- Open Access
- Authors : Ankit Kumar , Versha Sinha
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS070342
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 07 (July 2021)
- Published (First Online): 10-08-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
City Transformation Case Old Goa
Ar. Ankit Kumar1, Ar. Versha Sinha2
Assistant Professor MITS, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India Architecture Department, MITS Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract :- Transformation is a way of life. City transformation is not a new phenomenon people continuously alter their environment according to their needs. Change of spaces with time creates adaptation. City transformation is happening everywhere for the better of the people living in the cities.
Transformation implies changes over time. The present urban fabric is result of successive generations of settlers who left their mark in physical structures as well as political condition, economic and social institutions. The city passed through a number of transformations. Urban transformation is often considered as a modern feature of the city. The city can be described as a physical representation of civilisation. Spaces changes their importance and meaning within city structure. It is a kind of natural process where spaces are transformed in response to new necessities. The important phase in this evolution is the stage of decline. Spaces become useless losing their utility and meaning and as a consequence the importance within the city. These spaces may be adapted to new needs.
Key Words:- Urban transformation, adaptation, Space
Transformation is a way of life. City transformation is not a new phenomenon. People continuously alter their environment according to their needs. Change of spaces with time creates adaptation.
Transformation implies changes over time. The present urban fabric is result of successive generations of settlers who left their mark in physical structures as well as political condition, economic and social institutions. The city passed through a number of transformations. Spaces changes their importance and meaning within city structure. It is a kind of natural process where spaces are transformed in response to new necessities. The important phase in this evolution is the stage of decline. Spaces become useless losing their utility and meaning and as a consequence the importance within the city. These spaces may be adapted to new needs. This paper will look into how the spaces in Old Goa has been transformed according to time and need.
Old Goa is located around 10kms east of Panaji city on the banks of river Mandovi.
The name of the site, Old Goa is derived from the Portuguese term Velha Goa (Velha= Old) as the place became known after the old City which later on was abandoned in favour developing a new city of Panaji as the new capital city in the early 19th century. It was founded by Bijapur sultanate; Muslim dynasty of Southern India in 15th century. The city was second capital after Bijapur of the rule of Adil Shahi dynasty. City was captured by Portuguese in 1510 and was ruled until 1961, when it got liberated and became integral part of India.
It was the first city in Asia to be completely subjected to Portuguese sovereignty, since Cochin, Cranganore and other places in Malabar were merely factory houses set inside friendly kingdom.
EVOLUTION OF OLD GOA
Figure 1: Map showing roads connecting Govapuri to Old Goa
The City first saw importance during the 12th century when Goa and the surrounding areas were under the Kadamba rulers with their Capital at Govapuri present Goa velha. This happened to be the site en route to the temple of the family deity of the rulers on island of Divar which is across the river and thus the place was connected to the main city with a wide road over the hill plateau.
At that time the main port of the Goa was present at Goa velha. Due to siltation process water of the Zuari river was diminished and the water of Mandovi river had increased which prevent the big ships to enter the main port because of which the main port of Govapuri was shifted to Old Goa in 14th C. Shifting of port leads to city development along the river bank. This was the major port in the western Indian Peninsula then and highly lucrative.
CITY UNDER ADIL SHAH 15TH C
Adil shah defeted Kadamba King in 1469 and made the city its second capital after Bijapur.
Adil Shah constructed wall around the city to protect himself from the neighboring kingdom. Wall was not very high but it had a ditch full of water outside. The town at that time was less than one mile long and one mile broad. Important buildings of the town were the principal mosque, gateways and the palace of Adil Shah which had different types of rooms and pillars inside. There was a big chowk in front of the palace probably built for the entertainment of the Sultans. There was big garden attach to the palace.
CITY UNDER PORTUGUESE
Figure 2: Historical Map showing city spaces during Portuguese empire
Portuguese conquest Goa in 1510 by defeating Adil Shah. Under Portuguese empire the city flourished to its maximum. The size of the city increased rapidly after the ditch along the city wall got filled up to extend the city. Extend of the city in east Chapel of Mount Mary, west St.Peter church, south Church of Cross of Miracles and in the North mondavi river. At this time the population of the city was around 2 Lakh. In the absence of controlled growth and proper sanitation ,non- availability of clean drinking water for the people epidemic outbreak in the 18thC due to which the city became unhealthy, unhygienic for living. Due to which city started decaying and people started moving out of the city.
During 19th C the capital was shifted from Old Goa to Panjim and the city of Old Goa became a dead city and population of the city declined drastically from two lakhs to two thousand. When the city was at its peak there was a legend Quem vio Goa excusa de ver Lisboa1 means those who had seen Goa need not see Lisbon. Goa was the capital of the Portuguese empire in the east.
OLD GOA AFTER LIBERATION
After becoming dead city the city is trying to revive at present. Due to the presence of large number of Churches convents and archaeological remains the city is an attraction for tourists. At present there are thirteen protected monuments (Churches) 6 protected by State archaeology and 7 ASI protected monuments in the city. In year 1996 the Group of Churches and Convents are declared as World Heritage Site.
Figure 3: Map Showing the present state of Old Goa
According to the 2011 census population of the city is 2558 people.
CITY TRANSFORMATION DURING DIFFERENT
Old Goa city has a lot of urban features which belong to different historical periods. Transformation from the fortified city to organic pattern reflects the local contents of physical and socio- economic characteristics.
URBAN SPACES DURING PORTUGUESE EMPIRE
16TH -17TH C
After conquering Goa in 1510 the new city of Portuguese empire was built on the wall city of Adil shah. To construct new buildings the raw material were taken from the buildings built during Adil Shah. Building began to erect on vacant sites both at public and private expenses. Buildings multiplied very fast filling every corner of the city. The part of the city which was present on the Adil Shah city acted as a core of the city. Inside the core the streets were in grid iron pattern and outside the core the streets were radially radiating out. Soon after the core got filled up the ditch around the wall city was filled up and additional space was created for the city. Once the barrier was overstepped the city rapidly grew in size in all directio. Beautiful houses, palaces, churches and convents, chowks, gates and big streets were the feature of the city. The guards used to keep watch day and night. Tax was levied on people crossing the gateways. The total circumference of the city was around four and half miles.
Figure 4: Showing Section of road
According to traveller Pietro the place was full of beautiful villas, houses in row and trees on the bank of river. The houses were present on the both side of the streets, two storey high with large French windows. In the backyard of the house garden and orchards with fountains were present. Due to social structure prevailing at that time womens were not allowed to roam freely and were considered as inferior to the males. If woman wants to go out then they used to go with the servants and slaves. Large windows of the house were used by the women to watch the events outside the house. The inside and outside of the houses were painted with red and white colours. There was no hotel or inn present in the city but there were various kinds of arrangement for stay. The city was intersecting by many streets many of which were paved no carts or carriage were running on the street instead palanquins were used for transportation.
All the important building like viceroy palace, archbishop palace, Principal Street and main square was present in the core area. Viceroy palace was located on the northern part of the core area. In front and back of the viceroy palace large square were present. People use to gather in the square and viceroy address the people from the palace. From the front square a large staircase led to the hall of the palace.
Figure 5: Showing gate of Viceroy of Old Goa
Figure 6: Showing activities on the Prinicpal street
The road from the viceroys palace to the church of Misericordia was the Principal road. On the both side of the principal road different shops were present. Market, fares and auctions of different materials was the main activity of the Principal Street. People of all creed and races mingle together with large umbrellas in their hands to protect themselves from the heat of the sun in the hot season and from rain during rainy season.
There were around fifty churches present in the city at that time and all the churches have Open Square in front of the church. These squares were used by the servants and slaves to wait for the ladies whom they have carried in palanquins.
Archiepiscopal palace was also the one of the important building at that time. It was present in the north east direction of the wall city. The building have front courtyard in which business man, nobleman used to gather to meet archbishop for purpose of business and paying their respect.
URBAN SPACES DURING 18TH CENTURY
Figure 7: Photo showing moving of material to new city
The city was surrounded by marshes and stagnant pools no attention was paid to the hygienic conditions essential for the public health. The muddy banks of the river outside the city were covered with detritus of animal and vegetable matter. No plan for proper cleaning of the city was made. The water supply of city was remarkably deficient government did not utilize the abundant stock of water by means of aqueducts and pipes. Poor people were made to use the impure water from the nearby wells. All these reasons lead to the often outbreak of epidemic in the city.
The city decayed rapidly in the late 17th century and it was narrowly escaped from falling into the hands of Sambaji. Due to constant attack from the maharathas, decline in trade commerce and epidemic in the city lead people to move out of the city to suburbs and the neighbouring villages.
The population of the city declined very rapidly, greater part of the city became abandoned because inhabitants were not able to rebuilt their houses when they have fallen many streets once full of houses became lonely and uninhabited. Viceroy decided to shift the capital from old Goa to its suburban area of Panajim due to its location. Soon archbishop followed him and shifted to the new capital.
To build the new capital construction material were required so the government has taken control of the private and public buildings and they became state property. These buildings were either neglected or suffered to decay, purposely demolished to furnish material for construction of new buildings at Panajim. Now the most area of the city was converted into agriculture land for coconut and cashew plantation which became the source of revenue for churches and convents. At this time the
population of city has decreased to few thousand from two lakhs. The few inhabitants remains were priests, monks, half- starved soldiers and low mechanics.
CITY SPACES AFTER LIBERATION MERGING
Figure 8. Showing existing situation of Old Goa
At present there are thirteen ASI protected monuments and remains site and six state protected monument. In 1996 seven monuments were declared as world heritage site.
Fig 9. Photo showing vernacular house
Due to Ancient monument and archaeological site and remains act first hundred meter around the monument is no development zone and next two meters is regulated development zone. If one look at the existing housing typology we can observe due restriction zone and regulated zone we can only find vernacular and house with large plot present in these zones with single or maximum double storey structures.
Due to AMSAR act development is not possible around the WHS so to cater the needs of the tourisms urban spaces have been modified accordingly.
The Principal street at the Portuguese time is no more remain a principal street now it has been changed to secondary road and activities related to this road has also changed. Now this road has been used for the parking of four and two wheelers. The open space in front of the churches now being used for the recreation space for the tourist visiting Old Goa. The main
square have Gandhi statue at the center. To fulfill the needs of tourist many kiosk and temporary structures has been constructed. Due to the restrictions on new constructions the front part of the existing houses has been converted into shops and small eateries places. The sky line of the city is still governed by the bell towers of the church.
Churches and Convents
Converted into agriculture land
Open space used for parking or still coconut plantation.
To enter the city
Square in front of Church
Waiting place for servants and slaves
No fix height but maximum Four storey
Gardens and orchards
Small plots so no gardens
Different street for different market
Market shifted to Panjim
Domnate by bell towers of churches
Dominate by bell towers of churches
Dominate by bell towers of churches
Due to the AMASR Act Urban development is not possible within 100m and regulated in next 200m from the ASI protected monuments as that comes under Prohibited and Regulated area.
But then people have adapted themselves in the form of temporary structure for their requirements and also to fulfill the requirements of tourists visiting there.
Instead of having restricted and regulated zones around the protected monuments guidelines should be made for the development of the whole city which can serves both the monuments and the residents of the city.
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