Autism and Technology

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Autism and Technology

Anjali Rathod Faculty Of Science MIT-WPU Pune,India

Abstract The world is growing in a fast pace, so is autism. Firstly, differentiating autism with differently abled, we need to enlighten people about autism and help the autistic people for their growth. Autism is a behaviorally defined disorder, characterized by qualitative impairments in social communication, interaction and imagination with a restricted range of interests and often stereotyped repetitive behaviors and manners. About 1 in 59 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to estimates from CDCs Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network which earlier was 1-2 in 1000 children. At the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), is where the idea for this Special Issue on Autism and Technology was born. Technology examples such as the use of the Internet, online communities, robotics, assistive and prompting devices, computer-aided instruction, video modelling, video/DVD instruction, virtual reality and so on. Computer-assisted instruction has also shown advantages over personal instruction for some individuals with ASD. Hence, technology helps autistic human in evolving.

KeywordsAutism, disorder, interaction, technology

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Earlier when a person failed to speak, react normally or didnt hear he/she was considered to be differently abled. But with the growth of medical science now we can differentiate between the disabled and the autistic people.

    Autism is a lifelong behaviorally defined disorder, characterized by qualitative impairments in social communication, interaction and imagination with a restricted range of interests and often stereotyped repetitive behaviors and manners. Sensory hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity to the environment are common features. Autism covers a wide spectrum, it is divided into low, medium and high functioning autism on the basis of their IQ and potential. Autism is associated with a connection of genetic and environmental factor. In autism, the information processing in the brain is affected, on how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize. Autism having covered a wide spectrum. I would like to give a brief idea on the range and will confine my research to speech delay autism.

    1. Diagnosis

      Autism is difficult to diagnosis as there is no test for it , so it is usually detected with various signs shown by the person.

      Parents usually notice autism signs in the first three years of a child when the child

      • shows no response to name

      • makes no eye to eye contact

      • doesnt babble for 12 months

      • doesnt make any gestures

      • has no social interaction

      • loss of speech and communication skills.

      • Has abnormal body posture or facial expression.

    2. Some Common Mistakes

      Sometimes children are misdiagnosed and put under the category of autism, while the real problem can be an underlying medical problem.

      • Some children have medical conditions and autism, while others have medical conditions and no autism.

      • Some children have learning disabilities and autism, while others have only learning issues that looks like autism.

      • Some children are inattentive and cant focus on testing.

      • Some children have processing issues and cant respond in enough time to be evaluated at all.

    C .GROWTH STUDY

    About 1 in 59 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to estimates from CDCs

    Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network which earlier was 1-2 in 1000 children.

    2004-

    06

    2006-

    08

    2008-

    10

    2010-

    12

    2012-

    14

    2014-

    16

    2016-

    18

    2018

    onwards

    1 in 166

    1 in 150

    1 in 125

    1 in 110

    1 in 88

    1 in 68

    1 in 59

    1 in 59

  2. TECHNOLOGY IN AUTISM

At the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), is where the idea for this Special Issue on Autism and Technology was born. Technology deals with human interactions and provides techniques to help control and organise their lives. It is shown that a human provides a more grasped attention with passion to the graphic image interaction rather than inhuman interaction, based on which technology is now a days used which shows effective treatment and enhances the lives of people with ASD and their families and interaction between them.

  1. Examples

    Technology examples such as the use of the Internet, online communities, robotics, assistive and prompting devices, computer-aided instruction, video modelling, video/DVD instruction, virtual reality, voice output communication

    devices, bio-sensing, telecommunication, computer-training (affect, social cognition, language), and computer-play. Computer-assisted instruction has also shown advantages over personal instruction for some individuals with ASD.

  2. Details

    1. Communication

      There are apps and many built-in features of these devices that can help support individuals with autism at all levels and abilities. Apps can be installed in the iPad or mobile phones.

    2. Visual schedules

      Visual schedules on tablets can be a great tool. For example, a visual schedule for a daily routine. These visual schedules can be very helpful in helping the child learn independent living skills.

    3. Decision-making

      Individuals with autism who have more difficulty communicating, can use technology regarding decisions making, which helps foster their decision-making skills that are so important while they grow. For example- Showing images of their daily works or needs or food at which they can point to and let us know what they actually need.

    4. Video modelling

      Video modelling is a method that involves teaching skills in a visual way. The video could be of the individual him or herself completing a task or assignment, or of a teacher,educator or parent teaching the skills and steps required. The child can watch these videos as often as he or she likes/needs to help learn important skills.

    5. Attention focussing.

      There are many built-in apps which has puzzles, counting number, matching patterns and so on which helps in the mental development of the child and helps in building logic. Hence making them smarter.

  3. Innovation in technology

    The App modification As it is known that children have a soft corner for animated pictures, a mic can be made up such that it can be connected to a software (similar to talking tom app) in which a list of question shows and when the child replies to it with the elderly guidance and the animated cartoon repeats in the childs original voice so the child can hear its own voice. This can boost their confidence as they interact with them more comfortably than the humanly figure.

    1. AI and Robotics

      A small human replica or a toy like machine could be built which has some properties such as clapping hands, shaking hands, saying greetings. And to all the above the autistic

      person can act accordingly trying to replicate the same. This can lead to the betterment in social interaction as the person might know how to ract on what.

    2. Family App

As the speech delayed person cannot speak, it is very important for them to know who are the people close to him. For which an app can be created in which pictures of the family members can be assigned and upon clicking on the picture the name of the person that the child is supposed to call will be spoken by the inbuilt voice. This might lead to a day when the child by himself/herself calls for the person needed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research was supported by different websites, blogs and magazines from which I was able to grab knowledge about autism and how technology can support people suffering with it. I would like to thank my college for giving me an opportunity and a platform to help me bring my research in reach to many people. I would also like to show my gratitude Neha Rathod, mother of a speech delayed autistic child for sharing her and the childs journey with me which provided me insight that greatly assisted the research.

CONCLUSIONS

The main aim to perform a research on Autism and finding a link with technology to it was that the IT industry is growing so fast and making place for it in all fields, Autism is a situation which can be bettered with the help of the advance technology. Hence technology can be used for the betterment of the mankind. With new ideas a change can, be brought in the lives of thousands of peoples hence there can be innovation.

REFERENCES

[1]. Asperger H. Die Autistischen Psychopathen im Kindesalter. Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkrankh. 1944;117:76136. doi: 10.1007/BF01837709. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [2]. American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. American Psychiatric Publishing; Arlington, VA, USA: 2013. pp. 853854. [Google Scholar] [3]. HealthDay, News for Healthier Living. [(accessed on 12 October 2019)]; Available

online: https://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health- information-26/autism-news-51/u-s-autism-rates-may-be- stabilizing-729825.html.

[4]. International Organization for Standardization. Ergonomics of Human System InteractionPart 210: Human-Centered Design for Interactive Systems. International Organization for Standardization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2018. [Google Scholar] [5]. Sematic Studios. [(accessed on 12 October 2019)]; Available online: http://semanticstudios.com/user_experience_design/.

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