 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 727
 Authors : Rajdevinder Kaur Sidhu, Tarandip Singh
 Paper ID : IJERTV4IS060936
 Volume & Issue : Volume 04, Issue 06 (June 2015)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV4IS060936
 Published (First Online): 26062015
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Different Models of Memristor
Rajdevinder Kaur Sidhu Post Graduate Student
Dept. of Electronics Engineering Shri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib, India
Tarandip Singh Assistant Professor
Dept. of Electronics Engineering Shri Guru Granth Sahib World University
Fatehgarh Sahib, India
AbstractMemristor is regarded as a fourth passive circuit element with the advantages of variable resistance, flexibility, no leakage current, and compatibility with CMOS. The element memristor exhibits different characteristics for different applications which results into the formations of different models of memristor. This paper gives the brief explanation of different models of memristor.
Keywordsfitting parameters, memristance, threshold, window function.

INTRODUCTION
In 1971 L.O. Chua presented the memristor which is to be esteemed as the fourth passive circuit element after resistor, inductor and capacitor [1]. The uniqueness of memristor lies in its property of having variable resistance. One can define
Figure1: HP memristor model [1]

Linear Ion Drift Model
This is the first physical model of memristor developed by R.S Willliams in HP labs [2]. As shown in fig. 1, the width D of this model is shared into two regions. One region with width w is doped (with positive ions of oxygen, typically TiO2) has low resistance and is therefore more conductive and another region is undoped. It is assumed that memristor have ohmic conductance, uniform field and average ion mobility. Hence the state variable equation is as follows :
!" = !! .!!" () (3)
!" !
memristor as a two terminal passive non volatile device which
= !" ! ! + !"" 1 ! !
. () (4)
is characterized by its memristance. The memristance yields ! !
the relation in the time integrals of voltage and current. Generally current controlled time invariant memristor is explicated as
!" = (, ) (1)
!"
= , . () (2)
Where v(t) is the voltage device i(t), is the current of device, R(w,t) is the memristance, w is the state variable and t is the time.
In 2008, HP labs claimed the existence of the physical working model of the memristor [2]. Afterwards the new element memristor opens the doors to the new types of electronics with wide range of applications which including logic design, neuromorphic systems and memory [3][6]. Since HP labs promulgated their work on the implementation of memristor, different models have been proposed to analyze, design and simulate memristor based circuits and applications. In this paper the major models of memristor will be discussed.


MODELS OF MEMRISTOR
Memristor can be used in wide range of applications. Hence different characteristics from memristor is required for each application some characteristics of memristor includes good scalability, low power consumption, flexibility and compatibility with CMOS. The major models of memristor are explained in this section.
In (3) and (4) Ron is resistance of devices at w(t)=d and Roff is the resistance of device at w(t)=0. In this case w(t) state variable is bounded within the limits of intervals [0,D]

Non Linear Ion Drift Model
Even the linear ion drift model is simple and fulfill the basic memristor equations but according to the experiments of the fabricated memristor device, it behaves in different manner and high nonlinearity results are depicted [7] [8]. This leads to the development of another memristor model which is named as non linear ion drift model [9]. The current voltage relationship for this model is expressed as;
= ()! sinh + [exp 1
(5)
In (5), , , and are called as fitting parameters and parameters n defines the shape of w state variable over the currents. The state variables are standized in the interval [0,1]. The differential equation of state variable is
!" = . . ()! (6)
!"
Where a is a constant f(w) is window function and m is odd integer.
The nonlinearity of the device is dependent on voltage. The major application of this memristor model is in logic gates.

Simmons Tunnel Barrier Model
In 2008 D.B Strukov and M.D Pickett proposed another
. ! ! 1 !!"" .
, 0 <
<
memristor model having higher accuracy than previously explained model [10]. This model also assumed the non
!"(!) =
!""
!!""
! !
!!"
!""
!""
linearity and anti symmetric switching property. As shown in
!" !".
1
!!"
. !" , < !" < 0
Fig. 2 the model has a resistor in series with electron tunnel barrier instead of two resistors in series as in the case of linear ion drift model. In this model, x is the simmons tunnel barrier
0,
(10)
width also known as state variable. Differentiation of x can be defined as oxygen vacancy drift velocity and is given as
!"(!) =
!"
! !!! ! !
Where aon,aoff, kon,and koff are constants (koff is positive and kon is negative) in (10). The parameters foff(x) and fon (x) are the window functions having dependency on state variable x.
The current voltage relationship is similar to the memristance,
which linearly varies with x. Therefore
!"" sinh (
exp
!""
, < 0
! !!
!!"" !!
! !!
= !" + !"" !"
!" () (11)
sinh ( ! exp !!!!" !
!
, > 0
!!""!!!"
!" !!" !!
! !!
(7)
E. VTEAM Model
Where b, con, coff, ion, ioff, aon, aoff are called as fitting parameters of the device provided con >coff and both put effect on the magnitude of change of x. ioff and ion gives the value of current threshold. The parameters aoff and aon confines the upper and the lower boundaries of x respectively. Since state variable derivative is effectively small than state variable in the defined range, this model does not require any widow function. This is the main advantage of this model. Based upon the assumption of simmons tunnel barrier model, the currentvoltage relation for this model is written as
! ! ! ! !
= , , exp , , !.!
Some experiments on the memristor have expressed the existence of threshold voltage in spite of threshold current [2] [12] [13]. This results into the design of new memristor model. Hence, in 2014 Shahar Kvatinsky proposed a new model VTEAM (Voltage Threshold Adaptive Memristor Model) which contains threshold voltage [14]. Also threshold voltage is desirable to a greater extent than threshold current. The VTEAM model is similar to TEAM model (both models has advantages like general, simple, designer friendly) but the only difference between the two is threshold. Therefore, the state variable derivative of VTEAM is same as that of TEAM model and is mathematically expressed as
, ! (! !, + !)exp ((!, )(! !, +
!)!.!) (8)
!"". [ ! ! 1]!!"". !"" , 0 < !"" <
n
= () (9)
!"(!) =
!!""
0, !" < < !""
As the control mechanism of this model is current, therefor it is widely used in the digital applications.
!"
!
!". [! ! 1]!!". !" , < !" < 0
!"
(12)
D. TEAM Model
The limitation of predefined model includes complexity, inexplicit VI relation leads to the requirement of another memristor model, which must have high accuracy with
Where koff, kon off and on are constants. The parameters voff and von are threshold voltage levels. Also, fon and foff describes the window functions which depends upon the state variable.
The currentvoltage relationship for VTEAM can be written as
simplicity. Therefore in 2013, Shahar Kvatinsky developed the mew model TEAM (Threshold Adaptive Memristor Model) to overcome the abovementioned limitation [11]. This model is similar to Simmons Tunnel Barrier Model but with
= [!"
+ !!""!!!"
!!""!!!"
]!!. ()
(13)
much simpler expressions. This model needs some assumptions for simplification the analysis and computational efficiency. The assumptions are: state variable does not change below threshold and, polynomial; dependency involved between internal state derivative and current of the device. As per assumptions, state variable derivative can be written as
Figure 2: Physical memristor structure based on the Simmons tunnel barrier model [10].
where woff and won defines the boundary of state variable w.


CONCLUSION
In this paper, different models of memristor linear ion drift model, nonlinear ion drift model, simmons tunnel barrier model, TEAM and VTEAM are explained. First three models does not contain any threshold which simply means their resistance varies for any voltage or current value. The TEAM and VTEAM models consist of threshold current and threshold voltage respectively. These two models are the most efficient with lesser computational complexity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We would like to thank Almighty God. Its only because of the blessings of the God that we have been able to complete our work successfully.
REFERENCES
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