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Assessment of Ground Water Quality: with special reference to Saras Dairy Jodhpur- Rajasthan

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Assessment of Ground Water Quality: with special reference to Saras Dairy Jodhpur- Rajasthan

Kamini sharma, Department of Chemistry,

Jodhpur Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jodhpur Rajasthan, India kamini.sharma@jietjodhpur.com

Abstract – Ground water is a source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes. Due to lack of surface water resources ground water quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. Temporary variations are natural on part of assessment of seasonal changes in ground water quality. Extent of pollution occurred due to over exploitation of ground water and industrialization which involves industrial effluents a multi-productivity zone concerned to handicrafts and dyes near by Saras dairy area requires continuous monitoring and treatment process if it is being used for drinking purposes.

Ground water samples were collected seasonally in clean and dry plastic bottles from Saras dairy and were analyzed for colour, pH, TDS, total hardness and fluoride etc. Various physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods of testing[1]&[2].

Introduction

Industrial development (Either new or existing industry expansion) results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution.It is very essential and important to test the water before it is used for drinking, domestic, agricultural or industrial purpose.Water must be tested with different physico-chemical parameters. Selection of parameters for testing of water is solely dependent upon for what purpose we are going to use water and what extent we need its quality and purity. Water does contain different types of floating, dissolved, suspended and microbiological as well as bacteriological impurities.

Physico- Chemical Parameters

Some physical test should be performed for testing of its physical appearance such as color, odour, pH, temperature turbidity, TDS etc, while chemical tests should be performed for its BOD, COD,

dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, hardness and other characteristics.

Materials and Methods

Ground water samples were collected seasonally in clean and dry plastic bottles from Saras dairy and were analyzed for colour, pH, TDS, total hardness BOD and fluoride. Various physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods of testing[1]&[2]. All chemical used in the study were of AnalaR grade and were used as such.

Colour

The colour of ground water sample was colourless as per visual observation with all seasons.

Temperature

It is established that water temperature controls the rate of all chemical reactions. In the present investigation value of temperature was from 24 oc to 28 oc with different seasons.

Measurement of temperature is an important parameter required to get an

idea of self purification capacity of river, reservoir and control of treatment plant. Water temperature is an important factor for calculating solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide, bicarbonates

and carbonates. Temperature of drinking water has an influence on its taste. During the summer, water temperature is higher because of decrease in water table, clear atmosphere and great solar radiation. While in rainy and winter season it can be explained on the basis of cloudy atmosphere, high percentage of humidity and high water levels.

pH

pH is most important in determining the corrosive nature of water. Lower the pH value higher is the corrosive nature of water. Various factors bring about changes in the pH of water. The higher pH values observed suggests that carbon dioxide, carbonate-bicarbonate equilibrium is affected more due to change in physico-chemical condition[4] In the present investigation value of pH was 7.2 to 8.3 The minimum pH value of

7.2 mg/l was found during winter season

and maximum of 8.3 mg/l in summer. The pH shows general decline from upstream to downstream. From the data collected it is concluded that the inverse relationship, which is known to exist between pH and CO2 , is not existing in the present investigation[3]

Chloride

It is measured by titrating a known volume of sample with standardized silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate solution in water using fluorescein solution in alcohol as indicator. In the present investigation value of Chloride ranges from 170mg/l – 280mg/l with different seasons.

Hardness

Hardness ranged from 320mg/l to380mg/l

Biological oxygen demand

BOD ranges from 28mg/l to 62.4 mg/l.

Fluoride

Fluoride ranges from 0.2mg/lto0.4mg/l. It was analyzed by Orion4 star plus meter of thermo electron corporation.

Different analytical water quality parameters used for testing of quality of water and their source of occurance and potential health effects with USEPA guidelines

Parameter Source of occurrence Potential health effect

1Turbidity Soil run-off Higher level of turbidity are associated with disease causing bacterias

2 pH pH is changed due to

different dissolved gases and solid affects mucous, bitter taste 3 Total hardness Presence of calcium (Ca2+) Poor lathering with soap and magnesium (Mg2+) ions deterioration of the quality of clothes

  1. TDS Presence all dissolved salts Undesirable taste; gastro-intestinal irritat.

  2. Chloride water additive used to control microbes disinfectant Eye/nose

    irritation stomach discomfort increase corrosive character of water

  3. Nitrate Run-off from fertilizer use effect on Infants below the age of six leaking from septic tanks, sewage; months Symptoms include shortness erosion of natural deposits of breath and blue-baby syndrome

  4. Biochemical Oxygen Organic material contamination in water high BOD

demand decreases level of diss.O2

References:

  1. APHA,19th Edition, American Public Health Association, Water Pollution Control federation New York

  2. WHO,2nd Edition, 1.Recommendation World Health Organization (1998)

  3. Sawane, A. P., Puranik, P. G., Bhate, A. M., (2006), Impact of industrial pollution on river Irai, district Chandrapur, with reference to fluctuation in CO2 and pH, Journal of Aquatic Biology, 21(1), pp 105-110.

  4. Karanth, K. R, (1987), Groundwater Assessment Development and Management Tata McGraw Hill publishing company Ltd., New Delhi, pp 725-726.

  5. Recent research in Science and Technology 2011,3(5):29-32.

  6. Thorat S.P and wagh S.B(1999):Jr.Industrial Poll.Cont.16(1);107-109.

  7. Trivadi,R.K and Goel,P.K(1984) chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies Env. Publication, pp.1-251

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