Fabrication And Experimentation of FRP Helical Spring Filled with Cenosphere

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Fabrication And Experimentation of FRP Helical Spring Filled with Cenosphere

Pavan G M, N S Venktesh Gupta, Ekanthappa J

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru 572 103,

Karnataka, India

Abstract Recently, the automotive industrys interest in reducing the car's unspring weight has risen and thus the quality of fuel has improved. The composite materials are highly specialized, low density and have high absorption ability for strain energy relative to steel. The typical steel helical sprockets are replaced by fiber helical fiber sprockets. This job means making helical spring made of glass fiber using the guideline of a constant fiber winding cycle. It is a technique for assembling composite materials in which controlled measurement of tar and composite filaments is injured around a mandrel that turns. The high quality comparison between the composite materials groups and other customary materials. Glass strands are of high quality, and have excellent network holding properties that can enhance the composites by and large properties. The thermoset pitch for the fiber support fills in as a fastener and is added during the winding stage. Glass fiber is used as a fortification material, epoxy resin and cenosphere used as a network in this current undertaking work. These materials are, at specific pace, injured to the shape. After the production work is done, the spring is cured for 4 days in the sunlight relief, which then undergoes a compressive test to detect the spring's stiffness.

Keywords(Galss fiber, epoxy resin, cenosphere, composite materials, spring)

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Springs are designed mainly to consume, store and release energy. The energy of the material is a crucial factor when designing the springs. Basic strain power potential of the materials with lower modules and densities is improved. The composite materials are also good components for such applications. The replacement of steel material with composite materials results in a substantial reduction in weight. However, problems of design and processing will also occur with the implementation of new materials. Anisotropic materials are the main explanation for FRP composites. So compared with conventional materials, they are special. The use of composite in spring production is therefore not very common. Car manufacturers are making tremendous efforts to minimize vehicle weight in order to save fuel.

  2. MATERIAL SELECTION AND FABRICATION PROCESS

    1. material selection

      In the present work the selected material is spinning glass fibers and applying cenosphere to epoxy resin as matrix. For fiber-reinforced plastic spring output the normal spring construction technique is considered. Rigidity and discomfort are the biggest concern for architecture. The cumulative loads

      are on the spring string. The spring rate should be standard- specific. The list of products preferred Table 1 displays properties.

      Table 1.1 properties of material

      Property

      E- glass fiber

      Epoxy resin

      Cenosphere

      Density(kg/m3)

      2500

      1700

      742

      Compression strength (kg/cm3)

      350

      340

      180

    2. Fabrication

      The composite helical spring was produced using the prepared reusable mandrel, developed "Spring Winding" setup & selected materials.

      In this the reusable mandrel is fixed between the centers of the lathe which has the profile similar to the appropriate helical spring. If Silicone-Gel is to be smeared evenly on the mandrel surface for quick removal of the spring, the continuous glasses fibers from the bobbins are dipped in the bath of epoxy resin are wounded on the mandrel. The estimated volume of epoxy resin and cenosphere is taken and mixed with a K-6 hardener ratio of 10:1. After dipping the fiber tape with epoxy and cenosphere and winding to the Mould. This winding process is continued until the necessary dimension is obtained. After the necessary dimension is obtained, the mandrel is wrapped by a shrink rubber tape to avoid contamination of the atmosphere. The processed spring is left for 4 days to recover. The spring is subsequently separated from the mandrel & measurements are noted down. The dimensions of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring is L= 124mm, Do=85mm, Di=43mm, h=15mm, b=12mm, n=6

      Fig.1 Reusable Mandrel

      Fig. 2 Fabricated Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

  3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

  1. density measurment test for Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

    The main aim to conduct the burning test is to find out the exact percentage of glass fibre in the fabricated frp helical spring.

  2. Burning test for Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

    The main aim to conduct burning test is to identify the exact percentage of glass fiber in the FRP helical spring. This test is conducted using the small flame slowly the spring is heated and the epoxy reinforcement and cenosphere is burned at 3000c. It is done for the 3 samples .

  3. Measuring spring stifnees and max compression

    The spring rigidity usually depends on size, material characteristics and shape. The corresponding displacement & load-displacement graph has been used in today's digitalized UTM which automatically collects the value of the applied load. B2704 spring constant (Stiffness k) is calculated by knowledge of deflections at 30% and 70% of full load in a load-based VS deflect curve obtained by the compression test according to the Japanese Industrial Standard (IN) B2704. The fig.3 and fig.4 shows the testing of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring and the results are tabulated in table 2

    Fig. 3 testing of fabricated Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring on UTM

    Fig. 4 Solid length of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP-Helical spring

    Table 2 properties of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

    Property

    Values

    Spring rate (n/mm)

    20

    Maximum compression (mm)

    30

    Load at maximum compression (N)

    1160

    Glass fiber volume fraction (%)

    70

    Weight of spring (g)

    477.07

    IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    This work is intended to create a composite material helical spring for light- weight cars with the newly developed spring winding configuration and the recycled mandrel. In addition, mechanical properties should be calculated and compared. Testing and values were tabulated for the properties of spring in the graph.

    /table>

    DEFLECTION in mm

    LOAD in N

    0

    0

    2

    220

    4

    380

    6

    500

    8

    640

    10

    660

    12

    700

    14

    740

    16

    760

    18

    780

    20

    800

    22

    820

    24

    860

    26

    900

    28

    920

    30

    1160

    DEFLECTION in mm

    LOAD in N

    0

    0

    2

    220

    4

    380

    6

    500

    8

    640

    10

    660

    12

    700

    14

    740

    16

    760

    18

    780

    20

    800

    22

    820

    24

    860

    26

    900

    28

    920

    30

    1160

    Table 3 values of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

    • The load carrying capacity and stiffness of Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring is 15% higher than Gl/Ep FRP helical spring.

    • There is less stress developed in FRP springs, as compared to steel springs. Hence improved fatigue life.

Spring stiffness for fabricated spring

LOAD in N

LOAD in N

The force required to compress the spring by 1 millimeter is known as the spring constant. The spring rate depends on the number of coils in the spring, the material rigidity module, and the spring dimensions. The stiffness of the present manufactured spring is obtained according to the specifications of JIS B2704 and its value is 20 N / mm.

DISPLACEMENT

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

DISPLACEMENT

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Fig 4 load v/s deflection values for Gl/Ep/Ceno FRP helical spring

V .CONCLUSION

Based on the fabrication process and the experimental results obtained, the following conclusions can be made

  • Mild steel reusable mandrel is simple to produce a composite helical spring.

  • The "Spring Winding" system for fabricating helical spring is suitable to achieve required mechanical properties.

  • As compared to Steel Spring, FRP Helical Spring weighs 50 per cent less. Although the composite spring's cost is higher, due to light weight the cost of fuel can be reduced.

REFERENCES

  1. Ekanthappa J, G S Shiva Shankar, Amith B M and Gagan M Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 149 (2016) 012098.

  2. Ekanthappa J, S Basavarajappa, G S Shiva Shankar Fabrication & Experimentation of the Glass-Epoxy Helical Spring Reinforced With Graphite Powder Selection and Peer-review under responsibility of Advanced Materials, Manufacturing, Management and Thermal Science (AMMMT 2016)

  3. T S Manjunatha and D Abdul Budan Manufacturing and Experimentation of composite helical springs for automotive suspension ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2012.

  4. Akshat Jain, SheelamMisra, Arun Jindal, Prateek Lakhian Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system AIP Conference Proceedings 1859, 020080 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4990233

  5. Yahya Kara Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Helical Springs Journal of Materials Science & Nanotechnology ISSN: 2348-9812

    1200

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    0

    DISPLACEMENT IN mm

    1200

    1100

    1000

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    800

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    100

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    DISPLACEMENT IN mm

  6. Ekanthappa J., S. Basavarajappa, IrappaSogalad Investigation on design and fabrication of continuous fiber reinforced composite helical spring for automobile suspension

  7. BS Azzam An optimum design for composite helical springs

    DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO1198

  8. Chang-Hsuan Chiu, Chung-Li Hwan , Han-Shuin Tsai , Wei- Ping Lee An experimental investigation into the mechanical behaviours of helical composite springs Composite Structures 77 (2007) 331340.

  9. Abdul Rahim Abu Talib, Aidy Ali , G. Goudah , Nur Azida Che Lah , A.F. Golestaneh Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2009.06.041.

  10. Devesh Sharma, ShaileshYadav , Suraj Chand , Umesh Kumar , Bhaskar Chandra Kandpal , Ashok Kumar, D. K. Gupta Fabrication and characterization of Glass Fiber/SiC Reinforced Polymer composite International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562.

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