- Open Access
- Authors : Abhishek Mehta, Dr. Kamini Solanki, Ms. Khushi Solanki
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV9IS05040
- Volume & Issue : ICRADL – 2021 (Volume 09 – Issue 05)
- Published (First Online): 27-03-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Big Data Analytics: Current Research Trends, Applications, Prospects and Challenges
ICRADL – 2021 Conference Proceedings
Abhishek Mehta1, Dr. Kamini Solanki2, Ms. Khushi Solanki3 1Assistant Professor (Parul Institute of Computer Application, Parul University, India) 2Associate Professor (Parul Institute of Computer Application, Parul University, India)
3Student (Parul Institute of Computer Application, Parul University, India)
AbstractIn the period of the fourth modern unrest (Industry 4.0), enormous information has significant effect on organizations, since the transformation of organizations, stages, individuals and advanced innovation have changed the determinants of rms' development and com-petitiveness. A progressing colossal publicity for enormous information has been picked up from scholastics and experts, since large information investigation prompts significant information and supportive of movement of creative action of endeavors and associations, changing economies in nearby, public and worldwide level. In that specific situation, information science is dened as the assortment of basic rules that advance data and information picking up from information. The strategies and applications that are utilized assistance to dissect basic information to help associations in understanding their current circumstance and in taking better choices on schedule. These days, the huge increment of information through the Internet of Things (nonstop increment of associated gadgets, sensors and cell phones) has added to the ascent of an "information driven" period, where large information investigation are utilized in each part (agribusiness, wellbeing, energy and framework, financial matters and protection, sports, food and transportation) and each world econ-omy. The developing extension of accessible information is a perceived pattern around the world, while important information emerging from the data originate from information investigation measures. In that unique situation, the majority of associations are gathering, putting away and investigating information for key business choices prompting significant information. The capacity to oversee, examine and follow up on ("information driven choice frameworks") is essential to associations and is portrayed as a signicant resource. The possibilities of large information examination are significant and the benets for information driven associations are signicant determinants for intensity and development execution. Be that as it may, there are impressive obstructions to embrace information driven approach and get significant information through enormous information.
Index TermsBig data Big data analytics Performance Enterprises Knowledge management Internet of things (IoT)
Information is portrayed as the soul of dynamic and the crude material for responsibility. Without great information giving the correct data on the perfect things at the perfect time, planning, observing and assessing successful policies turns out to be practically unimaginable . In that unique situation, a progressing regard for information and information driven methodologies from scholastics and experts exists, since the information
emerging from information examination measures prompts the advancement of innovative movement, changing associations, undertakings and public economies.
These days, in the fourth Industrial transformation period, associations and governments center around the improvement of capacities that give information removed from enormous and complex informational indexes, usually known as "large information". Enormous information is a buzzword in the most recent years in the business and financial aspects elds, since it assumes a fundamental function in monetary action and has reinforced its part in making eco-nomic esteem by empowering better approaches to spike development and efficiency development. Consequently, the capacity of the executives, investigation and acting is signicant under the setting of information based capital (KBC) that is related with advanced information, creative limit and financial angles .
In that time, numerous undertakings autonomous size, from new companies to huge organi-zations, endeavor to get information driven culture battling for upper hand against rivals. Endeavors expect to use information produced inside associations through their activities to increase significant bits of knowledge for better, quicker and more exact choices in vital business issues.
The coming of the Web 2.0 permits clients associating with one another via online media stages, empowered organizations gaining admittance to large measures of information simpler and less expensive. Likewise, the presence of Web 3.0 gives significantly expanded chances to outside information assortment. Cell phones (PDAs and tablets) that encourage organizations to quantify much more absolutely, since those gadgets, both Internet and portable empowered, have the capacity to advance for example exceptionally versatile, area mindful and individual focused cycles and exchanges. This capacity will keep offering remarkable exploration difficulties and openings during that time .
Advanced ventures like Google, Amazon and Facebook feature the signicance of large information, showing the different ways that can be utilized from gracefully chain to consumer loyalty featuring the benets of undertakings. Numerous ventures began to benet from those open doors offered by the huge advancement of huge information advances. Today, undertakings in each industry segment and not restricted to
ICT segment, are centered around information abuse to increase an upper hand, while administrative choices depend on information put together examination and less with respect to the pioneer's experi-ence . Regardless,
abuse of enormous information needs individuals with abilities and mastery who will ready to catch an incentive from information experiences giving signicant information to supervisors and chiefs.
what is big data?
The colossal age of information, expected to arrive at 180 ZB in 2025, give information a driving function in change and development of the 21st-century molding another "computerized universe" with the change of business sectors and organizations . Advanced data from perplexing and heterogeneous information originating from anyplace and whenever presenting another time, the period of "Huge Data" . Huge information alludes to enormous datasets that can't be caught, put away, oversaw what's more, examined by run of the mill programming devices . These informational indexes that are immense – not just in size-yet additionally in heterogeneity and multifaceted nature (organized, semi-organized and unstructured information) including operational, value- based, deals, showcasing and other information. Furthermore, enormous information incorporates information that comes in a few arrangements including text, sound, video, picture and the sky is the limit from there. This unstructured information is becoming quicker than organized and have caught the 90% of all the information . In this manner, new types of handling abilities are required for getting information experiences that lead to better dynamic. On the information life cycle the difficulties can be separated into three classes: information, cycle and the board difficulties (Fig. 1) . Information challenges allude to attributes of large information including volume, speed, assortment and veracity. Cycle chalenges are connected with the strategies required for enormous information procurement, joining, change and examination so as to pick up bits of knowledge from the large information. The information the executives challenges incorporate difficulties with respect to information security, protection, administration and cost/operational consumptions. Huge information can be portrayed by the seven Vs: volume, assortment, veracity, speed, fluctuation, representation and worth. Volume alludes to the huge size of the datasets. It is truth that Internet of Things (IoT) through the turn of events and increment of associated cell phones, sensors and different gadgets, in mix with the quickly creating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) including Artificial Intelligence (AI) have added to the gigantic age of information (checking records, exchanges, tables, documents and so on.). The speed of information is outperforming Moore's law and the volume of information age presented new measures for information stockpiling for example exabytes, zettabytes what's more, yottabytes. Assortment speaks to the expanding variety of information age sources and information designs. Web 3.0 prompts development of web and web-based media networks prompting the age of various kinds of information. From messages, refreshes, photographs and recordings that are posted in web-based media networks like Facebook or Twitter, SMS, GPS. signals from cell phones, clients exchanges in banking, e-business and retail, voice
information in call focuses and so forth. A significant number of the urgent wellsprings of huge information are com-paratively novel, including cell phones that gracefully tremendous floods of information that are associated with human conduct through their exercises and areas; or web sources providing information through containing logs, click-streams and web-based media activities. Furthermore, enormous information likewise contrasts in information types that are created, in this way huge information comprises on organized information (tables, records), unstructured information (text and voice), semi- organized information (XML, RSS channels) and other information that is difcult to characterize like information getting from sound, video and different apparatuses.
Changeability is regularly mistaken for assortment, however inconstancy is connected with fast difference in importance. For example, words in a book can have an alternate significance as per setting of a book, in this way for an exact estimation investigation, calculations need to nd out the importance (conclusion) of a word considering the entire setting Speed. Large information is described by the fast of information age. Information created by associated gadgets and web showing up in undertakings continuously. This speed is very signicant for ventures in taking different activities that empower them to be more coordinated, increasing upper hand against contenders. Notwithstanding the way that a few ventures have just abused enormous information (click-streams information) to offer their clients buy proposals, these days undertakings however large information investigation can examine and comprehend information taking activities continuously.
Veracity of information alludes to information unwavering quality and exactness. The information assortment has information that are not perfect and exact, in this manner information veracity alludes to the information vulnerability and the degree of unwavering quality connected with some kind of information. Representation. Information perception is the study of visual portrayal of information and data. It presents quantitative and subjective data in some schematic structure, demonstrating designs, patterns, abnormalities, steadiness, variety, in manners that can't be introduced in different structures like content and tables . The influence of huge information can give significant information and along these lines the worth offered by the information examination cycle can benet ventures, associations, com-munities and purchasers.
Ventures that conquer difficulties and adventure enormous information efciently have more exact data and can make new information by which they can improve their technique and business activities with respect to well- dened targets like profitability, nancial execution and market esteem , while huge information assumes a significant part in advanced change of undertakings presenting developments. There-front, an expanding enthusiasm for abuse of huge information among undertakings and associations exists (Fig. 2). The monetary benets of enormous information in UK private and public-part organizations will increment from Â£25.1 billion out of 2011 to Â£216 billion out of 2017 . Huge
information can give more an incentive in endeavors in different ways and can upgrade produc-tivity and intensity of undertakings. Huge information is alluded to the nonstop development of information and advancements that are essential for assortment, stockpiling, man-agement and investigation of information. The perspective about organizations has changed with enormous information, since it changes significant components of associations and not just administration. Huge information can be a distinct advantage for endeavors getting new information, included worth and cultivating new items, cycles and markets, in this way information is portrayed as a benefit from ventures' chiefs demonstrating the sig-nicance of information driven methodology inside undertakings . Undertakings assembled information for a very long time, be that as it may, these days an ever increasing number of ventures are really dissecting the information rather than simply keeping them. Thus, information driven undertakings perform better in nancial and operational terms, 5% more beneficial and 6% more protable than no information driven, picking up signicant serious priority against their rivals .
Fig. 1 Big data trend https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F0bs2j8q big data analytics
The examination of huge informational indexes in ventures, the term of huge information investigation is related with information science, business knowledge and business investigation. Information science is dened as an assortment of basic rules that advances taking data and information from information . Throughout the most recent years, information driven methodologies like Business Intelligence (BI) and Business Analytics are portrayed fundamental to working ventures. BI is dened as the strategies, frameworks and applications for gathering, getting ready and examining information to give data helping chiefs. As it were, BI frameworks are information driven dynamic frameworks , while Business Analytics are the procedures, advancements, frameworks and applications that are utilized to break down basic business information for sup-porting them to comprehend their business climate and take business choices on schedule. The intensity of Business Analytics is to smooth out tremendous measures of information to improve its worth, while BI for the most part moves authentic information in diagrams and information table reports as an approach to give answers to inquiries without smoothing out information and upgrading its worth.
Business Analytics was started to plot the vital expository component in BI in the last part of the 2000s. A short time later, the details of huge information and huge information investigation have been used to portray scientific methods for informational collections that are so huge and complex,
requiring progressed information stockpiling, the board, examination and perception advances. In that quickly developing climate, the speed of information makes the change of information into significant information rapidly a need. The contrasts between traditional examination and quick investigation with Big information are in examination attributes (type, target and technique), information qualities (type, age/sream, volume) and essential goal (Table 1) [15, 16].
The advancement of the Internet and later on the availability originating from the web has contributed in the expansion of the volume and speed of information. Since the mid-2000s, Internet and Web advancements have been offering remarkable information assortment and examination for ventures. Web 1.0 frameworks empower undertakings to set up a web presence and offer their items/administrations web based associating with their clients. Web 2.0 frameworks, including the presentation of web-based media networks like Face-book, furnish undertakings more information with data about ventures, items and clients. The continuous increment of cell phones against the quantity of PCs presented another period of business examination, including the investigation of client produced content by online media channels. Cell phones have the capa-bility to advance for example exceptionally versatile, area mindful and individual focused cycles and exchanges. Thusly, Data-driven dynamic is on information originating from all the wellsprings of undertakings, while expectations and AI depend on conventional information and new creative sources like IoT and AI.
Information investigation is the way toward reviewing, cleaning, changing and demonstrating information increasing helpful data for proposals and backing in dynamic. It has numerous features and approaches, enveloping assorted procedures under an assortment of names, in various business, science and sociology plans, while "Huge Data Analytics" alludes to cutting edge systematic strategies, considering enormous and different sorts of datasets to inspect and remove information from large information, con-stituting a sub-measure in picking up bits of knowledge from huge information measure. Utilizing cutting edge innovations, Big Data Analytics (BDA) incorporates information the executives, open- source programming like Hadoop, factual examination like slant and time-arrangement butt-centric ysis, perception instruments that help structure and interface information to reveal concealed examples, unfamiliar connections and other noteworthy experiences.
The cycle of BDA is an asset for key choices prompting signicant upgrades in tasks execution, new income streams and serious ness against rivals. In that unique circumstance, the way toward getting bits of knowledge from large information can be isolated into two stages: information the executives and information examination. Information the executives is connected with the cycles and advancements for information age, stockpiling, digging and groundwork for examination, while information investigation alludes to the techniques and tech-niques for examination and translation of the bits of knowledge originating from huge information  (Fig. 3).
Examination can be isolated into four classifications, extending from enlightening and demonstrative investigation to the further developed prescient and prescriptive investigation.
Fig. 2 Process of leveraging big data
Elucidating investigation, in light of chronicled and current information, is a signicant wellspring of experiences about what occurred previously and the relationships between's different determinants recognizing designs utilizing factual estimates like mean, range and standard deviation. Distinct examination utilizing strategies like online scientific preparing (OLAP) misuses information from the past experience to give answers in what's going on in the associations. Normal instances of descrip-tive investigation incorporate information representation, dashboards, reports, outlines and charts introducing key measurements of endeavors including deals, orders, clients, nancial execution and so forth.
Demonstrative examination based likewise in recorded information give bits of knowledge about the underlying driver of certain results of the past. In this way, associations can take better choices keeping away from blunders and negative consequences of the past.
Prescient examination is tied in with anticipating and giving an assessment to the likelihood of a future outcome, dening openings or dangers later on. Utilizing different strategies including information mining, information demonstrating and AI, the execution of prescient examination is signicant for any association's section. One of the most known uses of that sort of investigation is the expectation of client conduct, deciding activities, promoting and forestalling hazard. Utilizing verifiable and other accessible information, prescient examination can reveal designs and distinguish connections in information that can be utilized for determining . Prescient examination in the advanced period is a signicant weapon for associations in the com-petitive race. In this manner, associations abusing prescient examination can distinguish future patterns and examples, introducing creative items/administrations and developments in their plans of action.
Prescriptive examination give a guaging of the effect of future moves before they are made, replying "what may occur" as result of the organi-zation's activities. In this way, the dynamic is improved taking under con-sideration the expectation of future results. Prescriptive examination utilizing elevated level displaying apparatuses can contribute surprisingly to the presentation and efciency of associations, through more intelligent and quicker choice with lower cost and hazard and recognizing ideal answers for asset assignment .
The serious prescient and prescriptive examination can assume vital function in efcient vital dynamic managing signicant issues of organiza-tions like plan and improvement of items/administrations, gracefully chain arrangement and so forth .
These days, as the developing age of accessible information is a perceived pattern across ventures, nations and market portions, most of undertakings in any case industry is gathering, putting away and examining information so as to catch esteem. Advanced economy through the enormous utilization of web and computerized administrations has changed practically all the business divisions, including horticulture and assembling, to more assistance focused . There are numerous and various areas, similar to online business,
legislative issues, science and innovation, wellbeing, taxpayer driven organizations and so on., where enormous information examination are applied. Information driven organizations from different enterprises explain the intensity of enormous information, making more precise expectations driving on better choices.
The enormous surges of information created regular need better foundations so as to be caught, put away and dissected. A market with a wide gracefully of new items and apparatuses intended to cover all the necessities of enormous information has been made and it is growing quickly . There is a wide assortment of explanatory devices that can be utilized to perform BDA, among others based on SQL inquiries, factual investigation, information mining, quick bunching, common language preparing, text examination, information visualiza-tion and articial insight (AI). These methods and instruments give effectively and quickly misuse of large information.
The information got from abuse of huge information gives endeavors included an incentive through better approaches for efficiency, development, advancement and customer surplus , in this manner large information turns into a significant determinant of seriousness and undertakings are needing information investigation ability to misuse the maximum capacity of information.
Ventures that figure out how to underwrite enormous information using continuous data originating from different sources like sensors, associated gadgets and so forth can comprehend in more detail their current circumstance and dene new patterns, make new and imaginative items/administrations, react rapidly in changes and upgrade their advertisin activities. The influence of huge information can add to the efcient assets' assignment and oversight, squander decrease, assistance of new experiences and more elevated level of straightforwardness in various segments of endeavors from creation to deals.
Along these lines, BDA applications in pretty much every business part exist. Applications additionally in legislative issues and e-government, science and innovation, security and wellbeing, keen wellbeing and prosperity exist . Also, there are bounty and different kinds of huge information applications among undertakings and industry segments. BDA can be utilized in web based business and
showcasing applications like internet promoting and strategically pitching, while it encourages endeavors to break down client conduct in forming 360-degree client prole for usage of focused and streamlined blemish keting activities to affect client obtaining and fulfillment. It offers better comprehension of clients' conduct and inclinations and in this way improve client assistance.
Undertakings and associations gather a lot of security- significant information, for example, programming application occasions, network occasions, individuals' activity occasions. The age of information originating from these activities are expanding quickly every day as associations empower signing in more sources, running more programming programs, have additionally working representatives and move to cloud arrangements. Sadly, the volume and assortment of security information immediately become overpowering and existing expository strategies can't work efciently and reliably. BDA applications become part of security the executives and checking, since it adds to cleaning, arrangement and investigation of different mind boggling and heterogeneous datasets efciently . One of the most widely recognized employments of BDA is extortion identification, hence nancial establishments, governments and telephone organizations utilize huge information innovations to take out danger and improve their efcacy. Moreover, BDA is generally applied in gracefully chain and coordinations activities assuming a signicant part in creating flexibly chain systems and flexibly chain tasks the executives. BDA can uphold dynamic through the under- remaining of changes of promoting conditions, identication of gracefully chain chances and abusing flexibly tie capacities to show creative flexibly chain strate-gies, accordingly improving the adaptability and protability of gracefully chain. BDA contributes additionally in dynamic at operational level, since it measures and examinations gracefully chain execution considering request arranging, supplies, creation, stock and coordinations. It hence improves efciency of tasks, measures gracefully chain execution, diminishes measure alterability and adds to the usage of the best flexibly chain systems at operational level .
Discussing advanced and information driven ventures, the rsts coming at the top of the priority list are Google, Amazon, Apple and Facebook. Amazon that was brought into the world computerized, abused large information accomplishing to upset customary book market and turned into the pioneer in advanced shopping. Another case of an acclaimed conceived computerized rm is Google that tackle information from motor inquiry to advanced showcasing so as to give and per-sonalize search to its clients, while Google and Facebook gather information giving chances to customized and altered advertising.
By and by, customary non-mechanical undertakings are likewise endeavoring to pick up information driven benets. General Electric (GE) has built up a cloud-based stage for Industrial Internet application named "Predix" that gives constant experiences to architects to plan upkeep checks, improves machine efciency and decreases vacation. GE this way offered new assistance offers in the
traditionalist market of the oil and gas industry, while it faces its most squeezing difficulties: improving resources and activities efficiency and killing the expense of inferred information from maturing workforce .
Walmart and other significant retailers utilizing BDA in the whole business measure, from gracefully fasten the board to promoting, picked up benets from information. Applica-tions of BDA are all over the place and in computerized areas, yet in addition in no online segments including fabricating, farming, medical care, energy, trav- eling and others. In medical care segments, different uses of BDA exist, from nature of therapy administrations and cost efciency of clinics to progress and expectations of patient ailment. In voyaging and retail, BDA applications can give client insight through web and online media investigation, subsequently undertakings can offer customized items/administrations. Moreover, in energy man-agement most of the ventures use information investigation to track and control gadgets accomplishing a more efcient energy the board without administrations deviation.
The development of Internet with the start of Web 2.0 period empowered organizations gaining admittance to enormous measures of information simpler and less expensive, while the open doors for outer information assortment have even expanded with the presence of the Web 3.0. Endeavors and associations from all divisions started to zero in on information abuse for increasing upper hand. These days, the large information period has unobtrusively settled down on pretty much every organization, since they understood that information driven choices will in general be better and more precise choices. Notwithstanding, that numerous organizations in a few enterprises are applying busi-ness examination including huge information investigation, it doesn't imply that they all take benet from it by getting significant bits of knowledge and genuine business esteem from the accessible information. Turning into an information driven organization is more than utilizing expository procedures and apparatuses. The organizations need to enlist individuals outfitted with efficient intuition to advance the achievement in information driven dynamic. Achievement in the information arranged business climate today incorporates having the option to think information systematically. Since the measure of information is constantly developing, space information and examination can't be considered as independent zones. Both scholarly and applied experts of the organizations are required to have the expository abilities and to get business measures. Representatives, who don't have the fundamental comprehension of information scientific reasoning, don't generally have the foggiest idea how the matter of an association is working. In the event that they can comprehend the cycle and its means, it will be simpler for them to nd appropriate answers for the shortcomings of the concerning cycle step. In any case, to have the option to perform information driven, associations need to confront a few difficulties, both administrative and specialized. Large information isn't just about information
volume, yet in addition about assortment and speed. Enormous information examination can help undertakings understanding their business surroundings, their clients' conduct and needs and their rivals' exercises. On account of huge information investigation undertakings can shape their items and activities so as to fulll clients' needs and enhance against rivals through better pre-expressions and more intelligent choices on premise of proof rather than instinct. Organizations that accomplish to deal with the difficulties and receive an information driven culture, they can anticipate great possibilities. There is solid proof that business execution can be improved by means of information driven dynamic, large information advancements expository devices and methods on huge information. As more organizations become familiar with the basic abilities of utilizing large information and ho to draw in with current advances, which are constantly creating, may before long stand apart from their rivals and have a definitive competitive favorable position.
Economist,T.:Dataisgivingrisetoaneweconomy.In:TheEconomi st,05Jun2017.https:// www.economist.com/news/brieng/21721634-how-it-shaping- up-data-giving-rise-new- economy. Accessed 06 Oct2017
Sivarajah, U., Kamal, M.M., Irani, Z., Weerakkody, V.: Critical analysis of big data challengesandanalyticalmethods.J.Bus.Res.70,263286(2017)
Manyika, J., et al.: Big data: the next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity (2011)
Power, D.J.: Understanding data-driven decision support systems. Inf. Syst. Manag. 25(2), 149154(2008)
Cebr:Dataequity:unlockingthevalueofbigdataReportforSAS,Ap ril(2012).https://www. cebr.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/03/1733_Cebr_Value-of-Data-
Equity_report.pdf. Acces- sed 06 Nov2017
7. Accessed 15 Jun2017
McAfee, A., Brynjolfsson, E.: Big data: the management revolution. Harv. Bus. Rev. 90(10) 6066, 68, 128(2012)
Burstein, F., Holsapple, C.: Handbook on Decision Support Systems 1: Basic Themes. Springer Science & Business Media(2008) Larson,D.,Chang,V.:Areviewandfuturedirectionofagile,busines sintelligence,analytics anddatascience ScienceDirect.Int.J.Inf.Manage.36(5),700710(2016)
Davenport, T.: Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths. Harvard Business Review Press, Uncovering the Opportunities(2014) Gandomi, A., Haider, M.: Beyond the hype: big data concepts, methods, and analytics. Int. J. Inf. Manage. 35(2), 137144(2015)
How to leverage the power of prescriptive analytics to maximize the ROI. In: IBM Big Data and Analytics Hub. http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/blog/how-leverage-power- prescriptive- analytics-maximize-roi. Accessed 16 Jun2017
Demirkan, H., Delen, D.: Leveraging the capabilities of service-oriented decision support systems: putting analytics and big data in cloud. Decis. Support Syst. 55(1), 412 421(2013)
Lodefalk,M.:Servicicationofmanufacturing evidencefromSweden.Int.J.Econom.Bus. Res. 6(1), 87(2013)
Baesens, B.: Analytics in a Big Data World: The Essential Guide to Data Science and its Applications. Wiley(2014)
BigDataAnalyticsforSecurity IEEEXploreDocument.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/ document/6682971/?reload=true. Accessed 18 Jun2017
Wang, G., Gunasekaran, A., Ngai, E.W.T., Papadopoulos, T.: Big data analytics in logistics and supply chain management: certain investigations for research and applicationsscience direct. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527316 300056?via%3Dihub. Accessed 18 Jun2017
:MITSloanManagement Review.http://sloanreview.mit.edu/case-study/ge-big-bet-on- data-and-analytics/.Accessed14 Jun2017
Analytics 3.0: Harvard Business Review, 01 Dec 2013. https://hbr.org/2013/12/analytics-30. Accessed 21 Jun2017
Gartner Says 8.4 Billion Connected. http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3598917. Acces- sed 21 Jun2017
Davenport, T.: Analytics and IT new opportunity for CIOs. In: Harvard Business Review (2016)