Automatic Recognition, Identifying Speaker Emotion and Speaker Age Classification using Voice Signal

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Automatic Recognition, Identifying Speaker Emotion and Speaker Age Classification using Voice Signal

Automatic Age Classification using Voice Signal

Dr. A. S Umesh

Computer Engineering Science TIT, Bhopal

Prof. Ramesh Patole

Information technology department

G. H. R.C.M, Pune

Prof. Krishna Kulkarni ICOER, Pune

Abstract Audio engineers commonly refer to recording and reproduction systems as chains, an apt designation because it invites attention to links. Although digital management of audio information offers improvements in signal quality over analog methods, digital systems are not without problems. Aliasing errors, sampling rate jitter, amplitude distortion, intermodulation distortion, spurious output signals, inter- channel cross-talk, inter-channel phase distortion, idle channel noise, and delay distortion can occur and are the subject of technical standards (Audio Engineering Society, 1998). Because digital audio systems by definition accept and produce analog signals, several purely analog issues remain relevant. Humans are very good at recognizing people. They can guess a persons gender, age, accent, and emotion by just hearing the persons voice over the phone. At the highest level, people use semantics, diction, idiolect, pronunciation and idiosyncrasies, which emerge from socio-economic status, education and place of birth of a speaker. At the intermediate level, they use prosodic, rhythm, speed, intonation and volume of modulation, which discriminate personality and parental influence of a speaker.

KeywordsRaspberry pi, speaker and audio files; spell check algorithm; pattern matching algorithm; deep learning; machine learning; neural network;

  1. INTRODUCTION:

    Humans are very good at recognizing people. They can guess a persons gender, age, accent, and emotion by just hearing the persons voice over the phone. At the highest level, people use semantics, diction, idiolect, pronunciation and idiosyncrasies, which emerge from socio-economic status, education and place of birth of a speaker. At the intermediate level, they use prosodic, rhythm, speed, intonation and volume of modulation, which discriminate personality and parental influence of a speaker. At the lowest level they use acoustic aspects of sounds, such as nasality, breathiness or roughness. Recordings of the same utterance of two people will sound different because the process of speaking engages the individual mental and physical systems. Since these systems are different among people, their speech will be also different even for the same message. The speaker-specific characteristics in the signal can be Exploited by listeners and

    technological applications to describe and classify speakers, Based on age, gender, accent, language, emotion or health.

    There are many speaker characteristics that have useful applications. The most popular of these include gender, age, health, language, dialect, accent, socialist, idiolect, emotional state and attention state. These characteristics have many applications in Dialog Systems, Speech Synthesis, Forensics, Call Routing, Speech Translation, Language Learning, Assessment Systems, Speaker Recognition, Meeting Browser, Law Enforcement, Human-Robot Interaction, and Smart Workspaces. For example, the Spoken Dialogs Systems provide services in the domains of finance, travel, scheduling, tutoring or weather. The systems need to gather information from the user automatically in order to provide timely and relevant services. Most telephone-based services today use spoken dialog systems to either route calls to the appropriate agent or even handle the complete service by an automatic system. Some of the reasons for automatic speaker classification include: automatic indexing of audio material, identification or verification of people to ensure secure access, loading pre-trained models for speech recognition tasks, tailoring machine dialogue to the needs and situation of the user, or synthesizing voice with similar characteristics (gender, age, and accent) to the speaker. Demand for human- like response systems is increasing. For example, shopping systems can recommend suitable goods appropriate to the age and sex of the shopper.

    Technical key words: –

    • SVM Super vector approach

    • The sound wave, a band pass filter of bandwidth,

    • Vector quantization techniques,

    • Recognition Algorithm,

    • Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) & Vector Quantization (VQ).

    • Speaker age, Phonetics, Acoustic analysis, Acoustic correlates

    The human voice consists of sounds produced by a human being using the vocal folds for carrying out acoustic activities

    such as talking, singing, laughing, shouting, etc. The human voice frequency is specifically a part of the human sound production mechanism in which the vocal cords or folds are the primary source of generated sounds. Other sound production mechanisms produced from the same general area of the body involve the production of unvoiced consonants, clicks, whistling and whispering. Generally, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds within the larynx, and the articulators. The human voice and associated speech patterns can be characterized by a number of attributes, the primary ones being pitch, loudness or sound pressure, timbre, and tone. Pitch is an auditory sensation in which a listener assigns musical tones to relative positions on a musical scale based primarily on their perception of the frequency of vibration . Pitch can be quantified as a frequency, but it is based on the subjective perception of a sound wave. Sound oscillations can be measured to obtain a frequency in hertz or cycles per second. The pitch is independent of the intensity or amplitude of the sound wave. A high-pitched sound indicates rapid oscillations, whereas, a low-pitched sound corresponds to slower oscillations. Pitch of complex sounds such as speech and musical notes corresponds to the repetition rate of periodic or nearly-periodic sounds, or the reciprocal of the time interval between similar repeating events in the sound waveform.

    Loudness is a subjective perception of sound pressure and can be defined as the attribute of auditory sensation, in terms of which, sounds can be ordered on a scale ranging from quiet to loud. Sound pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient, average, or equilibrium atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. Sound pressure level (SPL) is a logarithmic measure of the effective pressure of a sound relative to a reference value and is often measured in units of decibel (dB). The lower limit of audibility is defined as SPL of 0 dB, but the upper limit is not as clearly defined.

    Timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone. Timbre distinguishes different types of sound production and enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category. The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Figure 1 shows a sound wave with its temporal envelope marked in red. In simple terms, timbre is what makes a particular sound be perceived differently from another sound, even when they have the same pitch and loudness.

    Fig 1: A sound waves envelope marked in red

    Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to coney emphasis, contrast, and other such features.

    It has been frequently observed that the tonal quality of the human voice changes while expressing various emotions. With different emotions and moods, not only does the tonal quality vary, but the associated speech patterns change too. For instance, people may tend to talk in loud voices when angry and use shrill or high-pitched voices when in a scared or panicked emotional state. Some people tend to ramble when they get excited or nervous. On the contrary, when in a pensive emotional state, people tend to speak slowly and make longer pauses, thereby indicating an increase in time spacing between consecutive words of their speech.

    Detection of human emotions through voice- and speech- pattern analysis can prove to be beneficial in improving conversational and persuasion skills, especially in those circumstances or applications where direct face-to-face human interaction is not possible or preferred. The practical applications of human emotion detection through voice and speech processing could be numerous. Some such plausible real-world situations could be while conducting marketing surveys with customers through telephonic conversations, participating in anonymous online chat-rooms, conducting business voice-conferences and so on.

    This paper presents an algorithmic approach which aids in detection of human emotions, by analyzing various voice attributes and speech patterns. Section II describes the proposed algorithmic approach in detail, along with the obtained results. Section III is devoted to result analysis. Finally, section IV elucidates the conclusions derived from the proposed study and future scope of work.

  2. ALGORITHMIC APPROACH TO DETECTION OF

    HUMAN EMOTIONS

    This section describes an algorithmic approach for deducing human emotions through voice- and speech-pattern analysis. In order to achieve this objective, three test cases have been examined, corresponding to the three emotional states: normal emotional state, angry emotional state, and panicked emotional state. For carrying out the analysis, four vocal parameters have been taken into consideration: pitch, SPL, timbre, and time gaps between consecutive words of speech. In order to quantitatively represent timbre, its temporal envelope for advance and decay times has been considered. The primary function of the proposed algorithmic approach is to detect different emotional states by analyzing the deviations in the aforementioned four parameters from that of the normal emotional state. The proposed analysis was carried out with the help of software packages such as MATLAB and Wave pad.

    • Case 1: Normal emotional state

    This test case involves statistics for pitch, SPL, timbre, and word-timing gaps derived from speech samples that were orated while the speaker was in a relaxed and normal emotional state. This test case serves as the basis for the remaining two test cases. All the

    parameter statistics indicate mean values derived from the speech samples. As shown in Table I, for the purpose of demonstration, statistics for two speech samples have been analyzed.

    TABLE I

    AVERAGE VALUES OF VOCAL STATISTICS OBTAINED FROM RECORDED SPEECH SAMPLES FOR A NORMAL EMOTIONAL STATE

    Pitc h (Hz)

    SP L

    (dB

    )

    Timb re ascen d time (s)

    Timbr e descen d time (s)

    Time gaps betwee n words

    (s

    )

    Spee ch Sam ple 1

    1248

    Hz

    Gain

    -50

    dB

    0.12 s

    0.11 s

    0.12 s

    Spee ch Sam ple 2

    1355

    Hz

    Gain

    -48

    dB

    0.06 s

    0.05 s

    0.12 s

    • Case 2: Angry emotional state

      This test case involves statistics for pitch, SPL, timbre, and word-timing gaps derived from speech samples that were orated while the speaker was in an agitated emotional state, typically characterized by increased vocal loudness and pitch. All the parameter statistics indicate mean values derived from the speech samples, as shown in Table II. The same speech samples that were earlier used in Case 1 have been used in Case 2, but with a different intonation typical of an agitated or angry emotional state.

      TABLE II

      AVERAGE VALUES OF VOCAL STATISTICS OBTAINED FROM RECORDED SPEECH SAMPLES FOR AN ANGRY EMOTIONAL STATE

      Pitc h (Hz)

      SP L

      (dB

      )

      Timb re ascen d time (s)

      Timbr e descen d time (s)

      Time gaps betwee n words

      (s

      )

      Spee ch Sam ple 1

      1541

      Hz

      Gain

      30

      dB

      0.13 s

      0.10 s

      0.09 s

      Spee ch Sam ple 2

      1652

      Hz

      Gain

      29

      dB

      0.06 s

      0.04 s

      0.10 s

    • Case 3: Panicked emotional state

    This test case involves statistics for pitch, SPL, timbre, and word-timing gaps derived from speech samples that were orated while the speaker was in a panicked or overwhelmed emotional state. Speech samples that were earlier used in Case 1 have been used in Case 3, but with a different intonation typical of a panicked emotional state, as shown in Table III.

    TABLE III

    AVERAGE VALUES OF VOCAL STATISTICS OBTAINED FROM RECORDED SPEECH SAMPLES FOR A PANICKED EMOTIONAL STATE

    Pitch (Hz)

    SPL (dB)

    Timbr e ascend time (s)

    Timbr e descen d time (s)

    Time gaps betwee n words

    (s)

    Speec h Sampl e 1

    1443

    Hz

    Gain

    46

    dB

    0.13 s

    0.09 s

    0.13 s

    Speec h Sampl e 2

    1560

    Hz

    Gain

    44

    dB

    0.07 s

    0.04 s

    0.14 s

  3. RESULTS ANALYSIS

    The speech samples described in the previous section were recorded with the help of headphones that have an offset gain of approximately -60 dB and the speech data was sampled at the rate of ten sample points per second. By comparing Tables I and II, it can be seen that when in an agitated state, a significant increase occurs in the mean SPL and pitch values, accompanied by a decrease in the time spacing between consecutive words. In simple terms, this would indicate faster talking in a shrill and louder voice.

    By comparing Tables I and III, it can be seen that when in a nervous or panicked state, there is a significant increase in the mean values of pitch, time spacing between consecutive words, and increased timbre ascending time. In simple terms, this would indicate a shrill voice with longer, sharp pauses.

    By comparing the data presented in Tables 1-3, it can be decisively concluded that with varying emotions, the tonal parameters accordingly change as well. Establishing value- ranges for the aforementioned various vocal parameters can help in quantitatively assessing the extent of deviation from the standard basis, which in this study is the normal emotional state. The findings of the previous section are subjective and will vary depending on how a person reacts to a particular emotional situation. However, from the point of practicality, this feature of subjectiity can be exploited, especially while developing customizable applications, such as smart- phone apps that are user oriented.

    Relevant objectives: –

    1. This system is useful to detect either side of the speakers in telephone to identify the gender and based on it identifying age as well as its emotion.

    2. There are many applications based on speakers voice like, finding the gender, age group and providing the service according to the gender and age group.

    3. Also include speaker recognition and displaying the speaker profile according to our database.

      Motivation: –

      Very less research on human voice-based age and gender detection system.

      We can use this system according to market age group requirement and gender requirements.

      Recognize the emotions in the voice (sad, angry, happy etc.).

      Human voice can also be used as secured biometric characteristics. It helps to store criminal record using

      voice and can also be used as identify criminals voice based on recorded audio file as an evidence.

      Also finding the gender and age automatically before the inquiry.

  4. HYPOTHESIS:

Age detection system take human voice as input and find the gender and age of speaker and compare that voice with database profile audio file. If found the matched profile display the profile in detail, if not found display the gender and estimated age of speaker.

It is very difficult to find the human age automatically. So, the proposed system will take a speaker voice as input and process it to find the gender, age group, exact age of speaker and his emotion state. The proposed system classifies the speaker age in group like children, young, adult, senior, then recognizing or compare the speaker profile with stored profile at proposed system. If profile found display profile of speaker with emotions otherwise display gender, age group and emotion.

7. SOLVING APPROACH:

There are multiple approaches to solve the problem. Many techniques are used like processing of voice data, feature extraction, Pattern recognition, voice recognition-based profile matching. According the above proposed system classify the sample data into two dataset training phase and testing phase, also consider the age and gender challenge separately to find the speaker characteristics efficiently.

Efficiency issues:

    1. Speakers Voice

    2. Noisy environment

    3. Variability in Voice

    4. Depend on which Technique used

    5. Emotions

      Outcomes:

      Fig1: Proposed system block diagram.

      1. LITERATURE REVIEW:

        In [1] Age and gender detection are two tasks, uses two separate technology to find the age and gender of human and use multiple technique to find the age and gender the calibrate and make fusion of that data and find the high greater result as compare to other technique.

        In Speaker gender detection and age estimation, based on hybrid architecture of Weighted supervised Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (WSNMF) and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN). Here used the two phases to compare the data,

        1. Training phase

        2. Testing phase

          Gaussian mixture weight super vectors of the primary training set are used to train a WSNMF which is applied for recognizing the age-gender category of any unseen speakers.

          In [3] divide the human according to Age group and gender in seven classes and make database of speaker identify the speaker voice. And search the speaker profile with help of database, GMM/SVM-super vector system for speaker age and gender recognition, a technique that is adopted from state-of-the-art speaker recognition research.

      2. PROBLEM STATEMENT:

          • Perform the gender classification (male or female).

          • Classify the people according the age group.

          • Display the speaker profile according to voice database with emotions.

          • Display the emotions of speaker (angry, happy, sad etc.).

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