Experimental Study on Treating Dairy and Kitchen Waste Water using Pappaya seed powder and Aloevera Gel

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Experimental Study on Treating Dairy and Kitchen Waste Water using Pappaya seed powder and Aloevera Gel

Vilbin Varghese1 1Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering Mangalam College of Engineering Ettumanoor,Kerala

Christeena Thomas2

2Former UG Student Department of Civil Engineering Mangalam College of Engineering

Ettumanoor,Kerala

Anjana Raj2

Aswathyvishnupriya S2

Athul Vinod2

2Former UG Student

2Former UF Student

2Former UG Student

Department of Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Mangalam College of Engineering

Mangalam College of Engineering

Mangalam College of Engineering

Ettumanoor,Kerala

Ettumanoor,Kerala

Ettumanoor,Kerala

Abstract The use of natural resources in the process of water treatment, thus constitutes a potential promising ways to reduce on one hand, the high costs and environmental impacts due to the use of synthetic products used previously, and secondly allow as many people as possible access to drinking water. This will constitute therefore a major economic issue for developing countries. In conventional method of coagulation and flocculation alum, ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate were used as coagulant for effective removal of turbidity. But in one of the research it is found that continuous use of alum has caused several problems affecting human health. So this study is mainly focused on decreasing alum dose with use of natural materials. Natural coagulants are natural based coagulants that can be used in coagulation process of waste water treatment for reducing turbidity. The study aimed to, Carica papaya L. (papaya seed) powder , Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) gel as a coagulant in dairy waste water and kitchen waste water samples collected. The experiments proved that turbidity and chlorides had reduced effectively.

Keywords- Carica papaya L. (papaya), Aloebarbadensis (Aloe Vera), Arachishypogaea (Peanut), Turbidity, Dairywaste, Kitchen waste.

  1. .INTRODUCTION

    Water is a precious and essential natural resource, unevenly distributed on our planet. Freshwater represents only 2.5% of global supplies of water. About 70% of this freshwater quantity are either trapped under ice caps, or disseminated in the form of humidity or steam. Less than 1% of the worlds freshwater, about 0.007% of planets waters, are easily accessible to the various uses for development.

    The use of natural resources in the process of water treatment, thus constitutes a potential promising ways to reduce on one hand, the high costs and environmental impacts due to the use of synthetic products used previously, and secondly allow as many people as possible access to drinking water. This will constitute therefore a major economic issue for developing countries. In conventional method of coagulation and flocculation, alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate were used as coagulant for effective removal of turbidity. But in one of the research it is found

    that continuous use of alum has caused several problems affecting human health. It is found that aluminium is one of the causes for Alzheimers syndrome. So this study is mainly focused on decreasing alum dose with use of natural materials. Natural coagulants are natural based coagulants that can be used in coagulation process of waste water treatment for reducing turbidity.. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Artocarpus Heterophyllus (Jackfruit seed) powder, Carica papaya L. (papaya seed) powder , Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) gel and Arachishypogaea (Peanut) powder as coagulants in dairy waste water and kitchen waste water samples collected.

  2. MATERIALS REQUIRED

    1. Carica papaya L. (papaya seed powder )

      Papaya is a tall herbaceous plant in genus carica with edible fruits. These plants are grown in all parts of world.

    2. aloe barbadensis (aloe vera gel)

      It belongs to Asphodelaceae famiy, and is a shrubby or arborescent, perennial, xerophytic, succulent, pea green colour plant.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Hemraj S.R et al (2019) made the experiment on dairy industry which is one of the major source of food processing. These industries produce a huge amount of wastewater .Such wastewater is to be treated by using naturally and easily available coagulants and then tests are to be carried to check the water different characteristics of waste water before and after coagulation process. Natural coagulants used are Jack fruit seeds and Aloevera gel. The mixed proportion of jackfruit seed powder and Aloevera gel are used as adsorbents. The maximum percentage reduction of various parameters can be observed at a dosage of 0.8 gm of Jack Fruit seed. The maximum percentage reduction of various parameters can be observed at a dosage 4% of Alovera Gel.

    The maximum percentage reduction of various parameters can be observed at a proportion of (20:80) of Alovera gel + Jack Fruit seed. (1)

    Prof. T D Raju et al (2018) made an attempt to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of chemical coagulant Alum with Natural Coagulant such as Moringa Oleifera and tamarind seed powder. The maximum turbidity reduction of alum, moringa oleifera, tamarind and combined use of moringa oleifera tamarind seed were found as 97.5%, 98.12%, 98.12%

    and 98.75% with optimum dosage of 300, 250, 300 and 250mg/l. The pH, alkalinity, acidity and total chlorides was determined in treated sample of coagulants and maximum reduction effiieny was found in the combined use of moringa oleifera and tamarind seed powder. The Utilisation of locally available natural coagulant was found to be suitable, easier, cost effective and environment friendly for water treatment. (2)

    Aneesu Rahman et al (2018) evaluated the efficiency of Artocarpus Heterophyllus (Jackfruit seed) powder as a coagulant in dairy waste water and kitchen waste water samples collected. Jar Test was conducted and the treated samples were evaluated for pH, turbidity and COD. The result showed 82% reduction in turbidity at an optimum dosage of 1600 mg/l for dairy waste water and 88.4% reduction in kitchen waste water at an optimum dosage of 600 mg/l. The reduction in COD was obtained as 57% for dairy waste water and 53% for canteen waste water. Jackfruit seeds could be used as an effective natural coagulant since it is eco-friendly and of low cost when compared with chemical coagulant. (3)

    Venkata Maruti Prasad S et al (2017) made assessment of three different natural coagulants namely seeds of Moringa Oleifera, Arachis Hypogaea (Peanut), Zea mays (Corn). After treatment the water samples were analyzed for different parameters like pH, Turbidity, TDS and Electrical conductivity. Turbidity removal efficiency was 86%, 83%, 21%, after the treatment at optimum dosage of 20mg/l and speed of mixing of 200rpm respectively for synthetic water of 100 NTU.Finally, it can be concluded that Moringa Oleifera and Arachis Hypogaea (Peanuts)are the most efficient natural coagulants. (4)

    gel is mixed in dosage of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% in

    case of dairy waste water and 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% for kitchen waste water.

      1. Papaya seed coagulant:

        The fruits were sliced open using a clean knife. The seeds were washed severally with distilled water. Then seeds were dried under sunlight for a period of 7 days before crusing. The seed were made into fine powder using home grinder and powder was collected in sterile bottle with air tight cap. Then the seed powder was sieved through 0.45 mm sieve and finer particles were then used as coagulant. Dosages are 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/500ml in case of both dairy waste and kitchen waste water.

      2. Dairy waste water:

        Dairy waste was collected from Milma Milks Kottayam Dairy, Vadavathoor. The samples were collected in sterilised bottles and were preserved in the refrigerator during storage.

        Table 1 Initial characteristics of dairy waste water

        PARAMETERS

        VALUE

        pH

        7.1

        Turbidity

        210 NTU

        Chloride

        322.09 mg/l

        Total Alkalinity

        208 mg/l

        Total Acidity

        105 mg/l

      3. Kitchen waste water

    Kitchen waste water was collected from the canteen outlet of Mangalam College of Engineering, Ettumanoor. Sufficient care was taken to obtain a sample that was true representative of existing condition and to handle it in such a way that it do not deteriorate or become contaminated before it reached the laboratory.

    Table 2. Initial characteristics of kitchen waste water

  4. METHODOLOGY

    The standard methods were used for sample collection and storage. First we characterise the collected water samples. Then treat collected samples by Natural coagulants and investigate the optimum dosage separately in order to reduce turbidity of wastewater. Also we study their effect on turbidity, chloride etc

    A. Aloevera gel preparation:

    Aloevera leaves were washed under the tap water to remove the dirt. Thick green cover or epidermis was carefully separated from the gel part. Then the gel part was blended in mixer to form liquid and preserved in glass bottles in refrigerator. 1% dilution of aloe vera was made by using 1ml aloevera gel in 100 ml distilled water similarly different percentage of aloevera solutions were made. The aloe vera

    PARAMETERS

    VALUE

    pH

    7.3

    Turbidity

    424 NTU

    Chloride

    386.62 mg/l

    Total Alkalinity

    415 mg/l

    Total Acidity

    80 mg/l

    PARAMETERS

    VALUE

    pH

    7.3

    Turbidity

    424 NTU

    Chloride

    386.62 mg/l

    Total Alkalinity

    415 mg/l

    Total Acidity

    80 mg/l

  5. RESULTS AND DISCSSIONS

    1. Effect of Aloevera gel on Turbidity

      The tests were conducted on dairy waste water and kitchen waste water. The initial turbidity values are 424 NTU and 210 NTU for dairy waste water kitchen waste water respectively. The turbidity of the sample was measured by using Nephelometric Turbidity meter .The aloe vera gel is mixed in dosage of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%

      and 9% in case of dairy waste water and 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%,

      4% and 5% for kitchen waste water to determine the optimum coagulant dosage.

      Figure 1 Variation of turbidity with varying dosages 0f aloe vera gel

      Aloe vera gel reduced turbidity from 424 NTU to 260 NTU with a percentage reduction of 38.68% at optimum dosage of 5% for dairy waste water Aloevera gel reduced turbidity from 210 to 115 NTU with a percentage reduction of 45.23% at optimum dosage of 4% for kitchen waste water

    2. Effect of Alovera gel on Chloride

      The tests were conducted on dairy waste water and kitchen waste water. The initial Chloride content are

      386.62 mg/l of CaCO3,322.09 mg/l of CaCO3 for dairy waste water kitchen waste water respectively. The choride content of the sample was measured by Mohr's method..The aloe vera gel is mixed in dosage of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% in case of dairy waste water and 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% for kitchen waste water for the test.

      Figure 2 Variation of chloride with varying dosages of alovera gel

      Here a descending trend is occurred. The maximum reduced chloride is 163.78 mg/l of CaCO3 at a dosage of 5% for kitchen waste water and 215.39 mg/l of CaCO3 at 9% for dairy waste water.

    3. Effect of Papaya seed powder on Turbidity

      Optimum coagulant dosage was determined by varying the dosages as 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/500ml in case of both dairy waste and kitchen waste water.

      Figure 3 Variation of turbidity with varying dosages of papaya seed powder

      Papaya seed powder reduced turbidity from 210 to 118 NTU with a percentage reduction of 43.8% at optimum dosage of 0.3 g/500 ml for kitchen waste water

    4. Effect of Papaya seed powder on Choride

    The choride content of the sample was measured by varying the dosages as 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/500ml in case of both dairy waste and kitchen waste water.

    Figure 4 Variation of chloride with varying dosages of papaya seed powder

    The maximum reduced chloride is 191.08 mg/l of CaCO3 at a dosage of 0.2 g/500 ml for kitchen waste water and 251.62 mg/l of CaCO3 at 0.3 g/500 ml for dairy waste water

    Aloevera gel reduced turbidity to 260 NTU for dairy waste with a percentage reduction of 38.68% at optimum dosage of 5% and115 NTU for kitchen waste water with a percentage reduction of 45.23% at optimum dosage of 4%.

    At this optimum dosage, the chloride reduction is 38 % for dairy waste water and 46.5 % for kitchen waste water.

    Papaya seed powder reduced turbidity to 270 NTU for dairy waste water with a percentage reduction of 36.32% at optimum dosage of 0.3 g/500 ml and 118 NTU for kitchen waste water with a percentage reduction of 43.8% at optimum dosage of 0.3 g/500 ml. At this optimum dosage, the chloride reduction is 35 % for dairy waste water and 31

    % for kitchen waste water

  6. CONCLUSIONS

The experimental work aims to determine the activity of Carica papaya L. (papaya seed) powder , Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) gel on waste water purification. For this dairy waste water and kitchen waste water were collected. Based on the results of experiment carried out under varied experimental conditions and the analysis of the same thereby the following conclusion has been drawn

Aloe vera gel reduced the turbidity by 38.68% in dairy and 45.23% in kitchen waste water. Also chloride reduction is 38 % and 46.5 % respectively. Papaya seed powder reduced the turbidity by 36.32% in dairy and 43.8% in kitchen waste water. Also chloride reduction is 35 % and 31 % respectively. The experiments proved that turbidity and chlorides had reduced effectively.

REFERENCES

  1. Hemraj S.R, Megha C, Chandhini D,Lathamani C R, Manjunath H S (2019) Experimental Study on Treating Dairy Waste Water Using Jack Fruit Seeds and Aloevera Gel, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 8 (5), 5401-5407.

  2. Prof. T D Raju, Asst Prof. Ahana K Reji, Naji Raheem, Sruthi Sasikumar, Veena Vikraman, Shimil C P, Sneha K M (2018) Role of Moringa Oleifera and Tamarind Seed in Water Treatment, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology 7 (4), 454-462.

  3. Aneesu Rahman, Aswathy Ramesh, Ranjitha O R, Suranya T, Jency Nadayil (2018) Efficiency of Jackfruit Seed Powder as a Natural Coagulant, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 5 (3), 3060-3062.

  4. Venkata Maruti Prasad S, H Ramamohan, B Srinivasa Rao (2017) Assessment of Coagulation Potential of Three different Natural Coagulants in Water Treatement, International Journal of Research & Scientific Innovation 412) 7-9.

  5. Arya Chandran J, Duithy George (2018) Use of Papaya Seed as a Natural Coagulant for Water Purification, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research 6 (3), 41-46.

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