Experimental Investigation of Single Slope Solar Still Using Black and White Wall

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Experimental Investigation of Single Slope Solar Still Using Black and White Wall

Ashutosh Dwivedi1, Dr. P. K. Shrivastav2, Dr. Anjaney Pandey3

1,3Department of Mechanical Engineering Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday Vishwavidyalaya, M.P.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering Government Engineering College, Rewa, M.P.

Abstract:- The aim of this study is to design a water system that can purify water from almost any source such as rivers, lakes and underground reservoirs. The direct use of water from these sources is dangerous because the salt is present in the water and therefore the need for new water for a cheap, portable system and relies solely on renewable solar energy. Our research objective is to properly generate clean drinking water from the conversion of solar energy. One of the many methods that can be used to purify water is drinking drinks. As heat and sunlight can be a source of energy, this includes the installation of energy. It is known as Solar Water Distillation when solar energy is used for this reason. Solar Distillation is an attractive process for producing drinking water using free solar energy. This energy is used directly on evaporation within a device commonly referred to as 'solar still. In this research work analyze the heat and mass transfer in the improved solar still. And Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature).

Keywords: Solar still, desalination, Temperature, Solar Energy

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Global demand for fresh water is increasingly challenging since most sources of water are contaminated.

    Industrial waste, sewage and pollution from farming. In certain parts of the world, the result is an inadequate supply of water. A solar still is a precious device that can be used for drinking water purposes to purify brackish water and salt water. But the key downside is that solar output is still poor.

    In the proposed work, efforts are being made to build and evaluate an improved solar system and to combine it with an auxiliary unit consisting of a sediment filter and a solar-powered UV disinfectant unit in order to obtain a solar-powered water treatment system. This unit is intended to cater to the average family's need for consumable water, preferably in rural areas where open space is plentiful.

    The higher rate of growth in the world's population and industries has contributed to a major rise in demand for fresh water. A small demand can be met by the natural supply and this leads to acute fresh water shortages. Therefore, the extensive treatment of salt and polluted water into filtered water is a concern.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Drinking water is still a big problem in dried and remote areas. Single basin solar still is a solution for this problem. This type of solar still is capable of producing clean potable water from available salty or waste water throughout the year. Single slope still is suitable at higher latitude place.

Water and energy are two types inseparable items that govern our lives and promote civilization. Looking to the history of mankind one finds that water and civilization were also two inseparable entities. It is not a coincidence that all great civilizations were developed and flourished near large bodies of water. Rivers, seas, oases and oceans have attracted mankind to their coasts because water is the source of life. The supply of hygienic potable water is one of the major problem faced in underdeveloped and in some developed countries. Since transportation of drinking water from far-off regions is usually not economically feasible / desirable, desalination of available brackish water has been considered as an alternative approach.

Several researchers have studied the effects of various designs, operational and climatic parameters. Many designs and modifications of the solar still have been proposed in literature.

Omar O. Bad ran et. al. [2] Evaluating thermal performance of a single slope solar still.In this study, several conclusions can be obtained as follows; (a) the increase in either ambient temperature and/or the solar intensity can lead to an increase the solar productivity, (b) as the water depth decreases from (3.5 cm) to (2 cm), the productivity increases by (25.7 %), (c) The maximum efficiency occurs in early afternoon due to the high solar radiation at this time, (d) the overall heat loss coefficient increases until it reaches the maximum in the afternoon due to higher solar intensity and ambient temperature, and finally, (e) the proposed mathematical model gave good match with experimental results. Future work can be carried out using this model to enhance the design of single solar stills.

Anil kumar Tiwari et. al. studied [3] Effect of Cover Inclination and Water Depth on Performance of a Solar Still for Indian Climatic Conditions. The study leads to the following conclusions.

  1. There is significant variation in convective heat transfer coefficient for different inclinations of condensing covers and different water depths. This will be useful in choosing passive solar still designs for specific applications, regions, and seasonal performance requirements.

  2. Overall, 45 deg and 15 deg inclinations of the condensing cover result in maximal annual yields of similar order of magnitude. However, specific summer or winter peak performances are optimized when choosing a condensing cover inclination of 15 deg or 45 deg, respectively.

  3. Lowest possible water depth produces maximum yield and efficiency throughout the entire year.

    P.Vishwanath Kumar et. al. studied [4] Solar stills system design as freshwater demand is growing day by day in the present times of rapid grow distilling the saline water throughout the world. Many solar stills have been studied in detail in this review covering all the aspects of design specifications. Also the effect of design and operating parameters on the distillate productivity of various stills has been presented. The following are the conclusions that were noted from this detailed review:

    In single effect passive basin stills, distillate output increases from 34%to42%bycovercoolingbycovercooling.Alsothe productivity depends on solar radiation and ambient conditions i.e., on clear and cloudy days. Particularly on sunny days, productivity was more for still with inclined flat glass cover compared to semi-sphere, bi layers hemisphere and an arch coverwithvaluesof1.25kg/m2/d, 1.1kg/m2/d, 1.2kg/m2/d and 0.83kg/m2/d respectively. Whereas on winter days, pro- ductivityincreasesby70100%byusingreflectors.

    Kuldeep H.Nayi et. al. studied [7] Pyramid solar still. The study leads to the following conclusions. Pyramid solar still is one of the outcomes of such a development. The present paper reviews the development in the field of pyramid solar still as well as the various techniques to improve the performance of still. From the review on research carried out by the various researchers, it has been found that pyramid solar still is more efficient and economical in compare to conventional single slope single basin still. Thus, the review paper will assist the researchers to understand the fundamentals of pyramid solar still with the need, developments and challenges in pyramid solar still to improve its thermal performance and to make it more and more economic.

    Swellam W. Sharshir et. al. [8] In this article, a review of factors affecting solar still production (climatic conditions, operations and design parameters) and enhancement tchniques (wicks, internal and external condensers, internal and external reflectors, phase change materials, Stepped solar still and a new method improved the solar still yield by using nanoparticles) has been argued. Using sponge cubes in the basin water caused a significant enhancement in solar still production (up to 273%) whereas using cuprous oxide nanoparticles increased the distilled yield by 133.64% and 93.87% with and without the fan respectively.

    Ravishankar Sathyamurthy et. al. [9] Concludes that the geometry in the solar still significantly influences the yield of fresh water. Following conclusions are made:

    1. The highest yield stills are the stepped with reflectors and weir cascaded solar stills, but their cost remains high.

    2. A method for improving the yield of conventional solar still is increasing the surface area of water by adding specified dimensions of sensible heat energy storage in the basin .

    3. A new shape of a triangular basin single slope solar still increases the contact area of water with solar radiance by reducing the shadowing effect from the side walls during morning and evening hours.

    4. For the triangular pyramid solar still, cooling water may be circulated through the side walls, which takes away the heat which is returned as feed water into the basin.

    Ali.F.Muftah, K.Sopian et. al. [10] study involved the enhancement of a stepped solar still by integrating superior design concepts into one design. The energy-balance analysis of the proposed stepped still prior to and post modification has been conducted. The performance of the proposed stepped solar still was detailed under multiple evaluation parameters. The daily productivity of the stepped solar still post modification increased from 6.9 kg/m2 to 8.9 kg/m2. Based on the results obtained from the thermal evaluation parameters and statistical test, the proposed design significantly enhanced the thermal performance of the stepped solar still.

    1. METHODOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTATION

      Impure water is filled inside an airtight insulated basin covered with a transparent glass in the basin style still solar. The rays are transmitted from the cover to the absorber surface at the bottom when the silos are exposed to the light, thereby heating the water. Then the hot water heats the air inside, leaving it unsaturated. The water evaporates and saturates the air that surrounds it. which is being circulated inside the still due to the temperature difference between the water surface and the cover lower surface.

      Solar units of the single basin type are produced with certain design parameters and tested under field conditions. The basin was made of wooden block with a 1.0 m x 0.8 m base, which was positioned for support on the metal stand. In order to minimize the heat loss to the atmosphere, 5 cm thick insulation (glass wool) was provided between the wooden box and the basin. In order to increase the absorptive of the basin surface, it is painted black . Glass of 3 mm thickness covers the single slope still with an inclination with horizontal.

      Fig. 1 Experimental Setup of solar distillation system

      A pyranometer was used to measure the insolation on the still. Temperatures of the following locations were recorded by means of digital type thermometer, a) at basin liner, b) inner and outer surface of glazing, c) water in basin and d) surrounding air. The accuracy of this thermometer is of the order of ±0.1 degree centigrade for the range of temperatures measured. The distillate output was measured by means of a measuring Cylinder, at half hour interval.

      All the observations & readings on experimental setups are taken in the month of May -Jne .The time duration for observations of solar still is from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM for experimental setups of arrangement of only Black Coating with reflector arrangement.

      Table 1 Simulation parameters of inclined solar still

      S.No.

      Parameters

      Symbol

      Values and units

      1

      Mass of Solar Still

      Ms

      20 kg

      2

      Area of base

      Ab

      1 m2

      3

      Specific heat of material

      Cb

      510 J/kg K

      4

      Absorptivity of material

      b

      0.95

      5

      Mass of glass

      Mg

      2.7 kg/m2

      6

      Area of glass surface

      Ag

      1 m2

      7

      Specific heat of glass

      Cg

      750 J/kg K

      8

      Absorptivity of glass

      g

      0.05

      9

      Transmissivity of glass

      tg

      0.88

      10

      Emissivity of glass

      w

      0.97

      11

      Mass of basin water

      Mw

      10.8 kg

      12

      Area of basin water surface

      Aw

      0.95 m2

      13

      Specific heat of water

      Cb

      4185 J/kg K

      14

      Absorptivity of water

      w

      0.05

      15

      Emissivity of water

      w

      0.95

      16

      Latent heat of vaporization for water

      Lw

      2430.7 KJ/kg

      17

      Convection heat transfer Coefficient

      hc(b-w)

      135 W/m2K

      18

      Overall heat loss coefficient from bottom

      Ub

      14 W/m2K

      19

      Stefan-Boltzmann constant

      5.67×10-8 W/m2K4

      20

      Thermal conductivity of absorber plate

      Kb

      50.2 W/mK

      21

      Thickness of absorber plate

      tk b

      0.003 m

      Table 2 Controllable parameters used in mathematical modeling of proposed solar still configurations.

      S.No

      Type of Proposed solar stills

      Controllable parameters with units

      Aw

      Ab

      Ag

      Mw

      Mb

      Mr

      M2

      M2

      M2

      Kg

      Kg/m2

      kg/s

      2.

      Inclined still with Base Black Color

      0.85

      1

      1

      6.1

      9.6

      0.00083

      3.

      Conventional basin still

      0.27

      0.3

      0.3

      4

      2.34

    2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

      Organization of this chapter is intended to present the outcome of the experiments carried out in black coated stills and white coated still for their performance. Line diagrams, are used in various sections to present the test results. This paves the way for the easy understanding of the work and to improve the performance of the still.

      Black Coated Still

      DAY 1

      70

      60

      50

      TEMP.

      TEMP.

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      Tb Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      Fig. 2 (a) Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature)

      DAY 2

      70

      60

      TEMP .

      TEMP .

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      Tb Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      Fig. 2 (b) Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature)

      DAY 3

      DAY 3

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      10

      0

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      TEMP.

      TEMP.

      TEMP.

      TEMP.

      Fig. 2 (c) Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature)

      DAY 4

      DAY 4

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      10

      0

      10

      0

      10am

      11am

      12am

      01pm

      02pm

      03pm

      04pm

      10am

      11am

      12am

      01pm

      02pm

      03pm

      04pm

      Fig. 2 (d) Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature

      DAY 5

      DAY 5

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      Tb

      Ta Tw Tg

      Tvapour

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      TEMP.

      TEMP.

      Fig. 2 (e) Comparison between different location Temperatures (Basin Temperature, Ambient Temperature, Water Temperature, Glass Temperature, Vapor Temperature)

      Above diagram shows, the performance of the proposed basin solar still is verified under different evaluation parameters. These parameters are saline water temperature, glass cover temperature. The values of the evaluation parameters prior to and post modification are obtained under clear sky day conditions.

      Comparison of Time Vs Output

      DAY 1

      DAY 1

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      Output

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      Output

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      output (ml)

      output (ml)

      Fig. 3 (a) Variation of Output vs. Time Day 1

      DAY 2

      60

      50

      output (ml)

      output (ml)

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      Series1

      Fig. 3 (b) Variation of Output vs. Time Day 2

      DAY 3

      DAY 3

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Series1

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      Series1

      10

      0

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      output (ml)

      output (ml)

      Fig. 3 (c) Variation of Output vs. Time Day 3

      DAY 4

      DAY 4

      60

      50

      40

      30

      Series1

      60

      50

      40

      30

      Series1

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      20

      10

      0

      20

      10

      0

      output(ml)

      output(ml)

      Fig. 3 (d) Variation of Output vs. Time Day 4

      DAY 5

      60

      50

      output(ml)

      output(ml)

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      10am 11am 12am 01pm 02pm 03pm 04pm

      Series1

      Fig. 3 (e) Variation of Output vs. Time Day 5

      As shown in the figure the maximum output is achieved with time of the day and reaches its maximum at about 1 pm.

    3. CONCLUSION

From this experimental Inquiry (shown in Fig. 3 a-e). We may infer that in the time from 12:00 am to 02:00 pm, the rise in temperature and thus the production is maximum. The saline water we given was 05 liters and we got 2.30 liters per square meter of purified water for experimental setups at the end of the experiment, as described earlier. An efficient use of solar energy can reduce the need for the use of expensive conventional sources of energy and meet energy saving requirements.

The improved thermal performance of the manufactured solar with an improved evaporation rate and faster condensation was achieved due to the appreciable contribution of design parameters and operation.

REFERENCE

  1. wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_still

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  3. Anil kumar Tiwari & G N Tiwari (2008) Effect of Cover Inclination and Water Depth on Performance of a Solar Still for Indian Climatic Conditions. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 130 / 024502-1

  4. P.Vishwanath Kumar, Anil Kumar, OmPrakash, Ajay Kumar Kaviti (2015) Solar stills system design. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 51 153181

  5. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE BASIN SINGLE SLOPE SOLAR STILL, PARAKASH M.

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  7. Kuldeep H.Nayi Kalpesh V.Modi (2018) Pyramid solar still: A comprehensive review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 81,

    Part 1, Pages 136-148

  8. Swellam W. Sharshir , Guilong Peng,Abd Elnaby Kabeel (2016) Factors affecting solar stills productivity and improvement techniques.

    Applied Thermal Engineering Vol. 100 267284

  9. Ravishankar Sathyamurthy, D.G. Harris Samuel, P.K. Nagarajan & T. Arunkumar (2016) Geometrical variations in solar stills for improving the fresh water yield-A Review. Balaban Desalination Publications 1944-3986

  10. Ali.F.Muftah, K.Sopian, M.A.Alghoul (2017) Performance of basin type stepped solar still enhanced with superior design concepts. Desalination Vol.435 198-209

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the performance of inclined type solar stills,Samuel hansen R

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  15. Kamarulbaharin Z. A., Safie M. A., Azmi A.M., Singh B. S. B. (2018) Experimental Investigations on the Performance of a Single Slope Solar Still Coupled With Flat Plate Solar Collector under Malaysian Conditions International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 7 (4.26) 159- 162

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  17. chika Saini Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur-482011, India

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  19. Dr .K. Arumugam, , Dr.R.Anbazhagan (2018) Experimental analysis on single slope double basin solar assisted still coupled with heating coil for desalination of brackish water. TAGA JOURNAL, Volume: 14 No. 06 2306-2311

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