:

    1. Waste deposited soil

    2. Vegetable cultivated soil

    3. River soil

    4. Paddy cultivated soil

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

      1. Soil Testing

        Different soils samples collected were tested and analysed in soil-water analysis laboratory in Eranad, Kerala.The test results have been depicted in Table

        1. The soil type 1,2,3,4 are same as discussed under section III. Table 1 show in the minerals available in the tested soil, pH and electrical conductivity.

          Soil Type

          Electrical conductivity (ds/m)

          organic carbon %

          (mg/l)

          Calcium

          Magnesi um

          Iron

          Mangane se

          Zinc

          Copper

          Potassiu m

          Boron

          Sulphur

          Phosphor ous

          pH

          A

          0.02

          3.71

          540

          134

          30.1

          12.2

          2.3

          4

          45.5 l

          0.22

          1.66

          9.14

          3.73

          B

          0.02

          2.51

          470

          137

          28.3

          15.7

          2

          3.16

          46.9

          0.68

          3.18

          10.1

          5.79

          C

          0.01

          1.23

          359

          148

          24

          21.1

          1.66

          2.89

          49.4

          0.84

          4.31

          14.2

          6.83

          D

          0

          0.46

          235

          156

          21.4

          28

          0.91

          1.84

          54.7

          0.98

          5.43

          16.8

          7.21

          Soil Type

          Electrical conductivity (ds/m)

          organic carbon %

          (mg/l)

          Calcium

          Magnesi um

          Iron

          Mangane se

          Zinc

          Copper

          Potassiu m

          Boron

          Sulphur

          Phosphor ous

          pH

          A

          0.02

          3.71

          540

          134

          30.1

          12.2

          2.3

          4

          45.5 l

          0.22

          1.66

          9.14

          3.73

          B

          0.02

          2.51

          470

          137

          28.3

          15.7

          2

          3.16

          46.9

          0.68

          3.18

          10.1

          5.79

          C

          0.01

          1.23

          359

          148

          24

          21.1

          1.66

          2.89

          49.4

          0.84

          4.31

          14.2

          6.83

          D

          0

          0.46

          235

          156

          21.4

          28

          0.91

          1.84

          54.7

          0.98

          5.43

          16.8

          7.21

          Table 1: Analysis of tested soil samples

      2. MFC Construction and Results of Voltage.

        The observation results of the four different soils are shown in the Table 2.

        Table 2: Voltage from four different soils.

        Days

        Voltage (mV)

        A

        B

        C

        D

        1

        12

        8

        10

        5

        2

        25

        11

        19

        11

        3

        38

        24

        23

        19

        4

        47

        36

        32

        24

        5

        61

        49

        45

        29

        6

        59

        59

        51

        36

        7

        89

        74

        62

        46

        8

        95

        71

        69

        51

        9

        112

        96

        78

        59

        10

        138

        123

        94

        67

        11

        174

        156

        112

        79

        12

        258

        213

        124

        119

        13

        278

        226

        135

        131

        14

        286

        238

        149

        141

        15

        299

        251

        161

        154

        16

        326

        269

        179

        163

        17

        334

        289

        191

        178

        18

        346

        295

        218

        189

        19

        354

        299

        231

        195

        20

        361

        311

        246

        203

        Fig. 1: Graph Showing Voltages of Four Different Soils

      3. Electricity Production and Discussion.

    Increasing human activities are consuming natural sources leading to the depletion of fossil fuels. Active researches are being carried out to find alternate sources of energy generation, especially from renewable sources. All the conventional energy production processes practiced today

    requires combustion of polluting fossil fuels, which is expensive and not environment-friendly. As an alternative way, bioelectricity generation through MFCs using a variety of substrates has been studied quite extensively. Bio- electricity is the electric power generated using MFCs called Microbial Reducing Power. The technology used for the production of bioelectricity is called MFCs. MFC is a bio- electrochemical transducer or a bioreactor or a biological catalyzed system that generates electricity by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter.

    A Microbial fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A fuel cell is comparable to an electrolytic cell or battery, where chemicals are oxidized or reduced electrochemically to produce electricity. Among the fuel cells, microbial fuel cell and anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode. When the bacteria oxidize the substrate in a condition with fewer oxygen, electrons and protons are generated at the cathode. The electrons which were accepted by the anode and transferred through the external circuit combines with the proton and oxygen to form bioelectricity. Besides these components, another important part of MFC is the micro-organism used which is responsible for the oxidation of provided substrate resulting in the generation of electrons and protons. Micro- organisms can transfer electrons to the anode by direct transfer of electrons from the respiratory enzymes. The present study aims to design a single chamber MFC and to investigate its efficiency in proton exchange membranes and mediators are highly expensive and hence are not environmentally friendly. This study also evaluates different parameters which affect the production of electricity like biofilm temperature, agitation effect of electrodes, etc. Though the entire course of the study we intend to design a cost of effective and simple MFC.

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PARAMETERS

    After the soil testing, we get a soil profile of each soil and get the information that when the soil has more organic carbon, it gets more current and voltage. Waste deposited soil contains more organic carbon. After that to identify the bacteria, the electrode is given to the lab and we get the information of the bacteria,

    1. Alpha-amylase bacteria

    2. Cellulolytic bacteria

    3. Lipolytic bacteria

    4. Proteolytic bacteria

    After the identification of colonies of the bacteria, put bacteria into the MFCs and also put the consortium of bacteria to another MFC and get more current in the consortium of bacteria containing MFC.

  6. FUTURE PROSPECTS

At the end of the study, as a prospect combining the result obtained from the present study and the working principle of a solar panel, if the design works then bio-electricity can be domesticated. The proposed apparatus including components like the charge controller to control battery charging. The power inverters that make 120V AC from the batteries to run your appliances the storage battery which stores the excess

power for use when the sun is weak or not available and AC generators for backup power.

Fig. 2: Bio Electrical Panel

VII . CONCLUSION

This project is based on the implementation of new technology on how we can produce the most demanding factor in our day-to-day life in a scientific as well as in a systematic manner with high efficiency. This component that is our MFC uses low-cost products for its construction and working and the result is highly efficient and highly useful in our present situation. Alpha-amylase-producing bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, etc. are the main reasoning bacteria for the production of electricity.

REFERENCES

  1. Production of electricity from agricultural soil and dye industrial effluent soil using microbial fuel cell

  2. Muhammad Qasim Hayat Ph.D. and Syeda Quadsia Biotechnology for energy production: construction of a microbial fuel cell using the Indus river sediment soil and water coupled with their microbial flora

    Europian specific journal May 2014

  3. Hong, Chang, Choi, and Chung. Experimental evaluation of influential factors for electricity harvesting from sediment using Microbial Fuel Cell. Bioresource Technology, 2009. Logan. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power Microbial Fuel Cells. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 2009

  4. Lovely. Microbial Fuel Cells: Novel microbial physiologies and engineering approaches.Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2006

  5. Mocali, Galeffi, Perrin, Florio, Migliore, Canganella, Bianconi, Di Mattia, Dell'Abate, Fani and Benedett. Alteration of bacterial communities and organic matter in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil and organic fertilizer. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013.

  6. Mohan, Srikanth, Raghuvulu, Mohanakrishna, Kumar and Sarma. Evaluation of the potential of various aquatic ecosystems in harnessing bioelectricity through Benthic Fuel Cell: Effect of the electrode assembly and water characteristics. Bioresource Technology, 2009.

  7. Nielsen, Reimers and Stecher. Enhanced power from chambered benthic microbial fuel cells. Environmental Science & Technology, 2007.

  8. Pisciotta, Zaybak, Call, Nam and Logan. Enrichment of Microbial Electrolysis Cell biocathodes from sediment Microbial Fuel Cell bioanodes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2012.

  9. Potter. Electrical effects accompanying the decomposition of organic compounds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, 1911.

  10. Reimers, Girguis, Stecher, Tender, Ryckelynck, and Whaling. Micrbial Fuel Cell energy from an ocean cold seep. Geobiology, 2006.

  11. Song, Tan, Wu, and Zhou. Effect of graphite felt and activated carbon fiber felt on the performance of freshwater sediment microbial fuel cell. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 2012.

  12. Tanaka, Vega, and Tamamushi. Thionine and Ferric Chelate Compounds as Coupled Mediators in Microbial Fuel-Cells.

    Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics,1983

  13. Weaver and Mickelson. Methods of soil analysis: Microbiological and biochemical properties. Soil Science Society of America, 1994.

  14. Yu, Seon, Park, Cho, and Lee. Electricity Generation and Microbial Community in a Submerged-Exchangeable Microbial Fuel Cell System for Low-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Bioresource Technology, 2012.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *