Design and Development of Fish Food Pellet Machine

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV7IS060093

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Design and Development of Fish Food Pellet Machine

Pravin More

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Finolex Academy of Management and Technology, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India.

*Corresponding author- Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Finolex Academy of Management and Technology, P-60/61, MIDC,

Mirjole Block, RATNAGIRI- (M.S.) 415639, India

Abstract – Fish Food Pellet Machine Is Advantageous To Local Fish Farmer As It Supplies And It Is Also Economical. However, Fish Food Pelleting Equipment Are Known To Be Expensive And Unaffordable Particularly To The Local Farmer. A Prototype Of The Pelleting Machine Was Designed And Developed For Affordability. The Machine Was Also Tested To Evaluate Its Performance. The Machine Consisted Of A Piston And Cylinder, Springs, Roller, Worm And Worm Wheel, And Hopper. It Can Be Driven By An Electric Motor. The Average Specific Energy Consumption When 750 Cm3 Of Starch Binder Was Used Was 0.69 Kwh/Kg. The Density Of The Pellets Varied Between 0.7 And 1 G/Cm3. This Machine Can Be Manufactured At A Local Machine Shop For Small-Scale Local Fish Farmers In Developing Countries.

Keywords: Development, Fish Food, Pellets, Machine.


    Indian current scenario of industry focuses on the high production rate with less consumption of resources. There are number of machines are available in market which is producing the fish food. But problem is that the cost of that machines are too much high and which is not affordable for local fish farmer and also small scale industries. To overcome this problems, we need to design such machine which is economical as well as highly efficient.

    Fish Pelleting Machine is the one in which the material is turned into small pellets dry method. There are a wide range of applications for pelleting machine, and it is a commonly utilized industrial process all over the world, seen everywhere from plants which make animal feed to recycling facilities processing materials for reuse. This process is usually accomplished with a specialized machine called a pellet press machine, which can operate in a number of different ways, depending on the material being pelletized. Fish pelleting is dried material into small particles in the process of a machine. Where in the pellet press principle is the pressure between the piston and cylinders.

    So we design such a machine with simple mechanism. Design of various parts of machine done through experimental calculations [1]. Fisheries college students also give the lots of information related with the fish food so this information help us to design a machine internal structure. Machine is very useful for those who cant afford a costly machine for their business.


    For many years, simple and common techniques have been used in processing fish food, which are basically cereal grains and their byproducts. They have been classified into Dry type fish feed machine and Wet type fish feed machine. The aim of designing and developing the fish food pellet machine is to affordable to local fish farmers and maintain the nutritional value. Machine produces different shapes and size of food by changing the pellets.

    It has been pointed out that the mean particle size or grind of ingredient, and formulation play a major role in producing high quality pellets [2]. However, there is a limitation to the use of the fish food pelleting machine because of the high cost of the equipment for pellet processing [3 &4]. Hence, the local fish farmer, in Ratnagiri in particular, cannot afford to utilize the sophisticated fish food pelleting machine. This work aims at designing and developing a fish food pelleting machine and evaluating its performance.


Tool Used

  1. CATIA V5 (Design of components and structure)

  2. Design data book (Design of springs)

  3. Vernier caliper (Measurement of dimensions)

Experimental Procedure

  1. We design various parts as per need of project and decided its dimensions after checking feasibility of model.

  2. After deciding elemental parameters we move towards manufacturing of parts and its assembly.

  3. This project required pit for installation of setup, so necessary of proper space selection and check the environmental conditions before installation.

  4. Install the setup where performance is consistent throughout its operation.

  5. Then run the setup and check the unexpected errors and modified them to improve efficiency.


    Initially the motor is started, shaft of the motor giving motion to the worm and worm wheel. Reduction occurs

    drastically reducing the current rpm of 1400rpm to 14rpm. Output speed of the gear is input speed for the flywheel. Flywheel rotates at 14 rpm with roller, when material is fed into the cylinder through hopper that time piston moves downwards due to motion given by the roller. During downward motion, piston presses the material towards the screen. Heater is mounted on cylinder; material is some amounted heated in cylinder. The purpose of heater is to do not stick the material after passing through the screen. Screen have number of holes; the holes have same diameter as of required output. If we want large size of output then we can change the screen, which has large size of holes diameter. After roller passes over the platform it gives motion to cutting mechanism which has number of links. Cutter is attached to link and it cuts the material which comes out of cylinder. Cutter has also number of holes equal to the screen holes. Material is cut by shearing action of cutter.

    Figure 1: Fish Food Pellet machine.

    Output from the machine:

    for 1mm floating feed pellets

    for 2mm floating feed pellets



      • A piston cylinder arrangement is the main acting part in our device as said earlier we are pressing the dough and form the pallet.

      • Cylinder of this arrangement consists of one inlet for dough feeding and screen having number of holes as an outlet. Screen is

        fitted with cylinder by means of Allen screw.

      • SPRINGS [1]:

        Springs play a crucial role in complete mechanism and help to generate the vertical movement that is the return stroke of piston. Type of spring use here helical springs. The main function of the springs is to store energy due to the application of load by motor and is to release energy when the roller crosses over the platform. This forces the platform to get back to its original position.

      • ROLLER [1]:

        Roller plays major role in movement of piston. When roller rolls on platform, piston moves up and down. Roller also gives movement to the cutting mechanism.

      • WORM AND WORM WHEEL [1]:

        The main purpose of using the Worm & Worm Wheel gear is to reduce the speed. Reduction ratio of this gear is 100:1.

    2. CALCULATIONS [ 1 & 5]:

      Motor Selection [1]:-

      P =2NT


      P = 0.1649 kw [P] = 0.1804 kw

      That is 0.25 HP = 0.1865 kw [5]

      Worm & Worm Wheel Design:- Ni = 1400rpm

      P = 0.25HP = 0.1865kw

        • Design Power:-

          [P] = P*S. F [1]

          S.F = 1.2 [5] [P] = 0.155*1.2


        • General Assumption [1]:-

      1. Helix on worm & worm wheel

      2. Tooth profile = Involute helicoids

      3. Pressure angle = 200

      4. Gear grade = Grade & 4, Precision gear cuts

      5. Throating = Single throating

      6. No. of starts & no. of teeth on worm & worm wheel [6]

        = 40


        Z = 0.396

        Therefore, Z= 1 {no. of starts}

        = z


        z = 100 {no. of teeth}

      7. Selection of diameter factor [5]: q = 11

      8. Helix angle [5]

        = 1 100


        = 5.19

        s = + w s = 90

        w = 84.810

        1 = worm = 84.810

        2 = worm wheel = 5.190

      9. Virtual no. of teeth [5]

        = Z


        1 = 84.810 Z= 1 Zv1 = 1350.977

        2 = 5.190 z = 100 Zv2 = 101.24

      10. Lewis form factor [5]

        = [0.154 0.912]

        Yv1 = 0.48168

        Yv2 = 0.45

      11. Determination of weaker element [5]

        F =[b] * Yv

        F1 = 65.0268 N F2 = 50.105 N

        Hence F1 > F2

        Gear Wheel is weaker.

      12. Module estimation [5]

        a z 3 540 2

        = (q + 1) [z [ ]]


        q c

        aexact = 166.5 mm

      13. Check for bending failure [1]

        b = 1.9[Mt]


        b = 0.17866 kgf/cm2

        = 17.866 N/mm2 b < [b ] Hence design is safe against bending failure.

      14. Determination of beam strength [1]

        Fb = [b]×b×Y



        Fb =Mn ×[b]×b×Y b = 0.75d [5]

        Therefore, Fb = Fs = 3705.043

      15. Wear strength [5] Fw = d2×b×kw Fw = 6534 N

      16. Dynamic load [5]

        F = 6+Vm

        d [ 6 ] × Ft

        Fd = 14141.77 N Fs = 14820.175 N

      17. Wear strength [1]

        Fw =d2×b×kw Fw = 26136 N

        Fd =[ 6+Vm] × Ft


        Fd = 7383.2057 N

        Fs > Fd & Fw > Fd [5]

        Design is safe against dynamic load.

      18. Length of worm [5]

      For x = 0, Z=1 L 68.16 mm

      Corrected length L1 [5]

      L1 = L +25 mm for Mx =10 to 16 L1 = 68.40 + 25

      L1 = 93.16 mm

      Spring Design [5]:

      Force= 5Kg = 49.95N 50N K=

      = 0.018227

      1. Selection of Material [5]:

        1. For general purpose use SW spring steel oil hardened & tempered.

        2. So selecting

          = 760 N/mm2

      2. Spring Index [5]:

        Assume suitable value for spring index (c). For industrial application- spring index varies from 8 to 10. 9 is considered as a good value.

      3. Wahl factor [5]:

        K=41 + 0.615


        K= 1.14

      4. Determine wire diameter (d) [5]:-

        = K (8 )


        d = 1.38mm

        C = ()

        D = 27mm

      5. Determine number of active coil [5]: = (83)


        N = 6.33

        N = 7 coils

      6. Solid Length [1]:

        Solid Length = Nt x d

        = 22.5 mm

      7. Actual Deflection of spring [1]: = (83)


        = 13.76 mm

      8. Free Length [5]:

      Total axial gap = ( 1) x 1

      = 8 mm

      Free length: solid Length + Total axial gap +

      = 44.46 mm

      Bearing No 1 [1]:

      Fr = 50 N, D = 24 mm L10h = 15000 hrs.,N = 1400 rpm

      1. Bearing Life (L10) [1]

        L10 = 6010


        = 1260 million rev.

      2. Dynamic Load Capacity [1]

        P = Fr = 50 N C = P (L10)1/3 C =540.04 N

        Selecting Bearing no. as SKF6305 and d = 25 mm [5]

        Selection of bearing No 2 [1]: L10 = 60 × N ×L10h


        C = P × (10)1/3

        C = 10000 N

        Selecting bearing as SKF 6204 and d = 24 mm [5]


Experimental data:

Sr. No



Actual output


Required Time


Production rate





































Table 5.1 Experimental data


The fish food pallet machines with simple mechanism benefits which makes it highly preferable than its conventional machines. The following are the advantages of our device.

    • The biggest and most rewarding advantage is the simplicity of mechanism. We design a machine which is user friendly.

    • The machine is portable and light in weight.

    • Cutting mechanism & piston movements are work on only single motor, hence power consumption is low.

    • It is cheaper than its conventional machines with results and performance better.

    • It doesnt occupy productive space, thus enabling proper utilization of work area.

    • It is easily affordable for local fish farmer. Limitations

  1. We need to adjust the stroke length for different size of pallet.

  2. Feeding of the material is manually.

  3. Output capacity of our machine is low.


    The applications of fish food pallet machines are numerous. Apart from fulfilling the primary functions for which it has been conceptualized it renders useful cervices also.

    • It is economical for those fish farmers whose production is only in fishing sections.

    • It is useful for small scale industry


    Given input (kg)

    Received output (kg)

    Time (min)




    Hence, per month production can be calculated by

    Production = (output for 1 kg no of working hours) × 30 days

    = (0.7 × 6) × 30

    = 126 kg/ month

    If we take cost of production per 1 kg to be Rs.100 then,

    Income = Rs.12600/ month


      Feeding of material is manual and rest working of machine is automatic. It converts 70% of given dough input into a required fish pellet. Compared to the conventional machine the overall design is compact and occupies a smaller floor area. Looking at the income per month the cost of pellet machine is recovered within the two months of production.

      From above information we can conclude that our machine is simple in construction than conventional machines, also our machine is simple in handling.


      The limitation of our pellet machine is the feed which is given to it. It is manual there by increasing the time of production. In future if the feed given to it is automatic then time for the production will be considerably reduced. Also if the screens of variable size are made automatically adjustable then it will contribute much to the production.


  1. Third Edition, Design of machine Element by V. B. Bhandari, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi

  2. Galen, R., Rob, S. and Brian, P. (2008). Pelleted Livestock Feed Production Process Description, Retrieved March 3, 2008 from

  3. Kabuage, L. W. (1996). Nutritive Evaluation of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) in Broiler Chicken Diets, PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya

  4. Kabuage, L.W.; Mbugua, P. N.; Mitaru, B. N. and Ngatia, T. A. (2000). Effect of Steam Pelleting and Inclusion of Molasses in Amaranth Diets on Broiler Chicken Performance, Carcass Composition and Histopathology of some Internal Organs, Retrieved January 9, 2005 from 550_en.htm.

  5. Design Data Book completed by PSG College of Technology, Published by Kalaikthir Achchagam Coimbatore-641 037 India.

  6. American Gear Manufactures Association>wiki>AGMA

  7. Workshop Technology volume I & II by Choudhury S K. published by Media Promoters PVT LTD in 1986.

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