Design and Development of Mango Grafting Machine

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV9IS03123

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Design and Development of Mango Grafting Machine

Prof. Priti Vairagi

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavaradhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Tanmay Hemade

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavaradhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Rohit Chavan

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavaradhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Manish Mohite

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavaradhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

Nikhil Karadkar

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vidyavaradhinis College of Engineering and Technology

Vasai, India

AbstractKnowing the demand in grafting plant the attention has been made towards the automate the process of grafting. There are numerous research reported in automating the grafting process for various plant like tomato, vine, watermelon etc. but this machines working on hydraulic and robotics control system so initial cost of these machines are around 2-3 lacs which is not affordable by farmers. so our aims to finding a solution for grafting operation which operate automatically and also require less initial cost.

Looking current demand in India our focus of study to design and develop automatic grafting machine for mango plants. Generally Mango grafting usually done manually, so there is reduction in production and skills requires to perform operation In order to solve the problems of manual grafting and increase the degree of mechanization and low operation efficiency of this machine design a vision base automatic upper and lower seeding devise of grafting machine. To provide the technical support for further design of automatic grafting machine the device is mainly composed of the manipulator and control system, the end clip mechanism. This machine is smaller than the previous automatic machines which include the design of Geneva mechanism, gripper mechanism, punch mechanism, clipping mechanism. This machine assumes to be produce 700 plants per hour. The developed model with experimental facilities will be further tested for its performance.

KeywordsMango grafting, Geneva mechanism, punch mechanism, scion, rootstock


Grafting is a technique of combining two plants or pieces of plants so they grow together. This allows you to combine the qualities of a strong, disease-resistant plant with the qualities of another plant, usually one that produces good fruit or attractive flowers. While there are many methods of grafting, the methods described here should allow you to graft almost any vegetable or fruit seedling, flowering bush, and even certain trees such as citrus trees.

Understanding the purpose of grafting, Fruit plants, including tomatoes and others sometimes thought of as vegetables are bred and cross-bred over many generations to improve their attributes. However, no one variety is perfect. By removing a section of a plant that produces great fruit and grafting it onto a variety that absorbs nutrients well and resists disease, you can create a plant with the benefits of each. Because you're trying to combine specific attributes, there's no advantage to grafting two plants of the same variety together. The resulting plant will not produce offspring with the same mix of qualities. The seeds are produced by the top grafted portion only.


  1. Cleft Graft:

    Cleft grafting is used to propagate varieties of camellias that are difficult to root. This type of grafting is usually done during the winter and early spring while both scion and rootstock are still dormant. Cleft grafting may be performed on main stems or on lateral or scaffold branches.[4]

    The rootstock used for cleft grafting should range from 1 to 4 inches in diameter and should be straight grained. The scion should be about 14-inch in diameter, straight, and long enough to have at least three buds. Scions that are between 6 and 8 inches long are usually the easiest to use.[4]

  2. Saddle Graft

Fig 2.1 Cleft Graft[4]

Fig. 2.3 Side-Veneer Graft[4]

D. Splice Graft

Splice grafting (Figure 2.4) is used to join a scion onto the

Saddle grafting is a relatively easy technique to learn and once mastered can be performed quite rapidly. The stock may be either field-grown or potted. Both rootstock and scion should be the same diameter. For best results, use saddle grafting on dormant stock in mid- to late winter. Stock should not be more than 1 inch in diameter.[4]

Fig 2.2 Saddle graft[4]

  1. Side-Veneer Grafting

    At one time the side-veneer graft (Figure 2.3) was a popular technique for grafting varieties of camellias and rhododendrons that are difficult to root. Currently, it is the most popular way to graft conifers, especially those having a compact or dwarf form. Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock. [4]

    stem of a rootstock or onto an intact root piece. This simple method is usually applied to herbaceous materials that callus or "knit" easily, or it is used on plants with a stem diameter of 12-inch or less. In splice grafting, both the stock and scion must be of the same diameter.[4]

    Fig. 2.4 Splice Graft[4]


    1. Geneva mechanism

      In these mechanism we use Geneva for intermediate motion of both root and scion arm which is operated by motor. Motor is rotate at 12 rpm. Geneva consist of four slot wheel after each revolution of motor Geneva wheel rotate by 90º and scion/ rootstock arm move to next stage. Motion of Geneva, transfer to shaft by using gears. Scion and root stock arms connected to shaft which are driven by gears these arms rotate in opposite direction.[1]

    2. Gripper mechanism

      Gripper is use to hold scion and root stock throughout the operation initially gripper is in close position by spring force and this spring force is enough for holding scion/root stock while feeding . When scion and

      rootstock are feed to gripper it will expand by compressing the spring. Gripper mechanism consist rack and gear arrangement. Grippers are control by rack and pinion action. When rack moves it will open and closed gripper respectively. After completion of grafting operation opening of gripper need to release grafted plant for that purpose hydraulic actuator is provided to give motion to the rack.

    3. Punch mechanism

Punch is use to cut scion and rootstock. After feeding operation, Geneva moves by 90º and scion and rootstock come in punching stage initially punch at upward (open) position by spring. For cutting operation downward motion of punch (blade) required for this downward motion cam mechanism is used.



Geneva Mechanism

Fig. 4.1 Geneva mechanism C = Center distance

b = Geneva wheel radius n = no of slot

t = Clearance s = Slot length w = Slot width

t = Thickness of wheel

Center distance is fixed according to size of machine = 60 mm

Geneva wheel radius:

= 63.63 -1.5 x 5


Stop disc radius (z)

= y t

=56.13- 0.2


Slot length: S= a + b – c

= 42.42 + 42.42 – 60

= 42.84mm

Width of slot (w):

= p + t

= 5 + 1

= 6 mm

Center distance (c)= 60mm

Selecting standard Geneva wheel and drive Geneva wheel radius (b)=75mm

Drive crank radius(a)=45mm Pin diameter (p)=10mm Stop arc radius(y)=30 mm Slot length(s)=36mm

Slot wdth(w)=22mm

Thickness of wheel and drive(e)=8mm [1][2]

    1. Motor selection:

      Required RPM 12

      Therefore to complete in revolution it will require

      i.e. 1 min 12 revolution

      i.e. 60 sec 12 revolution therefore

      5 sec for 1 revolution

      Standard motor selected – speed-12 rpm torque- 20kg-cm

    2. Linear actuator calculation:[1] Calculating the torque and speed requirement

      Cutting force required to cut stem of mango-100N Stroke speed -10 mm/sec

      Torque calculation:

      Torque= . 2



      Torque=47.74 N-mm

      = ×

      = 90 ×




    3. Speed calculation:






= 63.63

Drive crank radius (a)

= 2 2

= 602 42.422

= 63.64 mm

Assuming pin diameter p=5mm Stop arc radius (y):

= a 1.5 p

N=6.66 revolution per sec i.e.400 rpm

Now selecting std motor to fulfill requirements

Our primary requirement is stroke speed which should be 10 mm/sec or more than that

Therefore selecting the motor having speed of 500 RPM having torque 10 kg-cm

Recalculating the torque and stroke speed again Torque= .




Actual load=2094.39 N











Linear velocity=12.5mm/sec


It has been a great experience working on this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere to all them.

We sincerely thank our project guide Prof. Priti S. Vairagi for her valuable guidance, constructive criticism and encouragement during every stage of this project. Apart from our subject of research, we learnt a lot from her, which we are sure, will be useful in different stages of our life.

We owe a depth of gratitude to Dr. U.V. Asolekar, HOD, Department of Mechanical engineering for all the facilities provided during the course tenure.

We also convey great thanks to our Honorable Principal Dr.Harish Vankudre who helped a lot for completion of this project.

We would like to thankful to Prof. Tushar Raut for their valuable input in manufacturing of 3d component for completion of this project.

We would like to thanks owner of Jalaram Nursery, Dahanu for proper guidance about grafting process. Apart from that they also give the assurance about the future help regarding project work.

Last but not the least we would also thank our parents who were always supported us and all those people who have helped us directly or indirectly for completion of this work


Grafting technique is very rapidly growing in Agriculture field. Our willingness and improvements in technologies will give it a higher success rate as compare to manual grafting.

By doing small changes in gripping mechanism, machine can be used for different types of plants. Presented machine will decrease human interaction with grafting process. The machine will increase the output of process by 7 times. This machine used for profit purpose in agriculture business.


  1. V.B. Bhandari, Machine Design, ThirdEdition, Tata McGraw-

    Hill publication, Page 393-488

  2. KalaikathirAchchagam, Design Data Book for Engineers by PSG College, 2014, Page7.100, 7.101, 7.103

  3. R.S. Khurmi, Theory of Machines, 14th edition,

    S.Chand&Co.Ltd., pg774-832

  4. Ted Bilderback, R. E. Bir, T. G. RanneyGrafting and Budding Nursery Crop Plants, NC State Extension Publications (2014) 26 pp

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