Design and Development of Solar Photovoltaic based Hybrid System for Remote Applications

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Design and Development of Solar Photovoltaic based Hybrid System for Remote Applications

Shamshad Ali*1

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Mewat Engineering College Nuh,Haryana, India

Majid Jamil2

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia,

New Delhi, India

Mumtaz Ahmad Khan3

3 Electrical Engineering Section, Jamia Millia Islamia,

New Delhi, India

Abstract: In todays scenario, renewable energy based applications are increasing due to the global warming issue and increase in the prices of fossil fuels. Renewable energy sources (RES) like sun, biomass, air, water etc. are environmental friendly and have plenty of potential that can be utilized in power generation. However, RES have a problem of intermittent in nature that can be conquered presently by combining RES known as hybrid system that can provide the reliable, economic and environment friendly electricity. One of the major concerns in this hybrid system is to optimize the size of components of hybrid system in order to fulfill the load requirements in minimum cost. Keeping in view of the above constraints, a RES based hybrid system for the rural location of Haryana state in India have been developed and economically compared in this paper. Out of different configurations, solar/biomass with biogas based hybrid system has been found most economical in view of least net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE).

Keywords: Solar Photovoltaic, Biogas, Biomass, Off grid, HOMER.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In todays scenario, the world is facing four major challenges viz. Energy security, Climate change Drinking water, and poverty. India, a highly populated nation in the world and therefore its energy requirement is increasing with time. In addition, large portion of energy of the nation is fulfilled by conventional energy sources owed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. These issues can be conquering by using renewable energy sources (RES) that offers environmental friendly energy. Also, Government of India (GOI) is promoting RES based energy generation by initiating several schemes like providing subsidies on green and clean energy, Jawaharlal Nehru solar mission etc. [1]. The contribution of RES and conventional sources in the total installed capacity (349288MW) in India as of 31.12.2018 has been demonstrated in Figure-1.

    Figure-1: Distribution of different energy sources to the total installed capacity in India [2]

  2. METHODOLOGY

    The methodology used in this paper involves brief description of selected site, evaluation of the potential of RES, estimation of hourly load demand, and simulation and optimization, which are illustrated in the forthcoming sections.

    1. Study area

      Khanpur-Kalan, a village (latitude of 29.15° N and longitude of 76.75° E) placed in Gohana Tehsil in Haryana state, India included for the proposed study. Based on census 2011, this region has total population of 12544 with total households of 2014. Presently, a health centre situated in this village is not connected to the grid supply. Hence it is necessary to evolve an optimal hybrid system in order to provide regular supply of electricity. Further, the general information of the given area is mentioned in Table-1[23].

      Description

      General Information

      Country, State, District, Block

      India, Haryana, Sonipat, Gohana

      Village

      Khanpur-Kalan

      Occupants

      12544

      Households

      2014

      Latitude

      29.15° N

      Longitude

      76.75° E

      Description

      General Information

      Country, State, District, Block

      India, Haryana, Sonipat, Gohana

      Village

      Khanpur-Kalan

      Occupants

      12544

      Households

      2014

      Latitude

      29.15° N

      Longitude

      76.75° E

      Table-1: Study Area Illustration

      Hybrid system combining two or more than two RES may provide the economical electrical energy due to intermittent nature of RES. Several analyses have been reported in literature that hybrid system is more attractive than single energy system

      conversion efficiency and HM denotes operating hours in a day of BMG system.

      The output power generated by BG system (PG (t))is computed as [25]:

      in view of economy, reliability, sizing etc. [3-7]. Additionally, the capital cost of renewable energy based system is relatively

      higher than traditional energy system. Therefore, optimal sizing

      PG (t) =

      A× C ×

      860 × OH

      (3)

      is also topmost requirements in order to meet the energy requirements in economic manner. In this direction, several investigations have been carried out by utilizing various simulation software and methods [8-22].

      The objective of the present work is to develop a hybrid system including solar photovoltaic (SPV)/biomass generator (BMG) along with biogas generator (BG) system for the health centre of rural location of Haryana state in India. Utilizing HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electrical Renewable), different types of renewable energy based off grid/grid connected hybrid system have been developed and compared in view of least NPC and COE.

    2. Evaluation of Potential of RES

      In order to compute the potential, an extensive survey is carried out and data related to different RES involves solar radiation from sun, biogas from cattle dung and biomass from crop residues is obtained. The potential of RES of the given area is illustrated in Table 2.

      Table-2: RES Potential at Study Area

      RES

      Potential

      Daily Solar irradiance

      5.26 kWh/m2/day

      Biomass

      (Crop Residue)

      1418.41935 tonne/year

      Biogas

      1152.0828 m3/day

      From Table-2, it has been found that the study area has huge potential of RES that can be used to fulfill the energy needs of the study area.

      Solar energy can be used to generate electricity via SPV technology and the formula for computing power of SPV system (PPV (t) is as follows [24]:

      Where, A stands for biogas availability/day (m3/day); C defines biogas calorific value (kcal/m3); denotes conversion efficiency from biogas to electricity; OH stands operating hours of BG system/day.

    3. Hourly Load Demand Estimation

      The hourly load demand of the specified study region is established on the facts provided by local personnel. In this study, two seasons viz. summer season and winter season have been taken into consideration the variation of temperature on energy consumption pattern. Summer season includes April to September and winter season involves October to March. Moreover, the daily load profile of both the seasons on everyday basis is depicted in Figure- 2.

      6 Daily Profile

      Load (kW)

      Load (kW)

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      0 6 12 18 24

      Hour

      Figure-2(i): Load demand of study area on daily basis in summer

      5 Daily Profile

      Load (kW)

      Load (kW)

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      (1)

      Where, RPV is rated capacity of SPV arra at standard test condition (STC); QPV(t) is solar radiation incident on SPV array in kW/m2;QPV,STC denotes the solar radiation at STC (1 kW/m2). DF stands derating factor of SPV array.

      Further, the power from biomass generator (BMG) system (PM (t)) is calculated as:

      P (t) = QAM× CVM× M×1000

      0 6 12 18 24

      Hour

      Figure-2 (ii): Load demand of study area on daily basis in winter season

    4. Optimization Methodology

    In this study, for simulation and optimization purpose, HOMER software is employed. It simulates various realistic configurations and ranked them in view of least NPC [26].

    In the present work, different generators such as SPV system, BMG and BG system along with battery and converter have

    M

    M

    M 365 × 860 × H

    (2)

    been considered and their techno-economic inputs such as size,

    cost, lifetime etc. are illustrated in Table-3.

    Where, QAM stands yearly potential of biomass (tons/year), CVM denotes biomass calorific value (kcal/kg), M denotes

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on the availability of RES, different configurations of RES in off grid mode have been identified for the selected site is as under.

  1. Configuration I: SPV/Biomass/Battery

  2. Configuration II: SPV/Biogas/Battery

  3. Configuration III: SPV/Biomass/ Biogas/Battery

    Further, some configurations in grid connected mode have also been selected are as follows:

  4. Configuration IV: SPV/Biomass/Biogas

  5. Configuration V: SPV/Biomass/Biogas/Battery

    Among all configurations, most feasible combination in view of techno-economic analysis has been selected. The techno-economic results of the chosen configurations are demonstrated in Table-4.

    From Table-4, it is concluded that the grid connected hybrid SPV/BMG/BG together with battery system has minimum NPC and COE. The proposed hybrid system is demonstrated in Figure-4.

    Table-3: Techno-Economic Input Database [27]

    S. No.

    Renewable energy technology

    Capacity considered

    Capital Cost ($/kW)

    Replacement cost

    ($/kW)

    Operation and maintenance (O&M)

    cost

    Lifespan

    1

    SPV system

    1kW

    1333

    1333

    $ 26/year

    25 years

    2

    BG system

    1kW

    660

    450

    $ 0.01/kW /hour

    20000 hours

    3

    BMG system

    1kW

    1033

    750

    $ 0.01//kW/ hour

    15000 hours

    4

    Battery (VISION 6FM200D)

    12V, 200 Ah

    284

    220

    $6/battery/year

    5 years/battery

    5

    Converter

    1kW

    117

    117

    $3/kW /year

    10 years

    Table-4: Technical and Economic parameters of selected configurations

    Description

    Parameter

    Configuration I

    Configuration II

    Configuration III

    Configuration IV

    Configuration V

    System rating

    SPV (kW)

    5

    5

    4

    3

    3

    Biogas generator (kW)

    2

    2

    2

    2

    Biomass generator (kW)

    2

    1

    3

    2

    Battery (No.)

    7

    7

    4

    1

    Converter (kW )

    6

    6

    5

    2

    3

    Grid (kW)

    1

    1

    NPC ($)

    37273

    28133

    26717

    23855

    23238

    Economic parameters

    Total annualized capital cost ($)

    835

    893

    736

    677

    627

    Total annual replacement cost ($)

    504

    915

    455

    301

    310

    Total O & M cost ($)

    331

    324

    295

    161

    286

    Total fuel cost ($)

    553

    829

    618

    741

    629

    TAC ($)

    2201

    2916

    2090

    1866

    1818

    COE ($/kWh)

    0.168

    0.127

    0.120

    0.107

    0.105

    From Table-4, it is concluded that the grid connected hybrid SPV/BMG/BG together with battery system has minimum NPC and COE. The proposed hybrid system is demonstrated in Figure-4.

    Figure-4: SPV/BMG/BG/Battery/Hybrid System

    2.0

    2.0

    PV

    Biogas generator

    Biomass generator Grid

    PV

    Biogas generator

    Biomass generator Grid

    Power (kW)

    Power (kW)

    Further, the monthly average energy generation by the proposed system is mention in Figure-5.

    2.5

    Monthly Average Electric Production

    2.5

    Monthly Average Electric Production

    1.5

    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    1.5

    1.0

    0.5

    0.0

    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    Figure-5: Monthly average energy generation of hybrid SPV/BMG/BG/ battery system

    1. CONCLUSION

In this study, design of hybrid system consisting of SPV/BMG/BG with battery system is carried out for providing reliable electrical supply to health centre of the rural location of Haryana state, India. In this context, five configurations have been developed and compared in view of least NPC and COE. The proposed hybrid system comprises of 3 kW SPV; 2 kW BG system; 2 kW BMG generator with 1 no. of battery and 3 kW converter. The COE of the proposed system is $ 0.105 (i.e. INR 7.20 per unit), which is quiet economical.

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AUTHORS PROFILE

Mr. Shamshad Ali, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mewat Engg. College, Haryana, since 19 August 2011. Apart from teaching, currently he has been working as State Public Information Officer. He has also worked as Coordinator/Head, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Earlier, he had worked as Lecturer at Jamia Millia Islamia from 2006 to 2011. He received M. Tech.

(Electrical Power System Management) and B. E. (Electrical Engineering) from Jamia Millia Islamia in 2009 and 2005 respectively. Currently, he is pursuing Ph. D. from Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University). His area of research is power system, renewable energy systems, micro grid.

Dr Majid Jamil, Professor and former Head in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025. He obtained his Ph.D. in Power Systems, Electrical Engineering from J.M.I., New Delhi, India, in 2001. He did M.Sc. Engg. from

AMU, Aligarh, India in 1992 and B.Sc. Engg. (Electrical Engineering) from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India in 1989. He has published more than 100 papers in their area of research.

Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad Khan is the Head of Section of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia. He obtained his Bachelors from the faculty of Engineering & Technology, JMI, New Delhi in Electrical Engineering in 1992, Masters from Department of Electrical Engineering, AMU in 1995 and Doctorate in Electrical Engineering

from JMI in 2005. He has also worked as Director, Mewat Engineering College since December 2016 to April 2019 and in BITS, Pilani-Dubai, UAE from 2005 to 2010 for a period of five years as Assistant Professor, EEE. His areas of interest are Intelligent Applications in EE, Wireless Communications, Smart & Zero Net Energy Buildings etc. He has published more than 100 research papers in reputed journals and conferences. Presently he is supervising three research scholars under his guidance. Dr. Khan is a member of many professional bodies like IEEE, IETE, CSI, ICTP, ISTE.

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