Finite Element Analysis and Optimization of Piston Head for Automotive Vehicle


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  • Authors : Mr. S. Suresh, Arun Kumar. K, Prasath. A, Lokesh. V. R
  • Paper ID : IJERTCONV7IS06062
  • Volume & Issue : ETEDM
  • Published (First Online): 23-05-2019
  • ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
  • Publisher Name : IJERT
  • License: Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

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Finite Element Analysis and Optimization of Piston Head for Automotive Vehicle

1 2 3 4

Mr. S. Suresh Arun Kumar. K Prasath. A Lokesh. V. R

1-Assisant Professor, 2,3&4-UG scholar Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-641 032, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract:- In this paper we have performed design optimization of piston by using global sensitivity study along with finite element analysis through ANSYS.

1. DESIGN

METHODOLOGY

First a piston has been modeled and then finite element analysis has been performed to know about the structural and thermal loading effects. Then design optimization is performed to get the optimum mass by determining the optimum value of crown thickness and skirt length of the piston by limiting various conditions like maximum temperature, maximum principle stress, von misses stress and maximum strain energy.

To perform thermal analysis study, piston was designed in CATIA V5 software. Details of the engine and piston dimensions.

Item

Specification

Make

Krloskar engine

Type of engine

Four stroke, single cylinder, water

cooled,constant

speed engine

Bore, mm

80

Stroke, mm

110

Compression ratio

16.5:1

Rated power

3.7kw at 1500rpm

Type of Fuel

Diesel

Fuel injection

pressure, bar

200

No.of.nozzle holes

3

Nozzle diameter

0.26mm

Inlet valve open

(IVO)

15Btdc

Inlet valve

closes(IVC)

45Abdc

Exhaust valve

open(EVO)

45Bbdc

Exhaust valve

closes(EVC)

10Atdc

cooled,constant

speed engine

Bore, mm

80

Stroke, mm

110

Compression ratio

16.5:1

Rated power

3.7kw at 1500rpm

Type of Fuel

Diesel

Fuel injection

pressure, bar

200

No.of.nozzle holes

3

Nozzle diameter

0.26mm

Inlet valve open

(IVO)

15Btdc

Inlet valve

closes(IVC)

45Abdc

Exhaust valve

open(EVO)

45Bbdc

Exhaust valve

closes(EVC)

10Atdc

INTRODUCTION

Piston is one of the most vital component of I.C engine. Piston is contained by the engine cylinder. Its function is to transfer the force from the expanding gases is the cylinder to the crankshaft through connecting rod. Its service requires great attention. The material of the piston is chosen according to its strength, wear properties, density and thermal expansion properties. Hotter engines require more stable alloys to maintain close tolerances without scuffing. Many pistons used to be made from hypoeutectic aluminum alloys. Now days we see hypereutectic alloys (Carleyet).

The modeling of piston is done using ANSYS software according to the environmental and structural conditions. Then the modeled was imported to ANSYS Mechanical module of ANSYS software to perform Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to know about the structural and thermal loading effects. Then the design optimization is carried out to have optimum mass of the piston by limiting various conditions like maximum temperature, maximum principle stress, von misses stress and maximum strain energy.

Graphs have been obtained for each parameter after global sensitivity study and equations are developed for each of the graph. Using these equations the optimum value of crown thickness has been obtained.

MATERIAL CHARACTERISTIC

The materials chosen for this analysis is alloy of Aluminum-AL-390 (Dmitri Kopeliovich, 2012; and Understanding Cold Finished Aluminum Alloys). Al-390 is a medium high strength heat treatable alloy. Good flow characteristics provided by high silicon content leads to both structural and automotive applications.

ANALYSING

ANALYSING

Fig 3.2

TYPES OF MODEL PISTON

1. Center Tapered

  1. Center crown

  2. Center ball crown

    Are designed using CATIA V5 Software.

    Fig 3.0

    Fig 3.1

    The model was imported to ANSYS software, where after defining the Boundary conditions and mesh models are given below.

    Fig 3.3 CENTER CROWN

    Fig 4.0

    FLAT ENGINE HEAD:

    Fig 4.1

    Fig 4.2

    Fig 4.3

    Fig 4.4

    Fig 5.0

    Fig 5.1

    Fig 5.2

    Fig 5.3

    Fig 5.4

    NORMAL PISTON BALL CROWN:

    Fig 6.0

    Fig6.1

    Fig 6.2

    Fig 6.3

    Fig 6.4

    TAPERED CENTER CROWN

    Fig 7.0

    Fig 7.1

    Fig 7.2

    Fig 7.3

    TEMPERATURE

    TEMPERATURE

    62

    61

    60

    59

    58

    57

    56

    55

    RE

    62

    61

    60

    59

    58

    57

    56

    55

    RE

    TAB: 2

    Types

    Stress(MPA)

    center crown

    9.7429

    flat head

    17.918

    center ball crown

    12.239

    center tapered

    13.51

    TAB: 3

    RESULTS

    Fig 7.4

    20

    15

    10

    STRESS

    STRESS

    Types

    Temperature

    Center crown

    58.5410

    C

    Flat Head

    57.6080

    C

    Center ball crown

    0

    57.6 C

    Center tapered

    61.0120

    C

    Types

    Temperature

    Center crown

    58.5410

    C

    Flat Head

    57.6080

    C

    Center ball crown

    0

    57.6 C

    Center tapered

    61.0120

    C

    TAB: 1 TAB: 4

    Types

    Total deformation(mm)

    center crown

    0.012867

    flat head

    0.029194

    center ball crown

    0.010902

    center tapered

    0.0093707

    TAB: 5 ADVANTAGES

    • It has maximum heat resistance.

    • It has high efficiency.

    • It produce less stress compare to other shapes.

      CONCLUSION

      From the analysis of the piston optimization is done for

    • The various shape engine piston head with flat piston head, full crown model, centre crown ball model and centre tapered piston head models are modeled

    • In CATIA V5 software in Ansys Workbench software is used to find the maximum stress and temperature distribution of the piston in engine operating conditions the centre full

      • TAB: 6

TOTAL DEFORMATION

0.035

0.03

0.025

0.02

0.015

TOTAL DEFORMATION

0.035

0.03

0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.01

TOTAL

TOTAL

ON

ON

  • crown models are produce the less stress compare to the all other shapes and temperature also produce The maximum heat resistance in the surfaces

  • From this shape optimization center full crown model is the optimized piston design.

REFERENCE

  1. Ravinder Reddy P., Ramamurthy G., Computer Aided Analysis of Thermally Air Gap Insulated Pistons made of Composites, National Conference on Machines and Mechanisms (NACOMM-95), pp. 177-180, Jan 20-21, 1995, CMERI, Durgapur.

  2. K. BalaShowry, A.V.S. Raju, P. RavinderReddy, Multi- Dimensional Modeling of Direct Injection Diesel Engine and Effects of Split Injection, International Journal of Scientific and Research

    Publications, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 1-

    8,January 2012

  3. PradeepHalder,Edla Franklin, Dr. P. RavinderReddy, Combustion and Mixing Analysis of a Scramjet Combustor Using CFD, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development (IJSRD),Vol. 2,

    Issue 09,pp.27-33,2014

  4. Dr. K. BalaShowry, Dr. P. Ravidrer Reddy, Reducing Particulate and NOX Emissions by Using Split Injection, International Journal of Science and Research,Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2015.

  5. T.M.Yonushonis, Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines, J. Therm. Spray Technol. 6,pp.50-56, 1997.

  6. M. Cerit, Thermo mechanical analysis of a partially ceramic coated piston used in an SI Engine, Surf. Coat. Technol. 205

    ,pp.3499 – 3505,2011.

  7. E. Buyukkaya, Thermal analysis of functionally graded coating AlSialloyand steel pistons, Surf. Coat.Technol. 202, pp.3856-3865, 2008.

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