Experimental Investigation of Suitability of Jatropha Bio-Diesel as a Engine Fuel in 4-Stroke Diesel Engine

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Experimental Investigation of Suitability of Jatropha Bio-Diesel as a Engine Fuel in 4-Stroke Diesel Engine

Puneshwar Verma

ASST. PROF: Department of Mechanical Engineering Parthivi College of Engineering & Management Bhilai-3, Durg, C. G., India

Manoj Kumar Sharma

ASST. PROF: Department of Mechanical Engineering Parthivi College of Engineering & Management Bhilai-3, Durg, C. G., India

Chuneshwar Lal Verma

ASST. PROF: Department of Mechanical Engineering REC, Raipur

Raipur, C. G., India

Abstract Todays scenario of finding alternate fuel options for reducing demands of conventional fuels and also to reduce environmental hazards issues, this analysis may give such an effective measure for suitability of biofuel to be used in an engine as an ecofriendly and potential alternate. The bio-diesel used in an engine with different blending of diesel and biodiesel (95:05, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 respectively by volume). The result showing similar effects in mechanical efficiency, specific fuel consumption, break thermal efficiency etc. of this blending over pure diesel fuel used in engine. Also a cost effective comparison is done for using biodiesel blending in different proportions.

Keywords Bio-diesel, blending, jatropha, alternate fuel

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Due to Increased utilization of traditional resources, this is obvious that our conventional resources are at a state of depletion. Also the toxic smoke coming out from the burning of this fossil fuels are dramatically hazarding human life. That gives rise to find some other replacement for fulfillment of the uses of that resource in daily life in a prominent way.

    TABLE-1 PRODUCTION AND IMPORT OF CRUDE OIL IN INDIA (MT)

    Capita

    Prim. Energy

    Production

    Import

    Million

    TWh

    TWh

    TWh

    2004

    1,080

    6,662

    5,430

    1,230

    2007

    1,123

    6,919

    5,244

    1,745

    2008

    1,140

    7, 222

    5,446

    1,836

    2009

    1,155

    7,860

    5,844

    2,116

    2010

    1,171

    8,056

    6,032

    2,110

    2012

    1,241

    8,716

    6,291

    2,483

    Change in 2004-10

    8.4%

    20.9%

    11.1%

    72%

    MT = 11.63 TWh

    Source: IEA Key October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15

    Biodiesel is the promising option as alternative fuels for diesel engine (edible or non-edible). Biodiesel is defined as the esters of mono-alkyl with long chain of fatty acids derived from different sources of non-edible seeds oils, algae,

    waste cooking oil and fats. Biodiesels are renewable, eco- friendly, emission less, easily available and also less costly. Biodiesel have some advantages as compared to conventional diesel fuel. The most important advantages of using biodiesel are biodegradability, derived from natural resources, higher cetane number and reduced exhaust emissions. Also, biodiesels are free from sulfur or aromatic compounds and reduces air pollution like carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Therefore, this makes biodiesel as an ideal fuel for future and it is gaining a worldwide attention [8]. Many researchers have concluded that vegetable oils and their derivatives are good alternate option to replace diesel fuel requirements. The first use of vegetable oil in a compression ignition engine was first demonstrated through Rudolph Diesel who used peanut oil in his diesel engine. Biodiesel has become more important recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources [1]. The uses of oils from coconut, soyabean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and palm and different vegetable oils amongst others have been attempted. The long term use of vegetable oils led to injector choking and the thickening of crankcase oil which resulted in piston ring sticking also some other issues occurs in performance of engine and the cost efficiency is much less than using diesel oil. So, vegetable oils are regretted used in diesel engines because of endurance issues [2]. To overcome this problem, various modifications of vegetable oils have been employed such as transesterification [3]

    1. Transesterification of vegetable oils

      Biodiesel is a methyl ester produced from a process called transesterification of triglyceride in vegetable oils or animal fat and waste etc. This technique uses a strong acid such as sulfuric acid or Sodium hydroxide or carbonates or enzymes to catalyze the esterification of the FFAs, and process is done by reacting lower alcohols such as methanol or ethanol with triglyceride [2, 4].

    2. Experimental setup

    Fuel tank

    B. Properties of different biodiesels

    ASTM characterization of the fuel was done to en-sure that the test fuel used in the study conforms to the ASTM D6751- 08 standard (ASTM, 2008). Such procedures were: cloud and pour point (ASTM D2500), flash point (ASTM D93),

    T4

    T2 T5 T6

    Calorimeter

    T3

    Rota Meters

    Dynamometer

    EGA SM

    T1

    ~

    ~

    kinematic viscosity (ASTM D445), acid number (ASTM D664) and gross heating value (ASTM D4809) [7].

    Vegetable Oil

    Cetane Number

    Heating Value (MJ/kg)

    Cloud Point (°C)

    Pour Point (°C)

    Flash Point (°C)

    Densit y (kg/ltr)

    Corn

    37.6

    39.5

    -1.1

    -40

    277

    0.909

    Cotton Seed

    41.8

    39.5

    1.7

    -15

    234

    0.914

    Crambe

    44.6

    40.5

    10.0

    -12.2

    274

    0.904

    Linseed

    34.6

    39.3

    1.7

    -15.0

    241

    0.923

    Peanut

    41.8

    39.8

    12.8

    -6.7

    271

    0.902

    Rapeseed

    37.6

    39.7

    -3.9

    -31.7

    246

    0.911

    Safflower

    41.3

    39.5

    18.3

    -6.7

    260

    0.911

    Sesame

    40.2

    39.3

    -3.9

    -9.4

    260

    0.913

    Soya bean

    37.9

    39.6

    -3.9

    -12.2

    254

    0.913

    Sunflower

    37.1

    39.6

    7.2

    -15.0

    274

    0.916

    Jatropha

    45

    40

    16

    2

    240

    0.912

    Pongamia

    51

    46

    23

    160

    0.882

    Diesel

    50

    43.8

    -5

    -16

    76

    0.855

    Vegetable Oil

    Cetane Number

    Heating Value (MJ/kg)

    Cloud Point (°C)

    Pour Point (°C)

    Flash Point (°C)

    Densit y (kg/ltr)

    Corn

    37.6

    39.5

    -1.1

    -40

    277

    0.909

    Cotton Seed

    41.8

    39.5

    1.7

    -15

    234

    0.914

    Crambe

    44.6

    40.5

    10.0

    -12.2

    274

    0.904

    Linseed

    34.6

    39.3

    1.7

    -15.0

    241

    0.923

    Peanut

    41.8

    39.8

    12.8

    -6.7

    271

    0.902

    Rapeseed

    37.6

    39.7

    -3.9

    -31.7

    246

    0.911

    Safflower

    41.3

    39.5

    18.3

    -6.7

    260

    0.911

    Sesame

    40.2

    39.3

    -3.9

    -9.4

    260

    0.913

    Soya bean

    37.9

    39.6

    -3.9

    -12.2

    254

    0.913

    Sunflower

    37.1

    39.6

    7.2

    -15.0

    274

    0.916

    Jatropha

    45

    40

    16

    2

    240

    0.912

    Pongamia

    51

    46

    23

    160

    0.882

    Diesel

    50

    43.8

    -5

    -16

    76

    0.855

    TABLE-II PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OILS

    Source: reference no. [5, 6]

  2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    1. Materials

      Jatropha biodiesel was prepared from previously extracted and refined oils at Chhattisgarh biofuel development authority

      [CBDA] plant at Raipur Chhattisgarh and also purchased from here. And then the experimental setup of 4-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was prepared at MPCCET College Bhilai. The following fuel and fuel blends are used for experimental work as follows:

      100% pure Diesel- D100

      5% Jatropha Biodiesel-95% Diesel-B5 10% Jatropha Biodiesel-90% Diesel-B10 15% Jatropha Biodiesel-85% Diesel-B15 20% Jatropha Biodiesel-80% Diesel-B20

      Fig.1- Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel engine test rig

      Engine Specification

      1. Make of Engine : Kirloskar

      2. Type of Engine : 4 Strokes / Vertical

      3. No of Cylinder : One

      4. Type of Cooling : Water Cooled

      5. Rated Power : 5 HP

      6. Rated Speed : 1500 RPM

      7. Bore/stroke : 80/110 mm

      8. Loading Arrangements : Rope brake

  3. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

    In order to study the performance of IC engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel, an experimental performance has been done. The efficiency, Power and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the engine was measured and calculated under variable load conditions for different blends.

        1. Mechanical efficiency of jatropha biodiesel blends

          Engine load taken in kg. B5 blend of biodiesel more prominent value then diesel at each load condition like at 9 kg load, 53.5% and 54.7% are the mechanical efficiencies of D100 and B5 respectively. The mechanical efficiency is approximately same as D100 at B20.

          MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

          MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

          80

          60 D100

          B5

          40

          B10

          20 B15

          0 B20

          0 5 10 15 20

          LOAD

          Fig.2- Mechanical efficiency in varing load

        2. Brake thermal efficiency Vs Brake horse power

          Comparing Brake Thermal Efficiency at 13.5 kg load, for the diesel fuel it was 12.4 % and for the jatropha biodiesel (B05) it was found 12.42 %. So, we can say that Brake Thermal Efficiency in case of jatropha biodiesel is increases as compare to pure diesel fuel and for the biodiesel fuel (B20) it will increases by 5%. In other words, the Brake Thermal Efficiency for jatropha biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions. The reason being that, the jatropha biodiesel

          BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

          BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

          contains approximately 10% higher oxygen than diesel fuel which may results in better combustion.

          20

          15

          10

          5

          0

          0

          0.2

          0.4

          diesel

          B 5

          B 10

          B 15

          B 20

          0.6

          20

          15

          10

          5

          0

          0

          0.2

          0.4

          diesel

          B 5

          B 10

          B 15

          B 20

          0.6

          BRAKE HOURSE POWER

          BRAKE HOURSE POWER

          Fig.3- Brake thermal efficiency Vs Brake horse power

        3. Mechanical efficiency and Brake horse power

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Comparing Mechanical efficiency with brake horse power at various loads, like at 18kg for the diesel fuel it was 69.4% and for the jatropha biodiesel(B20) it was found approximately same 69.38%, for jatropha biodiesel (B5) it was having slight less value. This was because of the indicated horse power is proportional to the brake horse power which ratio is equal to the mechanical efficiency. The figure 4 shows the relation between brake horse powers of engine and the mechanical efficiency.

    BRAKE HOURSE POWER

    BRAKE HOURSE POWER

    5

    4.5

    4

    3.5

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    5

    4.5

    4

    3.5

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    DIESEL

    DIESEL

    B 5

    B 10

    B 15

    B 20

    0

    B 5

    B 10

    B 15

    B 20

    0

    0.2

    0.2

    0.4

    0.4

    0.6

    0.6

    SP. FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SP. FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Fig. 5- specific fuel consumption consumed for brake horse power at different conditions

    E. Cost analysis of Diesel oil, Non-Edible Biodiesel and Edible Biodiesel Oil

    MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

    MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

    As per the CBDA the cost of a biodiesel of non-edible (jatropha) oil is varies between 45-50 INR per liter. And the average prize of diesel oil in Chhattisgarh is about 70 IN per liter. Also the costing of a biodiesel derived from Edible sources of oil then it costs about 80-85 INR per liter. So if we comparing alls cost then we got cost benefited by using non- edible oils only.

    DIESEL

    B 5

    B 10

    B 15

    B 20

    0 0.2 0.4 0.6

    BRAKE HOURSE POWER

    DIESEL

    B 5

    B 10

    B 15

    B 20

    0 0.2 0.4 0.6

    BRAKE HOURSE POWER

    Fig.4- mechanical efficiency Vs Brake horse power

    D. Brake power Vs specific fuel consumption

    Looking at the Specific Fuel Consumption at 18 kg load condition, it was 2.464 kg/BHP hr for diesel fuel and 2.4 kg/BHP hr for jatropha biodiesel (B05) and for B20 it was

    2.35. The meaning is Specific Fuel Consumption reduces by 4.7% for jatropha biodiesel (B20) compare to diesel fuel. From the result table we can also conclude that for other blending Specific Fuel Consumption is almost nearer to diesel fuel.

  4. CONCLUSION

Non-edible biodiesel considered most potential source and less costly then conventional diesel fuel and edible oils biodiesels. A four stroke, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine of 5 HP output was used to test jatropha curcas biodiesel blends, and compared with conventional diesel fuel for the different parameters. The fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel were very much similar to the conventional diesel fuel. A single cylinder compression ignition engine was operated successfully using methyl ester of Jatropha oil as the soul fuel with additives. Methyl ester of Jatropha oil results in a slightly increased thermal efficiency as compared to that of diesel. By the analysis at different blend we found that the performance of engine at 20% blend with diesel gives better value in comparison to other blends & closer to diesel fuel. It is much economical than other blends so tends to Reduces cost.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am greatly thankful to Mr. Swapnil Shukla for motivating me and giving me such a tremendous support. I also thankful for MPCCET College to giving me a platform to do such performances regarding this report.

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  1. Mustafa Canakci, The Potential of Resultant Waste Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstocks. Bioresource Technology, Elsevier 2005.

  2. Peterson C.L., Cruz R.O., Perkings L., Korus R., Auld D.L. Transesterification of vegetable oil for use as diesel fuel: A progress report., ASAE Paper 1990, No. 90-610.

[3]

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Bjorn S. Santos, Sergio C. Capareda, Jewel A. Capunitan, Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Peanut Oil Biodiesel, Journal

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