 Open Access
 Authors : Jay M. Malpani , Kaustubh G. Kulkarni
 Paper ID : IJERTV9IS070237
 Volume & Issue : Volume 09, Issue 07 (July 2020)
 Published (First Online): 13072020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design of Automatic Loading Machine in Electroplating Industry
Jay M. Malpani 1, Kaustubh G. Kulkarni 2
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Pune, India
Abstract: Earlier, in electroplating industries, all the work was done manually. In 1976, the first semiautomatic plant was set up in India. Thus the electroplating industry has taken a big jump after the introduction of automatic plants. However, there are some tasks which are still being done manually and result in more use of labour leading to inefficiency and tedious work. One of these tasks is loading of barrel. This paper includes the design of automatic loading machine and various components required for the automatic weighing and loading of material into the barrel. It also includes the financial cost analysis of the machine and thus, the break even time of the machine. It concludes with the benefits of using this automatic loading machine over manual loading.
Keywords: Electroplating, material, loading, barrel, cost

INTRODUCTION

Field
Metals are predominantly being used in almost every aspect of our day to day lives. However, one of the major problems in metals is corrosion i.e. gradual destruction of metal by oxidation i.e. chemical reaction with oxygen present in the environment. Thus, a special branch called corrosion engineering has been designed to study the prevention of corrosion. Especially, in automobiles, the chances of metal parts getting corroded are high due to the working conditions. The most widely used method for prevention of corrosion in automobiles is plating. Plating is a surface coating chemical process in which a metal is deposited on another metal having a conductive surface.
Plating is one of the major processes in corrosion resistance. The advantages of plating include:

Protection from corrosion

Appearance

Superior Hardness and Better Wear Resistance


Background
An electroplating process involves a series of chemical reactions with different chemicals to achieve the final result. In industries, these reactions take place in tanks containing the chemicals. The parts that need to be plated need to be kept in one tank for a decided amount of time in which the reaction takes place. After a particular reaction it needs to be transferred from one tank. This process continues until the last tank is reached and all chemical reactions have taken place.
The two types of electroplating industries include:

Manual Plant: Manual plant is a plant in which transfer of work between tanks is by hands. The parts are
immersed in tanks manually and held for a particular period of time before transferring to next tank.

Automatic Plant: An automatic plating plant is a line of process tanks with a transfer system which enables the parts to be plated to be immersed in each tank for the appropriate time and in the sequence necessary to produce the required finish.


Scope
Manpower is a major factor in any industry. However excessive use of manpower can lead to reduction in efficiency, increase in total production cost due to salary of manpower, decrease in production and inconsistent quality. In many industries, one more important requirement is skilled labour. Also, the salaries of labour are increasing every year due to inflation. Thus, the main aim in any industry in todays world is to reduce manpower and introduce the use of machines wherever possible to increase the efficiency of working.
These issues can be taken care of by conversion of manual plating plant to automatic. However, even in automatic plants, the loading and unloading of parts on barrel takes place manually. At one time, 100 kg of material is to be weighed and loaded which is a very tedious task. This results in increase in labour and thus decreases the efficiency. Thus, one more major problem is how to transform manual loading of barrels to automatic loading in an automatic plating plant.


AUTOMATIC LOADING MACHINE
The Automatic Loading Machine is intended to give an output of a predefined quantity of material as per the set weight. Electroplating is a surface treatment phenomenon based on the surface area of the material. However surface area of a material is very difficult to measure. This surface area can be converted to weight by a suitable conversion factor obtained experimentally. Thus the required output can be achieved by setting a weight limit. Thus, the Automatic Loading Machine transports the component to the height of the barrel and loads the material according to the weight.

Construction
The Automatic Loading Machine can be divided into two sections:

Loading Conveyor Section
This section transfers the material from bottom to the height at which it has to be loaded in the barrel. It consists of:

Hooper: It is used to store the material which has to be loaded on the barrel before transportation by the conveyor.
It is a storage tank/pit located at the one end of the conveyor.

Slat Belt: It is the belt of the conveyor section which is used to transfer materials to the other end located at the top. This belt is further divided into compartments to facilitate lifting and transfer of material.

Conveyor Roller: It is used to run the slat belt. The roller is powered by gear box which is powered by the motor. Thus the roller runs the slat belt with a speed according to our requirements.

Motor: Motor gives required power to the gear box which is used to run the roller.

Gear Box: It is used for reduction of the speed and increase in torque received by the motor according to requirement of the belt.


Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section
This section does the weighing of the material and actual loading to the barrel by pneumatic push. It consists of:

Pneumatic Cylinder: The cylinder is used to push the trolley forward towards the barrel for loading. When it receives a signal from the system it is actuated.

Solenoid Valve: When the weight limit is reached, the signals given to stop the belt and start the cylinder are actuated by solenoid valves.

Load Cell: It is located inside the trolley and is used to weigh the material entering the trolley. Once the weight limit is reached the system sends signals to conveyor to stop and pneumatic cylinder to start

Trolley: The trolley is used to transfer the material from the receiving point to distance where it is loaded onto the barrel. The shape of the trolley facilitates direct transfer of material to the barrel.

Compressor: It is used to supply compressed air for actuating the cylinder. The compressor is also used for various other processes like drying in an electroplating industry.
TABLE I. SPECIFICATIONS OF COMPONENTS OF AUTOMATIC LOADING MACHINE
td>
5 mm
Conveyor Section
Sr.No.
Part
Selection Basis
Parameters
Value / Type
1
Hooper
Capacity of Material to be stored
Material
Mild Steel
Length
1200 mm
Width
1000 mm
Height
1000 mm
Thickness
Storage Capacity
600 kg
2
Slat Belt
Available Space
Total distance
3600 mm
Length
7200 mm
Width
450 mm
Thickness
10 mm
Number
2
Material
Mild Steel
Number of Compartments
8
3
Conveyor Roller
Dimensions of Belt
Diameter
150 mm
Length
450 mm
Material
Mild Steel
4
Motor
Calculations for selection of motor
Power Rating
1.5 HP
Rated RPM
960 RPM
5
Gear Box
Available Motor Specifications
Gear Ratio
36
Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section
Sr.No.
Part
Selection Basis
Parameters
Value / Type
1
Pneumatic Cylinder
Calculations for selection of cylinder
Bore Diameter
54 mm
Rod Diameter
20 mm
Stroke Length
1000 mm
2
Pneumatic Solenoid
Standard specifications available
Type 1
5/3 Solenoid Valve
Type 2
5/2 Solenoid Valve
3
Load Cell
Required output weight
Capacity
1500 mm
4
Trolley
Capacity of material to be loaded
Material
Mild Steel
Length
700 mm
Width
600 mm
Height
450 mm
Thickness
5 mm
Capacity
150
5
Compressor
Required discharge pressure
Power Rating
10 HP
Discharge Pressure
4 bar



CAD Drawing
Fig. 1 . Front view of Machine
Fig. 2. Top view of Machine
gearbox, which is eventually powered by the motor. These materials are transferred to a height at which barrel is placed and then transferred into a trolley
2) Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section
The material placed in the trolley is weighed by using load cell. When the weight reaches the set limit, the system gives a signal to switch off the motor and stop the conveyor. It also actuates the pneumatic cylinder by the solenoid valve to push the trolley forward. The material is carried forward by the trolley thus emptied in the barrel and taken for further processing.

Working
Fig. 3. Side view of Machine
The working of the Automatic Loading Machine can also be divided as per two sections:

Loading Conveyor Section

The material which is received is transported to the hooper manually. The conveyor belt which runs on the rollers, collects the material from the hooper in different compartments. The material collected in each compartment is calculated by experimentation. The rollers are powered by the
meffective = Vcompartment Ã— Conversion factor Ã— Effective loading factor = 12.15 kg (2)
There are 8 compartments of 450 mm length present on the 3.6 meter belt. Therefore, total mass of all material,
mmaterial = meffective Ã— No. of compartments = 97.2 kg
(3)
Fig.4. Flowchart showing working of automatic loading machine


CALCULATIONS

Selection of Motor

Motor RPM
Electroplating is a surface treatment phenomenon. Therefore, the capacity of barrel depends on surface area. Each barrel has a capacity of electroplating 100sq.ft. material. However, as mentioned above it is difficult to measure surface area. Thus, this surface area is converted to weight using a suitable factor which is obtained experimentally.
The surface area of one part is measured and various such parts are placed in a vessel whose weight is measured. This is how the weight can be found. According to industry standards, the conversion factor is considered as 1sq.ft. = 1 kg.
mmaterial = 100 kg (approx.)
Therefore, time required for loading of material can be calculated as,
t = Output required (kg/min) / Input mass of material
= 1 min = 60 sec (4)
Therefore, in this time the whole belt needs to move up, thus distance travelled will be equal to length of the belt.
Length of belt = 3600 mm = 0.36 m Velocity of the belt can therefore be found as,
vbelt = lbelt /t = 0.06 m/s = 3.6 m/min (5) (1 m/s = 60 m/min)
The roller takes one complete revolution when the belt travels the distance equivalent to its length. The speed of the roller in RPM can be found as,
RPMroller = vbelt / droller (6)
Diameter of roller = 150 mm = 0.15 m Therefore, RPMroller = 24 rpm
Consider the value of gear ratio to be 40.
We know that, Gear Ratio = RPMmotor / RPMroller (7) Thus, the rated RPM of motor is,
RPMmotor = 960 rpm

Motor Torque
For finding the value of torque, we need to know the forces, which in turn are calculated from the mass of all components of the machine and the mass of material. The value of mass for all components is found in the table below by using the formula
Mass = Volume Ã— Density (8) Density of Mild Steel = 7.85 g/cm3
Thus, capacity of the barrel is 100 kg. Loading is done every minute. Therefore, output required is 1 kg/min.
To find the effective loading, we need to find the volume of each compartment and thus find the mass in it.
Volume of each compartment can be found as,
Length of each compartment = lcomparment = 450 mm Breadth of each compartment = bcomparment = 450 mm Height of each compartment = hcomparment = 40 mm
Therefore, Volume of each compartment
Vcomparment = lcomparment Ã— bcomparment Ã— hcomparment = 8100000 mm3 = 8.1 litre (1) (1 litre = 1000000mm3)
Another experiment is performed to find the weight of material occupied in a 1 litre vessel. It is found from this experiment that a 1 litre vessel occupies 3kg of material. This value is different for different parts.
Also, due to the shape of the part, when the conveyor moves up, it cannot occupy its complete volume with material. According to industry standards and experiments conducted, it is found that around 50% of each compartment of the belt can be loaded.
Therefore, effective loading of each compartment can be found as,

Mass of Belt:
Volume of belt = lbelt Ã— bbelt Ã— hbelt = 7200 Ã— 450 Ã— 10
= 32400000 mm3 = 32400 cm3
(1 cm3 = 1000 mm3)
Mass of belt = 254340 g = 254.34 kg

Mass of Roller:
Volume of roller = Ã— (rroller)2 Ã— lroller = Ã— (75)2 Ã— 450
= 7948125 mm3 = 7948.125 cm3
Mass of roller = 62392.78125 g = 62.393 kg Mass of both rollers = 124.786 kg

Mass of Slat Chain
Length of Slat Chain = 7.2 m Mass per unit length = 4.4 kg/m
(Standard factor of conversion)
Mass of chain = 31.68 kg
Mass of material = 100 kg
Therefore, total mass of all components = 510.806 kg
The total force to be pulled by the conveyor can be calculated by the free body diagrams given below where,
m = mmaterial, M = Total Mass of all components, = 50Â°,Coefficient of friction between belt and material = Âµ1 = 0.15, g = 9.81 m/s2
Fig. 5. Free Body Diagram of System
Therefore,
F1 = Mg sin() + Âµ1mg cos() (9) F1 = 3931.861 N
Considering a factor of safety of 1.5, the total force can be
thus calculated as,
F = F1 Ã— FOS (10)
F = 5897.792 N
Torque is given by the formula,
Troller = F Ã— rroller (11)
where, rroller = 75 mm = 0.075 m Therefore, Troller = 442.334 Nm
We know that,
Gear Ratio = Troller / Tmotor (12) Thus, the rated torque of motor is,
Tmotor = 11.058 Nm = 11 Nm (approx.)


Motor Power
Power is given by the formula,
Pmotor = T Ã— = T Ã— [(2 Ã— RPM) / 60] (13)
Therefore, Pmotor = 1111.144 Watt = 1.111 kW = 1.489 HP
(1 HP = 746 Watt = 0.746 kW)
Therefore, Pmotor = 1.5 HP


Selection of Pneumatic Cylinder
The selection of dimensions of cylinder can be done on the basis of the formula
Push Force = Discharge Pressure Ã— Area of Cylinder
Fpush = Pdischarge Ã— Acylinder (14) Mass of the material to be pushed,
mmaterial = 100 kg
Mass of trolley can be calculated as, Length of trolley = ltrolley = 700 mm Breadth of trolley = btrolley = 600 mm Height of trolley = htrolley = 450 mm Thickness of trolley = ttrolley = 5 mm
Total Surface Area of trolley = Atrolley = ltrolley Ã— htrolley + btrolley Ã— htrolley + btrolley Ã— ltrolley2 Ã— htrolley2 ) = 1084299.5093 mm2 (15)
Volume of trolley = Vtrolley = Atrolley Ã— ttrolley
= 5421497.5466 mm3 = 5421.4975 cm3 (16)
(1 cm3 = 1000 mm3)
Density of Material = dmildsteel = 7.85 g/cm3
Therefore, Mass of trolley = mtrolley = Vtrolley Ã— dmildsteel = 42558.756 g = 43 kg (17)
(1 kg = 1000 g)
Therefore, total mass to be pushed by the cylinder, mtotal = mmaterial + mtrolley = 143 kg
Push force required will be equal to the frictional force between bottom surface of the trolley and the surface on which it is pushed.
Coefficient of friction = Âµ2 = 0.5 Acceleration due to gravity = g = 9.81
Fpush = Âµ2mg = 701.415 N (18) Discharge pressure of the cylinder which is selected is,
Pdischarge = 4 bar = 0.4 N/mm2 Area of cylinder can be calculated as:
Acylinder = Fpush / Pdischarge = 1753.5375 mm2 (19) Area of cylinder can be given by the formula:
Area of Cylinder = 3.14*(D2 – d2)/4 (20) where, D = bore diameter, d = rod diameter
In standard cylinders available, Rod diameter = 20 mm Therefore, Bore diameter can be calculated as,
D2= [(4*Area of cylinder)/3.14] + d2 (21) D = 51.321 mm
Selecting from the standard sizes available, Bore Diameter = 54 mm.
The cylinder needs to push the trolley upto a required distance at which the barrel is to be loaded.
Therefore, stroke length of the cylinder should be equal to the distance through which the trolley travels. According to space considerations the barrel is located at 1 meter for the starting point.
Therefore stroke length of the cylinder, L = 1000 mm


FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

Cost of Machine
TABLE II. CALCULATION OF COST OF MACHINE
Component
Price (Rs.)
Remark
Motor
8500
1.5 HP, 960 RPM
Gear Box
10000
Gear Ratio = 36
Pneumatic Cylinder
17000
Stroke Length = 1000 mm, Bore Diameter = 54 mm
Compressor
40000
Discharge Pressure = 4 bar, 10 HP
Slat Belt & Chain
72000
14.4 meters belt
Conveyor Roller
18000
Pneumatic Solenoid
11000
5/2 and 5/3 Solenoid Valve
Hooper
52800
440 kg Mild Steel sheet of 5 mm thickness
Trolley
5160
43 kg Mild Steel sheet of 5mm thickness
Load Cell
25000
Max Capacity 1500 kgf
SCADA
15000
Other Misc.
20000
TOTAL
294460

Labour Cost
TABLE III. CALCULATION OF LABOUR COST
Type
Manual
Automatic
Total Labour
6
2
Daily Wages
450
450
No. of Shifts
3
3
Daily Labour Cost
8100
2700
Annual Labour Cost
2430000
810000
*(Considering 1 year has 300 working days)

Power Consumption
TABLE V. CALCULATION OF ANNUAL POWER CONSUMPTION
Motor
Power Rating
1.5
HP
1.119
kW
Operating time per cycle
2
mins
Cycle time
6
mins
No. of Cycles/Hour
10
cycles/hr
Operating Time per hour
20
mins
0.333
hours
Power Consumption
0.373
kWhr
0.373
units
Rate per Unit
9.5
Rs
Electricity Cost per hour
3.544
Rs.
Electricity Cost per day
85.044
Rs.
Compressor
Power Rating
10
HP
7.46
kW
Operating time per cycle
1
mins
Cycle time
6
mins
No. of Cycles/Hour
10
cycles/hr
Operating Time per hour
10
mins
0.167
hours
Power Consumption
1.243
kWhr
1.243
units
Rate per Unit
9.5
Rs
Electricity Cost per hour
11.812
Rs.
Electricity Cost per day
283.48
Rs.
Total Electricity Consumption Per Day
368.52
Rs.
Annual Electricity Consumption
110557
Rs.
*(Considering 1 year has 300 working days)

Total Annual Savings
For Manual Loading,
Total Annual Cost = Annual Labour Cost
= Rs.2430000
For Automatic Loading,
Total Annual Cost = Annual Labour Cost + Annual Power Consumption + Cost of Machine = Rs.1215017
Thus the total annual cost for automatic loading is approximately equal to 50% of manual loading annual cost.
Therefore, Total Annual Savings = Rs.1214983

Break Even Time of Machine
The total cost incurred upto n days can be calculated by the formula,
Total cost = Fixed Cost + (Variable cost per day Ã— n) where, Fixed Cost = Cost of Machine and Variable Cost = Daily Labour Cost + Daily Electricity Cost
For Manual Loading,
Fixed Cost = 0, Daily Electricity Cost = 0 Therefore, Total Cost = n Ã— Daily Labour Cost = n Ã— 8100 For Automatic Loading,
Fixed Cost = Machine Cost = Rs.294460
Variable Cost per day = Daily Labour Cost + Daily Electricity Cost = Rs.2983.48 per day
Therefore, Total Cost = 294460 + (2983.48 Ã— n)
Considering that after x days the total manual loading cost will be equal to the total automatic loading cost.
x Ã— 8100 = 294460 + (2983.48 Ã— x)
x = 57.551 = 58 days (approx.)
Therefore it can be said that after 58 days, the Automatic Loading Machine will start giving profits which will thus keep on increasing. This point is also known as break even time.
The break even time can also be found out graphically. Considering the total cost incurred in Manual and Automatic Loading for a span of 120 days. It can be seen that the break even time comes out to be approximately 60 days.
TABLE VI. COST INCURRED BY MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING FOR 120 DAYS
Days
Manual
Automatic
20
162000
354130
40
324000
413799
60
486000
473469
80
648000
533138
100
810000
592808
120
972000
652478
Total Cost vs No. of Days
Total Cost vs No. of Days
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
Manual
Automatic
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
Manual
Automatic
200000
0
200000
0
20
40
60
80
100 120
20
40
60
80
100 120
No. of days
No. of days
Cost (Rs.)
Cost (Rs.)
Fig. 9. Graph comparing cost incurred by Manual and Automatic Loading for 120 days


COMPARISON BETWEEN MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING
TABLE VII. COMPARISON BETWEEN MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING
Type of Loading
Manual
Automatic
Weighing
Manual
Automatic
Dependency on Labour
High
Very Low
Power Consumption
Not required
Required
Initial Investment
Low
High
Long Term Costs
High
Low
Error
Possible
None
Efficiency
Low
High

CONCLUSION
Excess labour can lead to decrease in the efficiency. Also the cost labour is increasing every year by approximately 10% due to increase in rate of inflation. Availability of labour is also going to be a major issue in near future. Therefore, we need to rely on some new machines to increase the efficiency and also reduce the cost.
The automatic loading machine used in electroplating industries for loading of barrel can be introduced to solve the above problems. It can be seen from this report that the machine starts giving profits within only 58 days of instalment. This will reduce the labour cost required resulting in increasing savings every year. Also the efficiency of the work increases. Thus, this machine can be a boost in the electroplating industry.
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