Fabrication of Automatic Speed Bump with Day Night Control

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Fabrication of Automatic Speed Bump with Day Night Control

S Mathivanan1 Z Mohamed yaseen2 M Murugavel2 P Saravanan2 S Vinothkumar

21-Assistant Professor,

2-UG Scholar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-32.

Abstract : Here we are fabricating the model pneumatic speed breaker with day night control. Nowadays traffic has increased as the use of vehicle hasincreasing day to day. We require speed breaker to slow down the vehicles which are traveling at high speed. In certain areas at daytime traffic may be heavier than nighttime. So, we require speed brake only during the daytime and not at night. For this purpose, this project gives a solution. This equipment consists of pneumatic cylinder, Speed breaker setup, solenoid valve, LDR, proximity Sensor and Control unit.

Fig : Automatic Speed Bump

  1. INTRODUCTION

    According to the NATPAK report of road accidents 2009 , India ranks 2nd in the number of persons killed in road accidents and among the Indian states Kerala ranks 2nd .According to their findings, carelessness of the drivers, improper and nonscientific construction of roads and speed breakers, over speeding and ineffective traffic management contributes about72% of the total number of accidents.

    Our project automatic speed breaker is a new concept in this field and its innovative too. The device mainly consists of a speed breaker which is operated with the help of electric power. This system is mainly employed in the areas where the need of speed breaker is restricted to certain specific timings in areas like school and collage roads, theatre roads etc. and during the other hours the inconvenience of the speed breaker can be removed by folding down the speed breaker below the road surface. Hence they seem to be more effective in against over speeding and helps in traffic management.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

    There is evidence to support the claim that speed breakers can cause accidents and injury when a vehicle approaches a speed-breaker at a speed greater than some threshold velocity, the risk accident or injury is substantial. Speed- breakers are inconspicuous in low

    visibility conditions, like at night, or when there is fog, rain or snow. This problem is particularly acute in developing countries where speed-breakers don': always accompany warning signs. We propose an early warning system that uses a Smartphone based application to alert the driver in advance when the vehicle is approaching a

    speed breaker. In addition, the application constantly

    factor of safety

    Force acting on the rod (P)

    = PressurexArea

    = p x (d² / 4)

    monitors the Smartphone accelerometer to detect previously unknown speed- breakers. The proposed detection algorithm easy

    = 6x{(x4²)/4}

    P = 73.36 Kgf

    implement because it does not require accelerometer reorientation this is one of the main contributions of our work since previous approaches have used expensive computations to reorient the accelerometer. The algorithm was evaluated using 678 Km of drive data, which involved 22 different drivers, 5 different types of vehicles (bus, auto rickshaw, cycle rickshaw, motorcycle, and car), and 4 smart phones. The results are very promising and can be further improved by aggregating detection reports from multiple smart phones.

  3. DESIGN CALCULATION

    Design Stress (y)

    d

    = y / FOS

    = 36 / 2

    =18Kgf/mm²

    = P / ( d² / 4)

    = 4 p /[y]

    =4×75.36/{x18}

    = 5.33

    = 2.3 mm

    DESIGN OF PISTON ROD:

    Minimum diameter of rod requiredfor the load = 2.3

    mm

    DESIGN OF CYLINDER THICKNESS:

    Material used = Cast iron

    Load due to air Pressure.

    P

    Diameter of

    =

    40 mm

    the Piston

    (d)

    Pressure

    =

    6 kgf/cm²

    acting (p)

    Material used for rod

    =

    C-45

    Load due to air Pressure.

    P

    Diameter of

    =

    40 mm

    the Piston

    (d)

    Pressure

    =

    6 kgf/cm²

    acting (p)

    Material used for rod

    =

    C-45

    Assuming internal

    = 40 mm

    diameter of the cylinder Ultimate tensile stress

    = 250 N/mm²

    = 2500gf/mm²

    t

    =

    t

    We assume thickness of

    2.0{(625+6)/(625

    6)-1}

    0.019 cm=0.19mm

    =2.5 mm

    Working Stress = Ultimate tensile

    stress / factor of safety

    Assuming = 4 factor of safety

    cylinder Inner diameter of barrel

    Outer

    =40 mm

    =40 + 2t

    Working stress ( ft )

    = 2500 / 4

    = 625 Kgf/cm²

    diameter of barrel

    =40

    According to LAMES EQUATION

    +(2×2.5)=45mm

    Minimum thickness of

    ri {(ft +p)/(ft-p)-1}

    DESIGN OF PISTON ROD DAIMETER OF PISTON ROD:

    cylinder ( t ) Where,

    ri =

    ft =

    inner radius of cylinder in cm. Working stress (Kgf/cm²)

    Forc e of pisto n Rod (P)

    =

    Pressurexarea =p x /4(d²)

    =p x /4 (d²)

    =6 x ( /4) x (4)²

    p = Working pressure in Kgf/cm²

    Substituting values we get,

    Also, force on piston rod (P)

    P 73.36

    =73.36Kgf

    =(/4) (dp)² x ft

    =(/4) x (dp)² x 625

    =(/4)x(dp)² x 625

    dp²

    dp By

    standardizing dp

    =73.36 x (4/) x (1/625)

    =0.15

    = 0.38 cm

    = 3.8 mm

    = 15 mm

    Stroke length

    Quantity

    Seals

    : Cylinder stoker length 160 mm = 0.16

    m

    : 1

    : Nitride (Buna-

    LENGTH OF THE PISTON ROD:

    Approach =160 mm stroke

    End cones

    N) Elastomer

    : Cast iron

    Length of threads Extra length due to front cover

    Extra length of

    =2×20=40mm

    = 12 mm

    = 20 mm

    Piston Media Temperature Pressure Range

    : EN 8

    : Air

    : 0-80 º C

    : 8 N/m²

    accommodate head

    Total length of the piston rod

    =160 + 40

    +12 +20

    =232 mm

    SINGLE ACTING PNEUMATIC CYLINDER:

    Stroke length : Cylinder

    stoker length 80 mm = 0.08

    m

    By standardizing, length of the piston rod

    =230 mm

    Quantity Seals

    End cones

    : 2

    : Nitride (Buna-N) Elastomer

    : Cast iron

    SPECIFICATION

    DOUBLE ACTING PNEUMATIC CYLINDER:

    Piston Media Temperature

    : EN 8

    : Air

    : 0-80 º C

    Pressure : 8 N/m² Range

    SOLENOID VALVE

    Max pressure : 0-10 x 10

    4.14 FORCE CALCULATION OF PNEUMATIC CYLINDER Force to be exerted is 40N

    range N/m²

    FLOW CONTROL VALVE

    Port size : 0.635 x

    Force Pressure in the

    = pressure x area

    = 0.4 x105 N/m²

    10 ² m

    cylinder

    Pressure : 0-8 x 10

    N/m²

    Area of

    = Force/pressure

    Media Quantity

    CONNECTORS

    Max working pressure

    : Air

    : 1

    : 10 x10

    N/m²

    the piston, (d2)/4

    Bore diameter

    = 40/ 40000

    = 0.001m2

    = 0.0356m = 35.6

    mm

    Temperature

    : 0-100 º C

    : Air

    : Brass

    FOR FORWARD STROKE

    For 40mm bore diameter

    HOSES

    Max pressure Outer diameter

    : 10 x10

    N/m²

    : 6 mm

    =6x 10

    ³m

    Corresponding rod diameter Area of the piston

    = 16mm

    = (d2)/4

    = (x402)/4

    =

    1256.8mm²

    Inner diameter : 3.5 mm

    = 3.5 x 10

    ³m

    Force (modified) to be exerted

    = pressure x area

    = 0.4 x105 x1256.8

    = 50N

    FOR RETURN STROKE

    Extending force Retracting force N

    = 50.3 N

    = 42.2

    On the return stroke, when the pressure is applied to the reverse direction, the force on the piston due to the pressure is

    = P x (A-a)

    Where,

  4. WORKING PRINCIPLE

    The speed breaker works normally during the day time on to the roads this speed breaker setup consists of the pneumatic cylinder which has a piston for the linear motion of the speed breaker. This piston is connectedto the speed breaker and when the piston moves in the downward direction, the speed breaker moves down so that the road is made free for the speeding.

    P = Pressure in the cylinder (N/m2)

    A = Area of the piston

    (m2)

    a = Cross sectional area of the piston rod (m2) Therefore,

    Area of = {( x d2)/4}-{( the piston x d12)/4}

    (A-a)

    = {( 402)/4}-

    { ( 162)/4}

    = 1256.6-201

    = 1055 mm²

    FORCE TO BE CONVERTED

    This project has a sensor and the control unit which operates on the light rays, during the day time the sunrays falls on the LDR sensor unit, the sensor sends the signal to the control unit and the control unit actuates the pneumatic cylinder and then the cylinder piston moves forward direction and makes the speed breaker on the road. During theight time, the LDR sensor does not get any light signal from the sun and it deactivates the control unit which makes the piston of the pneumatic cylinder to retract making the speed breaker to get down and thus making the road speed breaker free on the night time.

  5. LAYOUT OF THEMODEL

    Onthe reverse direction

    = pressure x area

    = 0.4 x 105 x

    1055

    = 42.2 N

  6. CONCLUSION

    A strong multidiscipline team with a good engineering base is necessary for the Development and refinement of advanced computer programming, editing techniques, diagnostic Software, algorithms for the dynamic exchange

    For working pressure of 0.4 x 105 N/m2

    of informationaldifferent levels of hierarchy.

    This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning, purchasing, assembling, and machining while doing this project work.

    We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. The FABRICATION OF

    AUTOMATIC SPEED BUMPWITH DAY NIGHT

    CONTROL is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality.

    We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities. In conclusion remarks of our project work. Thus, we have developed a AUTOMATIC SPEED BUMP WITH DAY NIGHT CONTROL. Byusing

    more techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.

  7. REFERENCES

  1. AFUKAAR, F. Speed control in developing countries: Issues, Challenges and opportunities in reducing road traffic injuries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion 10, 2 (2003), 7781.

  2. ASLAN, S., KARCIOGLU, O., KATIRCI, Y., KANDI, H., EZIRMIK, N., AND BILIR, O. Speed bump induced spinal column injury. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 23, 4 (2005),563 564.

  3. ZAIDEL, D., HAKKERT, A., AND PISTINER, A.

    The use of road

    Humps for moderating speeds onurban streets. Accident Analysis

    And Prevention 24, 1 (1992), 45 56

  4. MUNJIN, M. A., ZAMORANO, J.J., MARRE, B., ILABACA,F., BALLESTEROS, V., MART´INEZ, C., YURAC, R., URZUA, A., LECAROS, M., FLEIDERMAN, J., AND GARC´IA, N. Speed Hump spinefractures: Injury mechanism and caseseries. Journal Of Spinal Disorders &Techniques 24, 6 (2011)

  5. https://www.researchgate.net/topic/Engineering

  6. https://www.irjet.net/

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