Experimental Study on Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) Based Polymer Concrete Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fibers as Fine Aggregate

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Experimental Study on Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) Based Polymer Concrete Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fibers as Fine Aggregate

Dr. M. M. Hanamasagar1, Bhimappa Rathod2

1Associate Professor, 2 M Tech student

1,2 Department of Civil Engineering, Basaveshwar Engineering College(A), Bagalkot, Karnataka -587103

Abstract:- The present study investigates on polymer concrete with Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle fibers. The polymer concrete is prepared with epoxy resin and aggregates. GGBS is added as cement replacement and aggregate is replaced in different percentages by PET bottle fibers (0%,5%,10% and15%). The compressive strength spilt tensile strength and flexural strength are experimentally evaluated. The influence of PET bottle fibers on workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength are discussed and compared with a conventional concrete.

Keywords: Polymer concrete; GGBS; PET bottle fibers; Epoxy resin; Mechanical properties.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over a time compared to cement-based concrete, polymer concrete is more stronger and durable. For this reason, polymer concrete is used in many structures such as box culverts, hazardous waste containers, trench lines, floor drains, and in the repair and overlay of damaged cement concrete surfaces including pavement and bridges. Despite its advantages, however, polymer concrete is not used widely due to its relatively high material cost compared to cement-based concrete [1]. Polymer concrete increases the strength characteristics as well as resistance to environmental factors [2].

    Enhancement of the properties of polymer composites is a complex problem, due to the different optimum condition for the setting of both co-binders such as cement hydration and hardening of the organic binder [3]. To utilise the wastes and to protect natural resources, aggregate can be replaced partially by silica fume, recycle glass, fly ash, GGBS, polystyrene granules, sawdust, PET particle, etc [4]. In this paper, we are presenting the experimental results obtained on polymer concrete with PET bottle fibers waste used as substitution of aggregates. The effects on workability, compressive strength, spilt tensile strength and flexural strength are investigated by testing different mixes in which dosages of cement by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and fine aggregate replaced by PET bottle fibers.

  2. LITERATURE SURVEY

    • Semihaet et al. (2010) have investigated the utilization of shredded waste Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle granules as a lightweight aggregate in mortar. The water absorption values of the mortars produced in this investigation were within the limits of the lightweight concrete absorption value. The shrinkage values of the mortars containing PET aggregates were higher than the shrinkage values of the mortars containing PET and sand aggregates. The use of shredded waste PET granules and GBFS in mortar would be helpful for the environmental concern [5].

    • K. Ramadevi et al. (2012) have discussed an environmental issue as waste plastic bottles are difficult to biodegrade and involves processes either to recycle or reuse that is way it used in the concrete field. The concrete with PET fibres reduced the weight of concrete and thus if mortar with plastic fibres can be made into light weight concrete based on unit weight [6].

    • S. Arivalagan (2014) studied the concrete with GGBS as a Replacement material in cement with increasing demand and consumption of cement, researchers and scientist are in search of developing alternate binders that are eco-friendly and contributes towards waste management. Use of industrial waste products saves the environment and conserves natural resources. It is observed that GGBS-based concretes have achieved an increase in strength for 20% replacement of cement at the age of 28 days. Increasing strength is due to filler effect of GGBS [7].

    • D.Faruq et al (2017) the Ground-granulated blast furnace slag is pozzolanic materials that can be utilized to produce highly durable concrete composites. Ground granulated blast furnace slag is known to produce a high strength concrete and is used in two different ways as a cement replacement, in order to reduce the cement content [8].

  3. MATERIALS PROPORTION RATIO AND MIXING PROCEDURE

    An experimental program has been carried out for investigating the mechanical properties of polymer concrete [9]. The polymer is prepared by keeping 20% GGBS as replacement of cement and the requisite quantity of PET bottle fibers (viz; 0, 5, 10 and 15% as replacement of fine aggregate by mass). The tests performed in harden state are compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength, also determining the influence of PET bottle fibers on workability of fresh prepared polymer concrete are studied.

    Table 1: Chemical composition of GGBS

    Sl No.

    Chemical requirements (%)

    Observations

    1.

    Manganese oxide (MnO)

    0.120

    2.

    Magnesium (MgO)

    7.740

    3.

    Sulphide sulphur (S)

    0.460

    4.

    Sulphate (as SO3)

    0.290

    5.

    Insoluble Residue (I.R)

    0.330

    6.

    Chloride content (C)

    0.009

    7.

    Glass content

    92.00

    Table 2: Physical properties of GGBS

    SL No.

    Properties

    Observations

    1

    Specific gravity

    2.91

    2

    Fineness

    379

    Table 3: Physical properties of PET fibers

    Sl. No.

    Properties

    Observations

    1

    Density

    1.38 gm/cm3

    2

    Thickness of fibers

    200 microns

    Table 4: Physical properties of 43-grade cement

    Sl. No.

    Properties

    Observations

    1

    Specific gravity

    3.04

    2

    Fineness of cement

    2.67%

    3

    Normal consistency

    29.0%

    4

    Initial setting time

    130 minutes

    5

    Final setting time

    270 minutes

    Table 5: Physical properties of fine aggregates and coarse aggregates

    Sl. No.

    Properties

    Observations according to IS: 2386-1963

    Fine aggregate

    Coarse aggregate

    1

    Particle shape

    Spherical

    Angular

    3

    Specific gravity

    2.54

    2.60

    4

    Fineness modulus

    3.93

    3.13

    5

    Water absorption (%)

    1.0

    2.85

    In the present study, 4.75 mm down the size of river sand as fine aggregate and 20 mm downsize aggregate consider as coarse aggregate. The tests are conducted as per IS: 2386-1963

    The moulds used for casting the specimens are selected as per IS: 516-1959. The cube moulds of size of 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm are used for the compressive strength test. Cylinder moulds of size 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height are used for Split tensile strength test. And beam moulds of size 100 mm x 100 mm x 500 mm are used for flexural strength test. For each concrete mix 6 cubes, 6 cylinders and 6 prisms have been cast and tested.

      1. Materials Estimation

        The mix design is carried out for M30 grade concrete according to IS: 10262-2019. In this study the GGBS is added as weight fraction of 20% by weight of cement (keeping 20% GGBS constant for all mixes) and PET fibers are added as Weight fractions of 0%,5%,10%,15% by weight of fine aggregate. The water-cement ratio is kept as 0.43 and epoxy resin used as 3% of weight of cement.

        The mix proportions obtained are

        • Cement = 392.9 kg/m3

          GGBS = 98.23 kg/m3

        • Water = 192.0 kg/m3

        • Fine aggregate = 578.0 kg/m3

        • PET Fibers = 115.6 kg/m3

        • Coarse aggregate = 1161.76 kg/m3

        • Water-cement ratio = 0.48

        • Epoxy resin = 11.78 kg/m3

          Table 6: Mix proportions of Polymer concrete and identification of specimens

          Specimens Type

          Cement

          GGBS

          Fine aggregate

          PET bottle fibers

          Coarse aggregate

          Epoxy resin

          W/C ratio

          M1

          1 :

          0.00 :

          1.17 :

          0.00 :

          2.36 :

          0.00 :

          0.39

          M2

          1 :

          0.25 :

          1.47 :

          0.00 :

          2.95 :

          0.03 :

          0.48

          M3

          1 :

          0.25 :

          1.39 :

          0.07 :

          2.95 :

          0.03 :

          0.48

          M4

          1 :

          0.25 :

          1.32 :

          0.14 :

          2.95 :

          0.03 :

          0.48

          M5

          1 :

          0.25 :

          1.25 :

          0.22 :

          2.95 :

          0.03 :

          0.48

          Fig.1 Polymer concrete mixing

          Fig.2 Slump cone test

          Fig.3 Casting of specimens

      2. Slump test

    Concrete slump test is a measure of determining the workability of concrete mix prepared in the laboratory or at the construction site during the progress of construction work as shown Fig. 2. The slump test is carried out as per IS: 1199-1959. Slump values are given below in Table 7.

    Slump values ( mm )

    Slump values ( mm )

    Table 7: Slump cone test values

    S. No

    Type of concrete mix

    Slump values (mm)

    1.

    M1

    66

    2.

    M2

    69

    3.

    M3

    65

    4.

    M4

    60

    5.

    M5

    63

    70 69

    70 69

    68

    66

    64

    66

    65

    63

    68

    66

    64

    66

    65

    63

    M1 M2

    M3

    Specimens

    M4

    M5

    M1 M2

    M3

    Specimens

    M4

    M5

    62

    60

    60

    58

    56

    54

    62

    60

    60

    58

    56

    54

    Fig.4 Slump value for different fibers quantity

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of experiment tests on the harden polymer concrete are presented here.

      1. Compressive strength

        • The highest value of compressive strength 41.28 MPa is obtained for mix M3, and the minimum value of compressive strength 32.62 MPa is obtained for M5.

          Table 8: Compressive strength properties

          S. No

          Type of concrete mix

          Age of concrete

          Compressive strength (N/mm²)

          Cube 1

          Cube 2

          Cube 3

          Average

          1.

          M1

          7 Days

          27.34

          24.97

          20.52

          24.27

          28 Days

          37.89

          38.95

          39.20

          38.68

          2.

          M2

          7 Days

          22.56

          31.78

          28.26

          27.53

          28 Days

          32.78

          37.12

          39.53

          36.47

          3.

          M3

          7 Days

          30.60

          25.70

          28.37

          28.22

          28 Days

          37.63

          40.86

          45.37

          41.28

          4.

          M4

          7 Days

          22.17

          18.54

          20.67

          20.46

          28 Days

          39.53

          38.97

          40.90

          39.80

          5.

          M5

          7 Days

          19.98

          20.20

          19.87

          20.01

          28 days

          29.30

          32.08

          36.50

          32.62

          45

          41.28

          45

          41.28

          35

          32.62

          35

          32.62

          M1

          M2

          M3

          Specimens

          M4

          M5

          M1

          M2

          M3

          Specimens

          M4

          M5

          7-days 28-days

          7-days 28-days

          40

          40

          38.68

          38.68

          39.8

          39.8

          36.47

          36.47

          30

          30

          27.53

          27.53

          28.22

          28.22

          25

          25

          24.27

          24.27

          20.46

          20.46

          20.01

          20.01

          20

          15

          10

          5

          0

          20

          15

          10

          5

          0

          Compressive strength ( N/mm2 )

          Compressive strength ( N/mm2 )

          Fig.5 Compressive strength of concrete specimens for different fibers quantity

      2. Spilt tensile strength

        • The highest value of Spilt tensile strength 3.17 MPa is obtained for mix of M3, and the minimum value of compressive strength 3.65 MPa is obtained for M5.

          Table 9: Split tensile strength properties

          S. No

          Type of concrete mix

          Age of concrete

          Split tensile strength (N/mm²)

          Cylinder 1

          Cylinder 2

          Cylinder 3

          Average

          1.

          M1

          7 Days

          2.40

          2.70

          2.72

          2.60

          28 Days

          3.11

          2.77

          2.87

          2.91

          2.

          M2

          7 Days

          2.27

          2.15

          2.04

          2.15

          28 Days

          3.20

          3.01

          2.52

          2.91

          3.

          M3

          7 Days

          2.10

          2.27

          2.41

          2.26

          28 Days

          3.08

          3.13

          3.31

          3.17

          4.

          M4

          7 Days

          2.13

          2.01

          2.20

          2.11

          28 Days

          3.02

          2.69

          2.81

          2.84

          5.

          M5

          7 Days

          2.15

          2.05

          2.09

          2.09

          28 days

          2.52

          2.72

          2.71

          2.65

          3.5 3.17

          2.91 2.91

          3 2.6

          2.84 2.65

          Split tensile strength ( N/mm2 )

          Split tensile strength ( N/mm2 )

          2.5

          2

          1.5

          1

          0.5

          0

          2.15 2.26 2.11 2.09

          M1 M2 M3 M4 M5

          Specimens

          7-days 28-days

          Fig.6 Split tensile strength of concrete specimens for different fibers quantity

      3. Flexural strength

        • The highest value of Flexural strength 11.32 MPa was obtained for mix of M3, and the minimum value of compressive strength 10.15 MPa is obtained for M5.

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    10.86

    10.86

    11.32

    11.32

    10.48

    10.48

    10.15

    10.15

    Table 10: Flexural strength properties

    S. No

    Type of concrete mix

    Age of concrete

    Flexural strength (N/mm²)

    Prism 1

    Prism 2

    Prism 3

    Average

    1.

    M1

    28 Days

    4.30

    4.36

    4.38

    4.34

    2.

    M2

    28 Days

    11.25

    10.80

    10.53

    10.86

    3.

    M3

    28 Days

    11.53

    11.95

    10.50

    11.32

    4.

    M4

    28 Days

    10.11

    10.59

    10.75

    10.48

    5.

    M5

    28 Days

    10.10

    9.85

    10.51

    10.15

    4.34

    4.34

    M1 M2

    M1 M2

    M3

    Specimens

    M3

    Specimens

    M4

    M4

    M5

    M5

    28-days

    28-days

    Flexural strength ( N/mm2 )

    Flexural strength ( N/mm2 )

    Fig.7 Flexural strength of concrete specimens for different fibers quantity

    Where, M1=Conventional concrete, M2 =20%GGBS+0%PET Fibers+3%Resin, M3=20%GGBS+5% PET Fibers+3%Resin, M4=20%GGBS+10%PET Fibers+3%Resin, M5=20%GGBS+15%PET Fibers+3%Resin.

  5. CONCLUSIONS

    The results of experimental study on ground granulated blast furnace slag-based polymer concrete using polyethylene terephthalate bottle fibers as fine aggregate have been discussed. This investigation contains an experimental observation in which the comparison between conventional concrete and polymer-based concrete has made. In the present study, it is observed that the strength properties such as compression, spilt tensile and flexural strength are increasing upto 5% PET Fibers replacement for M3 type of mix polymer concrete.

  6. REFERENCES

  1. Byung-Wan Jo, Seung-Kook Park, Jong-Chil Park, Mechanical properties of polymer concrete made with recycled PET and recycled concrete aggregates, Construction and Building Materials 22 (2008) 22812291.

  2. B. Venkatesh, G.B. Ramesh Kumar, Experimental study on polymer concrete with epoxy resin, International journals of pure and applied mathematics, volume 119 No.17 2018,3129-31378.

  3. Lukoski Pawel, Woyciechoski Piotr, Adamczewski Grzegorz,Rudko Magdalena, Filipek Kamil, Curing of polymer concrete- search for compromise,

    Advanced Materials Research volume 1129,pp 222-229.

  4. Gavril Sosoi, Marinela Barbuta, Adrian Alexandru Serbanoiu, Dan Babor, Wastes as aggregate substitution in polymer concrete, 11th International Conference Interdisciplinarity in Engineering, 22 (2018) 347351.

  5. Semiha Akcaozoglu & Kubilay Akcaozoglu, An investigation on the use of shredded waste PET bottles as aggregate in lightweight concrete, waste management, volume 30(2010) 285-290

  6. Ms. K. Ramadevi, Ms. R. Manju, Experimental Investigation on the Properties of Concrete with Plastic PET (Bottle) Fibres as Fine Aggregates,

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  7. S. Arivalagan, Sustainable Studies on concrete with GGBS as a replacement material in cement, Jordan Journals of Civil Engineering, volume 8, No. 3,2014

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  9. Gagandeep, Experimental study on characteristics of polymer concrete with epoxy resin, Materials Today: Proceedings 2021.

  10. Marinela Barbuta, Mircea Rujanu, Alina Nicuta, Characterization of polymer concrete with different wastes additions, 9th international conference interdisciplinarity in engineering, volume 22 (2016) 407-412.

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