Effect of Cylindrical Combustion Chamber Shape, on the Performance of Home Oil Biodiesel Fueled Diesel Engine.

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Effect of Cylindrical Combustion Chamber Shape, on the Performance of Home Oil Biodiesel Fueled Diesel Engine.

Allamaprabhu B Shigihalli1

1 Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Hirasugar Institute Of Technology Nidasoshi, Karnataka, India

Abstract

: An experimental investigation is done on a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine operated on honge oil as a biodiesel. This experimental study mainly focused on investigation of the performance of diesel engine using Honge oil (Pongemia)

The performance and emission characteristics were analyzed with cylindrical combustion chamber shape, nozzle geometry, injection pressure and EGR.

Engine tests are carried on the single cylinder four stroke diesel engine. This study is to investigate effect of change in the combustion chamber shape on the performance of biodiesel operated diesel engine.Due to the biodiesel in the diesel engine it is found that the engine performance is decreasing this is happening due to improper mixing of air and fuel. The performance of the engine can be made good by altering the shape of the piston. The performance and emission characteristics will be studied for various piston geometries of engine( HCC , CCC ) and for the given diesel engine the piston geometry which gives better performance is selected Using the design of experiments

Keywords: Cylindrical combustion chamber; Biodiesel (HOME); Design of experiments by Taguchi analysis; Exhaust gas recirculation.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    These days, all the light vehicles and the heavy duty vehicles are being run using diesel fuel. In India, diesel used for 1

    day is approximately 4 million barrels per day of oil ( calculated in the year 2017), if this is the condition then there is no longer availability of the fuel in future(1). Diesel extraction countries like Iran, Iraq, Kuwait etc, as per their calculation there wont be any longer availability of the fuel after 60- 70 years.In order to overcome these difficulties there is a research on the use of biodiesels as a fuel in diesel engine(2).

    Lot of research work was done on using solar energy to run the vehicles but unfortunately that doesent work(3).Therefore the left option is using biodiesel, in Malaysia around 70% of the car are run using POME oil biodiesel as well as in the countries like India, buses are being run on biodiesel blends.But there is still research going on, on using 100% biodiesel to run the vehicles.

    In this study the experimental investigation was carried out on the single cylinder four stroke diesel engine using 100% biodiesel and for the better results of the engine in order to make higher efficiency we are altering the parameters like Cylindrical combustion chamber, Injection pressure, EGR ( exhaust gas recirculation ).

      1. EGR ( Exhaust Gas Recirculation )

        Fig a. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Set-up.

        In order to reduce the NOx emissions exhaust gas recirculation is used. This helps in recirculating the small amount of exhaust gas to the engine intake as a intake air and helps in the proper mixing of air fuel mixtures.

        This system mainy has exhaust gas inlet and gas outlet and as well as cold water inlet and hot water oullet it contains a large number of tubings inside the system through which the water is circulating, the hot exhaust gases temperature from the engine is about 300 to 4000C this temperature is suitable to supply it to engine inlet therefore the temperature of the gas is cooled down by EGR(4). EGR has given with a ball

        valve which controls thegas inlet to the EGR systemthe valve can be adjusted to 5%, 10% 15% etc. cold water is circulated into the system and when the hot gases enter the chamber heat exchange takes place between water and the hot gases water gains the temperature of the hot gases and converts it around 400 to 450C so that it can be recirculated to the engine. When engine takes normal air that is around 270 to 300C therefore the mixing of air-fuel mixture doesent happen properly if the air-fuel mixture isnt proper then it affects the efficiency of the engine so exhaust gas recirculation is used.

      2. PROPERTIES OF FUEL USED

    Fig.1 HONGE TREE Fig.2 HONGE SEEDS Fig.3 HONGE OIL

    The properties of fuel were calculated under laboratory conditions in energy conversation laboratory of the college

    Table.1 Properties of diesel fuel and biodiesel (Honge)

    Property

    Honge biodiesel

    Diesel

    Flash point ( 0C )68

    142

    68

    Fire point ( 0C )

    195

    66

    Calorific value (MJ/kg)

    37.15

    42.00

    Viscosity at 400 C (mm2/sec)

    4.7

    2.28

    Density at 150 C (kg/m3)

    894

    830

    Acid number (mg KOH/g)

    0.45

    0.34

    Water content (mg/kg)

    102

    Ash content (%)

    0.01

    0.01

    From the table it is clear that the calorific value of the biodiesel is 37MJ.The viscosity and the density of the biodiesel is more compared to diesel fuel.Similarly the flash point and fire point for Diesel is lesser comapred to Biodiesel

  2. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

    Fig 4. shows Experimental Test Engine

    Table 2 – Engine Specifications

    Engine

    Four stroke single cylinder

    Make

    Kirloskar

    BHP

    5HP

    RPM

    1500

    Fuel

    Diesel

    Bore

    80mm

    Stroke length

    110mm

    Cooling method

    water cooled

    Ignition method

    Compression ignition

    Compression ratio

    1:17.5

    An experimental investigation is done on a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine operated on honge oil as a biodiesel and is a four stroke water cooled. Initially the engine is operated at a constant speed of 1500 rpm engine can withstand higher pressure, water is used as a medium of cooling, water required for the engine cooling

    was forced by a water pumpthrough the water jacket. The engine specifications are showen in the above table.

    Initially selection of biodiesel is based on availability of biodiesel. The biodiesel used in this work is HOME(honge) (This experiment is conducted on pure biodiesel i,e: 100% biodiesel without any blends )

      1. Installing modified cylindrical piston

        Fig 5. Installing Cylindrical Piston , ( Hemispherical piston is removed and modified cylindrical piston fitted on to the connecting rod )

      2. Design of Hemispherical piston geometry

        Fig 6. shows the hemispherical combustion chamber shape and having the 80mm bore diameter with 25mm radius.

      3. Design of Cylindrical piston geometry

    Fig 7.Cylindricalcombustion chamber shape.

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    bte(%)

    bte(%)

    bte(%)

    bte(%)

      1. Brake thermal efficiency:

        40

        30

        20

        Load vs bte

        4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        Diesel,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        40

        30

        20

        Load vs bte

        4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        Diesel,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        10

        Diesel,CCC,240bar, EGR 10%

        10

        Diesel,CCC,240bar, EGR 15%

        0

        0

        B100,CCC,240bar, EGR 10%

        0

        0

        B100,CCC,240bar, EGR 15%

        Load vs bte

        40

        bte(

        %)

        bte(

        %)

        30

        20

        10

        0

        0 4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        Diesel,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

        B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

        Load vs bte

        40

        bte(

        %)

        bte(

        %)

        30

        20

        10

        0

        0 4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        Diesel,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

        B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

        Graphs: Load vs Brake thermal efficiency

        The above graph shows the variation of Load vs brake thermal efficiency. Load increases with brake themal efficiency increses. In HCC shape with EGR( 10 %) and without EGR diesel gives higher brake thermal efficiency for all loads. Brake thermal efficiency has improved with increase in load for both parameters and it is observed that diesel for HCC shape and B100 for CCC shape gives more efficiency.

        From the graph and validation by taguchi method the result for diesel,brake thermal efficiency is more at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 10% with 4 holes nozzle geometry, similarly for B100 brake thermal efficiency is more at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 15%4 holes nozzle geometry .

        Sfc (Kg/kwhr)

        Sfc (Kg/kwhr)

        Sfc (Kg/kwhr)

        Sfc (Kg/kwhr)

      2. Specific fuel consumption:

        Load vs Sfc

        3 Diesel,HCC,205bar,

        2.5 EGR 0%

        2 B100,HCC,205bar,

        1.5 EGR 0%

        1 Diesel,CCC,240bar,

        EGR 10%

        0.5

        B100,CCC,240bar,

        0 EGR 10%

        0 4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        4

        3

        2

        1

        0

        0

        Load vs sfc

        4 8 12 16

        Load(kg)

        Diesel,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

        Diesel,CCC,240bar, EGR 15%

        B100,CCC,240bar, EGR 15%

        Load vs sfc

        Load vs sfc

        4

        Diesel,HCC,205bar,

        4

        Diesel,HCC,205bar,

        EGR 0%

        EGR 0%

        3

        B100,HCC,205bar,

        3

        B100,HCC,205bar,

        2

        EGR 0%

        2

        EGR 0%

        1

        Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

        1

        Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

        0

        0

        4 8 12 16

        B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

        0

        0

        4 8 12 16

        B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

        Load(kg)

        Load(kg)

        Sfc (Kg/kw

        hr)

        Sfc (Kg/kw

        hr)

        Sfc (Kg/kw

        hr)

        Sfc (Kg/kw

        hr)

        Graphs: Load vs Specific fuel consumption

        The above graph shows the variation of Load vs Sfc. It is observed that the Sfc is less in HCC with EGR compared to without EGR. The specific fuel consumption is less in CCC with EGR (10 %) for B100 blend compared to CCC shape without EGR. Specific fuel consumption in cylindrical combustion chamber is more compared to hemispherical combustion chamber due to poor combustion.

        From the graph and validation by taguchi method the result for diesel, Specific fuel consumption is less at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 10% with 4 holes nozzle geometry, similarly for B100 Specific fuel consumption is less at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 15% 4 holes nozzle geometry.

        vol (

        %)

        vol (

        %)

        vol (

        %)

        vol (

        %)

      3. Volumetric efficiency:

    Load vs vol

    Load vs vol

    4 8 12 16

    Load(kg)

    50

    Diesel,HCC,205bar,

    50

    Diesel,HCC,205bar,

    40

    EGR 0%

    40

    EGR 0%

    30

    B100,HCC,205bar,

    30

    20

    10

    B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

    Diesel,CCC,240bar, EGR 15%

    EGR 0%

    20

    Diesel,CCC,240bar,

    10

    EGR 10%

    0

    B100,CCC,240bar,

    0

    B100,CCC,240bar,

    0

    4 8 12 16

    EGR 10%

    0

    EGR 15%

    Load(kg)

    50

    Load vs vol

    4 8 12 16

    Load(kg)

    Diesel,HCC,205bar,

    50

    Load vs vol

    4 8 12 16

    Load(kg)

    Diesel,HCC,205bar,

    40

    30

    EGR 0%

    B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

    40

    30

    EGR 0%

    B100,HCC,205bar, EGR 0%

    20

    10

    0

    0

    Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

    B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 10%

    20

    10

    0

    0

    Diesel,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

    B100,CCC,220bar, EGR 15%

    vol (%)

    vol (%)

    vol (%)

    vol (%)

    Graphs: Load vs Volumetric efficiency

    The above graph shows the variations of Load vs volumetric efficiency. It is observed that Volumetric efficiency In cylindrical combustion chamber with EGR 15 % and injection pressure 220bar,using fuel as B100 is more than volumetric efficiency of HCC without EGR.

    From the graph and validation by taguchi method the result for diesel,volumetric efficiency is more at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 10% with 4 holes nozzle geometry, similarly for B100 volumetric efficiency is more at injection pressure 220bar and EGR 15%4 holes nozzle geometry.

  4. VALIDATION BY TAGUCHI METHOD

    1. For Diesel Fuel:

      1. Generate L4 array by minitab software using Taguchi Method.

      2. Enter the brake thermal efficiency of experimental result in the C3 column of L4 array as shown below

      3. Analyze the above taguchi design so that SN ratio and SN graph is obtained.

( Note:- Larger is better )

From above graph it is clear that the nominal operating parameters are 220 Bar pressure and 10% EGR

      1. Response table for signal to noise ratio:

        Level

        IP

        EGR

        1

        25.95

        26.15

        2

        24.8

        24.59

        Delta

        1.15

        1.56

        Rank

        2

        1

        • From the set of experiments it is clear that Primary cause for increase in efficiency is EGR 10%, secondary cause is Iinjection pressure 220bar.

      2. Analysis of variance:

        Source

        DF

        Adj SS

        Adj MS

        F-value

        P-value %

        IP

        1

        5.062

        5.062

        1.01

        0.499 24.99%

        EGR

        1

        10.176

        10.176

        2.03

        0.390 50.23%

        Error

        1

        5.018

        5.018

        24.77%

        Total

        3

        20.256

        99.99%

      3. Regression Equation:

BTE = 52.6 – 0.638 EGR – 0.112 IP

SR.NO

IP

EGR

BTEexp

BTEthe

1

220

10

20.31

21.58

2

220

15

19.36

18.39

3

240

10

20.30

21.58

4

240

15

14.87

16.15

    1. For Honge(B100):

      1. Generate L4 array by minitab software using Taguchi Method.

      2. Enter the brake thermal efficiency in the C3 column of L4 array as shown below.

      3. Analyze the above taguchi design so that SN ratio and SN graph is obtained.

        From above graph the optimize value injection pressure 220 bar and EGR 10% shows highest brake thermal efficiency.

            1. Response table for signal to noise ratio.

              Level

              IP

              EGR

              1

              24.44

              25.73

              2

              25.13

              23.84

              Delta

              0.69

              1.90

              Rank

              2

              1

              Primary cause for increase in efficiency is EGR 10%,secondary cause for increase in efficiency is Iinjection pressure 220bar.

            2. Analysis of variance:

              Source

              DF

              Adj SS

              Adj MS

              F-value

              P-value %

              IP

              1

              14.861

              14.861

              6.47

              0.238 76.04%

              EGR

              1

              2.387

              2.387

              1.04

              0.494 12.21%

              Error

              1

              2.295

              2.295

              11.74%

              Total

              3

              19.543

              99.99%

            3. Regression Equation:

        BTE = 58.0 – 0.1928 IP + 0.309 EGR

        SR.NO

        IP

        EGR

        BTEexp

        BTEthe

        1

        220

        10

        17.88

        18.674

        2

        220

        15

        20.94

        20.219

        3

        240

        10

        15.54

        14.818

        4

        240

        15

        15.57

        16.363

      4. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Biodiesel can be used as alternative fuel for diesel engine by some modification of engine because of its higher viscosity.

  2. Mass of fuel consumption decreases in HCC with EGR compared to without EGR. Mass of fuel consumption is less in CCC with EGR for blend B100 at lower loads.

  3. Specific fuel consumption in cylindrical combustion chamber shape is more compared to hemispherical combustion chamber due to poor combustion.

  4. Brake thermal efficiency for diesel is higher in CCC without EGR as compared to B100 blend gives higher brake thermal efficiency in CCC shape with EGR 15 % and 220bar IP.

  5. Volumetric efficiency is higher for HCC without EGR compared to with EGR due to higher inlet temperature and diluting the mixture.

  6. In both HCC and CCC with EGR gives higher mechanical efficiency compared to without EGR. In the condition the B100 gives higher mechanical efficiency compared to with EGR and without EGR.

  7. By attaching the EGR set up along with slight modification of combustion chamber and nozzle

    geometry, there is a enhances the performance parameters by using the biodiesel as fuel in the diesel engine.

  8. By the comparison, the experimental values are very close to theoretical values, by using, taguchi method. The optimized parameters in diesel engine for diesel fuel at 220 bar, 4 holes nozzle geometry and 10 % EGR optimized in CCC shape. Similarly, the optimized parameters in diesel engine for HOME fuel at 220 bar, 4 holes nozzle geometry and 15 % EGR optimized for HOME fuel in CCC shape.

5. REFERENCES

  1. Mikael Hook, Xu Tang , 2012 Depletion of Fossil Fuels And Anthropogenic Climate Change-A review, Energy Policy volume 52, January 2013, pages 797-890.

  2. Magin lapurta, Octavio Armas, Jose Rodriguez-Fernandez, (2008) Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions ( Progress in energy and combustion Science )Volume 34, issue 2, April 2008, pages 198-223.

  3. G.Rizzo, (2010) Atomotive applications of solar energy , (IFAC Proceeding volumes) Volume 43, Issue 7, july 2010, Pages 174- 185

  4. P.Naresh, V.Madhava, A.V Hari babu (2015) Exhaust Gas Recirculation Syatem in Journal of Bioprocessing and chemical engineering.

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