**Open Access**-
**Authors :**Jay M. Malpani , Kaustubh G. Kulkarni -
**Paper ID :**IJERTV9IS070237 -
**Volume & Issue :**Volume 09, Issue 07 (July 2020) -
**Published (First Online):**13-07-2020 -
**ISSN (Online) :**2278-0181 -
**Publisher Name :**IJERT -
**License:**This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

#### Design of Automatic Loading Machine in Electroplating Industry

Jay M. Malpani 1, Kaustubh G. Kulkarni 2

School of Mechanical Engineering,

Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, Pune, India

Abstract: Earlier, in electroplating industries, all the work was done manually. In 1976, the first semi-automatic plant was set up in India. Thus the electroplating industry has taken a big jump after the introduction of automatic plants. However, there are some tasks which are still being done manually and result in more use of labour leading to inefficiency and tedious work. One of these tasks is loading of barrel. This paper includes the design of automatic loading machine and various components required for the automatic weighing and loading of material into the barrel. It also includes the financial cost analysis of the machine and thus, the break even time of the machine. It concludes with the benefits of using this automatic loading machine over manual loading.

Keywords: Electroplating, material, loading, barrel, cost

INTRODUCTION

Field

Metals are predominantly being used in almost every aspect of our day to day lives. However, one of the major problems in metals is corrosion i.e. gradual destruction of metal by oxidation i.e. chemical reaction with oxygen present in the environment. Thus, a special branch called corrosion engineering has been designed to study the prevention of corrosion. Especially, in automobiles, the chances of metal parts getting corroded are high due to the working conditions. The most widely used method for prevention of corrosion in automobiles is plating. Plating is a surface coating chemical process in which a metal is deposited on another metal having a conductive surface.

Plating is one of the major processes in corrosion resistance. The advantages of plating include:

Protection from corrosion

Appearance

Superior Hardness and Better Wear Resistance

Background

An electroplating process involves a series of chemical reactions with different chemicals to achieve the final result. In industries, these reactions take place in tanks containing the chemicals. The parts that need to be plated need to be kept in one tank for a decided amount of time in which the reaction takes place. After a particular reaction it needs to be transferred from one tank. This process continues until the last tank is reached and all chemical reactions have taken place.

The two types of electroplating industries include:

Manual Plant: Manual plant is a plant in which transfer of work between tanks is by hands. The parts are

immersed in tanks manually and held for a particular period of time before transferring to next tank.

Automatic Plant: An automatic plating plant is a line of process tanks with a transfer system which enables the parts to be plated to be immersed in each tank for the appropriate time and in the sequence necessary to produce the required finish.

Scope

Manpower is a major factor in any industry. However excessive use of manpower can lead to reduction in efficiency, increase in total production cost due to salary of manpower, decrease in production and inconsistent quality. In many industries, one more important requirement is skilled labour. Also, the salaries of labour are increasing every year due to inflation. Thus, the main aim in any industry in todays world is to reduce manpower and introduce the use of machines wherever possible to increase the efficiency of working.

These issues can be taken care of by conversion of manual plating plant to automatic. However, even in automatic plants, the loading and unloading of parts on barrel takes place manually. At one time, 100 kg of material is to be weighed and loaded which is a very tedious task. This results in increase in labour and thus decreases the efficiency. Thus, one more major problem is how to transform manual loading of barrels to automatic loading in an automatic plating plant.

AUTOMATIC LOADING MACHINE

The Automatic Loading Machine is intended to give an output of a pre-defined quantity of material as per the set weight. Electroplating is a surface treatment phenomenon based on the surface area of the material. However surface area of a material is very difficult to measure. This surface area can be converted to weight by a suitable conversion factor obtained experimentally. Thus the required output can be achieved by setting a weight limit. Thus, the Automatic Loading Machine transports the component to the height of the barrel and loads the material according to the weight.

Construction

The Automatic Loading Machine can be divided into two sections:

Loading Conveyor Section

This section transfers the material from bottom to the height at which it has to be loaded in the barrel. It consists of:

Hooper: It is used to store the material which has to be loaded on the barrel before transportation by the conveyor.

It is a storage tank/pit located at the one end of the conveyor.

Slat Belt: It is the belt of the conveyor section which is used to transfer materials to the other end located at the top. This belt is further divided into compartments to facilitate lifting and transfer of material.

Conveyor Roller: It is used to run the slat belt. The roller is powered by gear box which is powered by the motor. Thus the roller runs the slat belt with a speed according to our requirements.

Motor: Motor gives required power to the gear box which is used to run the roller.

Gear Box: It is used for reduction of the speed and increase in torque received by the motor according to requirement of the belt.

Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section

This section does the weighing of the material and actual loading to the barrel by pneumatic push. It consists of:

Pneumatic Cylinder: The cylinder is used to push the trolley forward towards the barrel for loading. When it receives a signal from the system it is actuated.

Solenoid Valve: When the weight limit is reached, the signals given to stop the belt and start the cylinder are actuated by solenoid valves.

Load Cell: It is located inside the trolley and is used to weigh the material entering the trolley. Once the weight limit is reached the system sends signals to conveyor to stop and pneumatic cylinder to start

Trolley: The trolley is used to transfer the material from the receiving point to distance where it is loaded onto the barrel. The shape of the trolley facilitates direct transfer of material to the barrel.

Compressor: It is used to supply compressed air for actuating the cylinder. The compressor is also used for various other processes like drying in an electroplating industry.

TABLE I. SPECIFICATIONS OF COMPONENTS OF AUTOMATIC LOADING MACHINE

td>

5 mm

Conveyor Section

Sr.No.

Part

Selection Basis

Parameters

Value / Type

1

Hooper

Capacity of Material to be stored

Material

Mild Steel

Length

1200 mm

Width

1000 mm

Height

1000 mm

Thickness

Storage Capacity

600 kg

2

Slat Belt

Available Space

Total distance

3600 mm

Length

7200 mm

Width

450 mm

Thickness

10 mm

Number

2

Material

Mild Steel

Number of Compartments

8

3

Conveyor Roller

Dimensions of Belt

Diameter

150 mm

Length

450 mm

Material

Mild Steel

4

Motor

Calculations for selection of motor

Power Rating

1.5 HP

Rated RPM

960 RPM

5

Gear Box

Available Motor Specifications

Gear Ratio

36

Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section

Sr.No.

Part

Selection Basis

Parameters

Value / Type

1

Pneumatic Cylinder

Calculations for selection of cylinder

Bore Diameter

54 mm

Rod Diameter

20 mm

Stroke Length

1000 mm

2

Pneumatic Solenoid

Standard specifications available

Type 1

5/3 Solenoid Valve

Type 2

5/2 Solenoid Valve

3

Load Cell

Required output weight

Capacity

1500 mm

4

Trolley

Capacity of material to be loaded

Material

Mild Steel

Length

700 mm

Width

600 mm

Height

450 mm

Thickness

5 mm

Capacity

150

5

Compressor

Required discharge pressure

Power Rating

10 HP

Discharge Pressure

4 bar

CAD Drawing

Fig. 1 . Front view of Machine

Fig. 2. Top view of Machine

gearbox, which is eventually powered by the motor. These materials are transferred to a height at which barrel is placed and then transferred into a trolley

2) Weighing and Transfer Trolley Section

The material placed in the trolley is weighed by using load cell. When the weight reaches the set limit, the system gives a signal to switch off the motor and stop the conveyor. It also actuates the pneumatic cylinder by the solenoid valve to push the trolley forward. The material is carried forward by the trolley thus emptied in the barrel and taken for further processing.

Working

Fig. 3. Side view of Machine

The working of the Automatic Loading Machine can also be divided as per two sections:

Loading Conveyor Section

The material which is received is transported to the hooper manually. The conveyor belt which runs on the rollers, collects the material from the hooper in different compartments. The material collected in each compartment is calculated by experimentation. The rollers are powered by the

meffective = Vcompartment Ã— Conversion factor Ã— Effective loading factor = 12.15 kg (2)

There are 8 compartments of 450 mm length present on the 3.6 meter belt. Therefore, total mass of all material,

mmaterial = meffective Ã— No. of compartments = 97.2 kg

(3)

Fig.4. Flowchart showing working of automatic loading machine

CALCULATIONS

Selection of Motor

Motor RPM

Electroplating is a surface treatment phenomenon. Therefore, the capacity of barrel depends on surface area. Each barrel has a capacity of electroplating 100sq.ft. material. However, as mentioned above it is difficult to measure surface area. Thus, this surface area is converted to weight using a suitable factor which is obtained experimentally.

The surface area of one part is measured and various such parts are placed in a vessel whose weight is measured. This is how the weight can be found. According to industry standards, the conversion factor is considered as 1sq.ft. = 1 kg.

mmaterial = 100 kg (approx.)

Therefore, time required for loading of material can be calculated as,

t = Output required (kg/min) / Input mass of material

= 1 min = 60 sec (4)

Therefore, in this time the whole belt needs to move up, thus distance travelled will be equal to length of the belt.

Length of belt = 3600 mm = 0.36 m Velocity of the belt can therefore be found as,

vbelt = lbelt /t = 0.06 m/s = 3.6 m/min (5) (1 m/s = 60 m/min)

The roller takes one complete revolution when the belt travels the distance equivalent to its length. The speed of the roller in RPM can be found as,

RPMroller = vbelt / droller (6)

Diameter of roller = 150 mm = 0.15 m Therefore, RPMroller = 24 rpm

Consider the value of gear ratio to be 40.

We know that, Gear Ratio = RPMmotor / RPMroller (7) Thus, the rated RPM of motor is,

RPMmotor = 960 rpm

Motor Torque

For finding the value of torque, we need to know the forces, which in turn are calculated from the mass of all components of the machine and the mass of material. The value of mass for all components is found in the table below by using the formula

Mass = Volume Ã— Density (8) Density of Mild Steel = 7.85 g/cm3

Thus, capacity of the barrel is 100 kg. Loading is done every minute. Therefore, output required is 1 kg/min.

To find the effective loading, we need to find the volume of each compartment and thus find the mass in it.

Volume of each compartment can be found as,

Length of each compartment = lcomparment = 450 mm Breadth of each compartment = bcomparment = 450 mm Height of each compartment = hcomparment = 40 mm

Therefore, Volume of each compartment

Vcomparment = lcomparment Ã— bcomparment Ã— hcomparment = 8100000 mm3 = 8.1 litre (1) (1 litre = 1000000mm3)

Another experiment is performed to find the weight of material occupied in a 1 litre vessel. It is found from this experiment that a 1 litre vessel occupies 3kg of material. This value is different for different parts.

Also, due to the shape of the part, when the conveyor moves up, it cannot occupy its complete volume with material. According to industry standards and experiments conducted, it is found that around 50% of each compartment of the belt can be loaded.

Therefore, effective loading of each compartment can be found as,

Mass of Belt:

Volume of belt = lbelt Ã— bbelt Ã— hbelt = 7200 Ã— 450 Ã— 10

= 32400000 mm3 = 32400 cm3

(1 cm3 = 1000 mm3)

Mass of belt = 254340 g = 254.34 kg

Mass of Roller:

Volume of roller = Ã— (rroller)2 Ã— lroller = Ã— (75)2 Ã— 450

= 7948125 mm3 = 7948.125 cm3

Mass of roller = 62392.78125 g = 62.393 kg Mass of both rollers = 124.786 kg

Mass of Slat Chain

Length of Slat Chain = 7.2 m Mass per unit length = 4.4 kg/m

(Standard factor of conversion)

Mass of chain = 31.68 kg

*Mass of material = 100 kg**Therefore, total mass of all components = 510.806 kg**The total force to be pulled by the conveyor can be calculated by the free body diagrams given below where,**m = mmaterial, M = Total Mass of all components, = 50Â°,Coefficient of friction between belt and material = Âµ1 = 0.15, g = 9.81 m/s2**Fig. 5. Free Body Diagram of System**Therefore,**F1 = Mg sin() + Âµ1mg cos() (9) F1 = 3931.861 N**Considering a factor of safety of 1.5, the total force can be**thus calculated as,**F = F1 Ã— FOS (10)**F = 5897.792 N**Torque is given by the formula,**Troller = F Ã— rroller (11)**where, rroller = 75 mm = 0.075 m Therefore, Troller = 442.334 N-m**We know that,**Gear Ratio = Troller / Tmotor (12) Thus, the rated torque of motor is,**Tmotor = 11.058 N-m = 11 N-m (approx.)**Motor Power**Power is given by the formula,**Pmotor = T Ã— = T Ã— [(2 Ã— RPM) / 60] (13)**Therefore, Pmotor = 1111.144 Watt = 1.111 kW = 1.489 HP**(1 HP = 746 Watt = 0.746 kW)**Therefore, Pmotor = 1.5 HP*

*Selection of Pneumatic Cylinder*

*The selection of dimensions of cylinder can be done on the basis of the formula**Push Force = Discharge Pressure Ã— Area of Cylinder**Fpush = Pdischarge Ã— Acylinder (14) Mass of the material to be pushed,**mmaterial = 100 kg**Mass of trolley can be calculated as, Length of trolley = ltrolley = 700 mm Breadth of trolley = btrolley = 600 mm Height of trolley = htrolley = 450 mm Thickness of trolley = ttrolley = 5 mm**Total Surface Area of trolley = Atrolley = ltrolley Ã— htrolley + btrolley Ã— htrolley + btrolley Ã— ltrolley2 Ã— htrolley2 ) = 1084299.5093 mm2 (15)**Volume of trolley = Vtrolley = Atrolley Ã— ttrolley**= 5421497.5466 mm3 = 5421.4975 cm3 (16)**(1 cm3 = 1000 mm3)**Density of Material = dmildsteel = 7.85 g/cm3**Therefore, Mass of trolley = mtrolley = Vtrolley Ã— dmildsteel = 42558.756 g = 43 kg (17)**(1 kg = 1000 g)**Therefore, total mass to be pushed by the cylinder, mtotal = mmaterial + mtrolley = 143 kg**Push force required will be equal to the frictional force between bottom surface of the trolley and the surface on which it is pushed.**Coefficient of friction = Âµ2 = 0.5 Acceleration due to gravity = g = 9.81**Fpush = Âµ2mg = 701.415 N (18) Discharge pressure of the cylinder which is selected is,**Pdischarge = 4 bar = 0.4 N/mm2 Area of cylinder can be calculated as:**Acylinder = Fpush / Pdischarge = 1753.5375 mm2 (19) Area of cylinder can be given by the formula:**Area of Cylinder = 3.14*(D2 – d2)/4 (20) where, D = bore diameter, d = rod diameter**In standard cylinders available, Rod diameter = 20 mm Therefore, Bore diameter can be calculated as,**D2= [(4*Area of cylinder)/3.14] + d2 (21) D = 51.321 mm**Selecting from the standard sizes available, Bore Diameter = 54 mm.**The cylinder needs to push the trolley upto a required distance at which the barrel is to be loaded.**Therefore, stroke length of the cylinder should be equal to the distance through which the trolley travels. According to space considerations the barrel is located at 1 meter for the starting point.**Therefore stroke length of the cylinder, L = 1000 mm**FINANCIAL ANALYSIS**Cost of Machine**TABLE II. CALCULATION OF COST OF MACHINE*Component

Price (Rs.)

Remark

Motor

8500

1.5 HP, 960 RPM

Gear Box

10000

Gear Ratio = 36

Pneumatic Cylinder

17000

Stroke Length = 1000 mm, Bore Diameter = 54 mm

Compressor

40000

Discharge Pressure = 4 bar, 10 HP

Slat Belt & Chain

72000

14.4 meters belt

Conveyor Roller

18000

Pneumatic Solenoid

11000

5/2 and 5/3 Solenoid Valve

Hooper

52800

440 kg Mild Steel sheet of 5 mm thickness

Trolley

5160

43 kg Mild Steel sheet of 5mm thickness

Load Cell

25000

Max Capacity 1500 kgf

SCADA

15000

Other Misc.

20000

TOTAL

294460

*Labour Cost**TABLE III. CALCULATION OF LABOUR COST*Type

Manual

Automatic

Total Labour

6

2

Daily Wages

450

450

No. of Shifts

3

3

Daily Labour Cost

8100

2700

Annual Labour Cost

2430000

810000

**(Considering 1 year has 300 working days)**Power Consumption**TABLE V. CALCULATION OF ANNUAL POWER CONSUMPTION*Motor

Power Rating

1.5

HP

1.119

kW

Operating time per cycle

2

mins

Cycle time

6

mins

No. of Cycles/Hour

10

cycles/hr

Operating Time per hour

20

mins

0.333

hours

Power Consumption

0.373

kW-hr

0.373

units

Rate per Unit

9.5

Rs

Electricity Cost per hour

3.544

Rs.

Electricity Cost per day

85.044

Rs.

Compressor

Power Rating

10

HP

7.46

kW

Operating time per cycle

1

mins

Cycle time

6

mins

No. of Cycles/Hour

10

cycles/hr

Operating Time per hour

10

mins

0.167

hours

Power Consumption

1.243

kW-hr

1.243

units

Rate per Unit

9.5

Rs

Electricity Cost per hour

11.812

Rs.

Electricity Cost per day

283.48

Rs.

Total Electricity Consumption Per Day

368.52

Rs.

Annual Electricity Consumption

110557

Rs.

**(Considering 1 year has 300 working days)**Total Annual Savings**For Manual Loading,**Total Annual Cost = Annual Labour Cost**= Rs.2430000**For Automatic Loading,**Total Annual Cost = Annual Labour Cost + Annual Power Consumption + Cost of Machine = Rs.1215017**Thus the total annual cost for automatic loading is approximately equal to 50% of manual loading annual cost.**Therefore, Total Annual Savings = Rs.1214983**Break Even Time of Machine*

The total cost incurred upto n days can be calculated by the formula,

Total cost = Fixed Cost + (Variable cost per day Ã— n) where, Fixed Cost = Cost of Machine and Variable Cost = Daily Labour Cost + Daily Electricity Cost

For Manual Loading,

Fixed Cost = 0, Daily Electricity Cost = 0 Therefore, Total Cost = n Ã— Daily Labour Cost = n Ã— 8100 For Automatic Loading,

Fixed Cost = Machine Cost = Rs.294460

Variable Cost per day = Daily Labour Cost + Daily Electricity Cost = Rs.2983.48 per day

Therefore, Total Cost = 294460 + (2983.48 Ã— n)

Considering that after x days the total manual loading cost will be equal to the total automatic loading cost.

x Ã— 8100 = 294460 + (2983.48 Ã— x)

x = 57.551 = 58 days (approx.)

Therefore it can be said that after 58 days, the Automatic Loading Machine will start giving profits which will thus keep on increasing. This point is also known as break even time.

The break even time can also be found out graphically. Considering the total cost incurred in Manual and Automatic Loading for a span of 120 days. It can be seen that the break- even time comes out to be approximately 60 days.

TABLE VI. COST INCURRED BY MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING FOR 120 DAYS

Days

Manual

Automatic

20

162000

354130

40

324000

413799

60

486000

473469

80

648000

533138

100

810000

592808

120

972000

652478

Total Cost vs No. of Days

Total Cost vs No. of Days

1200000

1000000

800000

600000

400000

Manual

Automatic

1200000

1000000

800000

600000

400000

Manual

Automatic

200000

0

200000

0

20

40

60

80

100 120

20

40

60

80

100 120

No. of days

No. of days

Cost (Rs.)

Cost (Rs.)

Fig. 9. Graph comparing cost incurred by Manual and Automatic Loading for 120 days

*COMPARISON BETWEEN MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING**TABLE VII. COMPARISON BETWEEN MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC LOADING*Type of Loading

Manual

Automatic

Weighing

Manual

Automatic

Dependency on Labour

High

Very Low

Power Consumption

Not required

Required

Initial Investment

Low

High

Long Term Costs

High

Low

Error

Possible

None

Efficiency

Low

High

*CONCLUSION*

*Excess labour can lead to decrease in the efficiency. Also the cost labour is increasing every year by approximately 10% due to increase in rate of inflation. Availability of labour is also going to be a major issue in near future. Therefore, we need to rely on some new machines to increase the efficiency and also reduce the cost.*

*The automatic loading machine used in electroplating industries for loading of barrel can be introduced to solve the above problems. It can be seen from this report that the machine starts giving profits within only 58 days of instalment. This will reduce the labour cost required resulting in increasing savings every year. Also the efficiency of the work increases. Thus, this machine can be a boost in the electroplating industry.*

*REFERENCES*

*Canning, W. (2000). The Canning Handbook : Surface Finishing Technology (23rd ed.). New Delhi: CBS & Distributors.**Graham, A. K. (2000). Electroplating Engineering Handbook (Fourth ed.) (L. J. Durney, Ed.). India: CBS & Distributors Pvt.**Wang, S., Tang, R., Zhou, J., & Zhou, H. (2011, August 16). Research on Automatic Electroplating Product Line's Scheduling System in Small Batch and Multi Types of Electroplating. Retrieved from https://www.scientific.net/AMR.317-319.621**Campbell, S. (2011, September 28). Guidelines for Selecting Pneumatic Cylinders. Retrieved from https://www.machinedesign.com/mechanical-motion- systems/pneumatics/article/21831605/guidelines-for-selecting- pneumatic-cylinders**Bch, B. (n.d.). Calculation methods conveyor belts Content. Retrieved from**https://www.academia.edu/15526247/Calculation_methods_conveyo r_belts_Content**Forbo Siebling Service, n.d. Calculation Methods – Conveyor Belts.*