- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 17
- Authors : Kamini Sharma
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV2IS03077
- Volume & Issue : ETRASCT – 2014 (Volume 2 – Issue 03)
- Published (First Online): 30-07-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Assessment of Ground Water Quality: with special reference to Saras Dairy Jodhpur- Rajasthan
Kamini sharma, Department of Chemistry,
Jodhpur Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jodhpur Rajasthan, India firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract – Ground water is a source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Due to lack of surface water resources ground water quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. Temporary variations are natural on part of assessment of seasonal changes in ground water quality. Extent of pollution occurred due to over exploitation of ground water and industrialization which involves industrial effluents a multi-productivity zone concerned to handicrafts and dyes near by Saras dairy area requires continuous monitoring and treatment process if it is being used for drinking purposes.
Ground water samples were collected seasonally in clean and dry plastic bottles from Saras dairy and were analyzed for colour, pH, TDS, total hardness and fluoride etc. Various physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods of testing&.
Industrial development (Either new or existing industry expansion) results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution.It is very essential and important to test the water before it is used for drinking, domestic, agricultural or industrial purpose.Water must be tested with different physico-chemical parameters. Selection of parameters for testing of water is solely dependent upon for what purpose we are going to use water and what extent we need its quality and purity. Water does contain different types of floating, dissolved, suspended and microbiological as well as bacteriological impurities.
Physico- Chemical Parameters
Some physical test should be performed for testing of its physical appearance such as color, odour, pH, temperature turbidity, TDS etc, while chemical tests should be performed for its BOD, COD,
dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, hardness and other characteristics.
Materials and Methods
Ground water samples were collected seasonally in clean and dry plastic bottles from Saras dairy and were analyzed for colour, pH, TDS, total hardness BOD and fluoride. Various physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods of testing&. All chemical used in the study were of AnalaR grade and were used as such.
The colour of ground water sample was colourless as per visual observation with all seasons.
It is established that water temperature controls the rate of all chemical reactions. In the present investigation value of temperature was from 24 oc to 28 oc with different seasons.
Measurement of temperature is an important parameter required to get an
idea of self purification capacity of river, reservoir and control of treatment plant. Water temperature is an important factor for calculating solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide, bicarbonates
and carbonates. Temperature of drinking water has an influence on its taste. During the summer, water temperature is higher because of decrease in water table, clear atmosphere and great solar radiation. While in rainy and winter season it can be explained on the basis of cloudy atmosphere, high percentage of humidity and high water levels.
pH is most important in determining the corrosive nature of water. Lower the pH value higher is the corrosive nature of water. Various factors bring about changes in the pH of water. The higher pH values observed suggests that carbon dioxide, carbonate-bicarbonate equilibrium is affected more due to change in physico-chemical condition In the present investigation value of pH was 7.2 to 8.3 The minimum pH value of
7.2 mg/l was found during winter season
and maximum of 8.3 mg/l in summer. The pH shows general decline from upstream to downstream. From the data collected it is concluded that the inverse relationship, which is known to exist between pH and CO2 , is not existing in the present investigation
It is measured by titrating a known volume of sample with standardized silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate solution in water using fluorescein solution in alcohol as indicator. In the present investigation value of Chloride ranges from 170mg/l – 280mg/l with different seasons.
Hardness ranged from 320mg/l to380mg/l
Biological oxygen demand
BOD ranges from 28mg/l to 62.4 mg/l.
Fluoride ranges from 0.2mg/lto0.4mg/l. It was analyzed by Orion4 star plus meter of thermo electron corporation.
Different analytical water quality parameters used for testing of quality of water and their source of occurance and potential health effects with USEPA guidelines
Parameter Source of occurrence Potential health effect
1Turbidity Soil run-off Higher level of turbidity are associated with disease causing bacterias
2 pH pH is changed due to
different dissolved gases and solid affects mucous, bitter taste 3 Total hardness Presence of calcium (Ca2+) Poor lathering with soap and magnesium (Mg2+) ions deterioration of the quality of clothes
TDS Presence all dissolved salts Undesirable taste; gastro-intestinal irritat.
Chloride water additive used to control microbes disinfectant Eye/nose
irritation stomach discomfort increase corrosive character of water
Nitrate Run-off from fertilizer use effect on Infants below the age of six leaking from septic tanks, sewage; months Symptoms include shortness erosion of natural deposits of breath and blue-baby syndrome
Biochemical Oxygen Organic material contamination in water high BOD
demand decreases level of diss.O2
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