ACID VALUES OF SOME SEED OILS FROM ARID ZONE OF RAJASTHAN

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ACID VALUES OF SOME SEED OILS FROM ARID ZONE OF RAJASTHAN

Divya Sharma, B.Tech. I Year(EE),JIET-Coed, Jodhpur Dr. Akleshwar Mathur

Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Sciences, JIET-Coed, Jodhpur akleshwar.mathur@jietjodhpur.com

Pravesh Kachhawaha. I Year (IT),JIET-Coed, Jodhpur

Abstract The desert of Rajasthan is well known for specific phytochemicals in plants.Acid value is an important parameter for studying scope of oils in lubrication.In the course of our research acid values of some seed oils were determined.The AOCS and ASTM methods were used for analysis

Keywords acid values,seed oil,AOCS Methods.

I. INTRODUCTION

(A)What are lubricants?

Lubricants are the substances which are used to reduce wear and tear in the machinery. There are a substances used as lubricants such as lubricants including petroleum products, mineral oils, blend- ed oils, plant oils and animals fats.

  1. Parameters of Lubricants

    To identify the quality, use and need of the lubricant for its current need or future aspects there are many aspects. Some of which are listed below

    1. Viscosity And Viscosity Index-The property of a fluid to resist its own cause of motion is called its viscosity. The rate of change of viscosity with tem- perature is expressed by an arbitrary scale known as viscosity index. A lubricant which shows little change in viscosity with temp. or having high

      V.I. is preferred.

    2. Flash And Fire Point-It is the lowest temper- ature at which the vapors of oil ignite for a mo- ment when a small flame is brought near it while fire point is the minimum temperature at which the vapors of oil burn simultaneously for 5

      seconds. A good lubricant should not volatilize and if it does its vapors should not catch fire under the working temperatures. Hence a lubricant should have high flash and fire points.

    3. Cloud And Pour Point-The temperature at which a liquid becomes hazy in appearance is known as cloud point whereas the temperature at which a liquid ceases to flow is known as pour point. A good lubricant should not freeze under low tem- perature conditions. Therefore a lubricant having low cloud and pour point is preferred.

    4. Emulsification and Steam Emulsification Number(SEN) -The process of forming emulsions is known as emulsification. Emulsions are the combination of two immiscible liquid. To form a mixture of such a pair, a third substance known as Emulsifier is added. For determining SEN steam is passed through a test tube containing 20 ml of oil till temperature rises to 90C is noted and time is noted when oil and water separate out. This time in seconds is known as SEN. A good lubricant should have low SEN.

      Material and Method

      (A) Selection of Plants : List of selected plants are given in table 1.

      Botanical Name

      Family

      Moringa oleifera

      Moringaceae

      Ricinus Communis

      Euphorbiaceae

      Simmondisa Chinensis

      Buxaceae

    5. Precipitation Number-The precipitation number of an oil is a measure of the amount of solids classi- fied as asphalts or carbon residue contained in the oil. The number is reached when a known amount of oil is diluted with naphtha and the precipitate is separated by centrifuging-the volume of separated solids equals the precipitation number. This test de- tects the presence of foreign materials in used oils. An oil with a high precipitation number may cause trouble in an engine. It could leave deposits or plug up valves and pumps.

  1. Defination of Acid value The acid value is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide nec- cessery to neutralize the free acids in 1 gram of sample. With samples that contain virtually no free acids other than fatty acids, the acid value may be directly converted by means of a suitable factor to percent free fatty acids.

  2. Scope of Determination of Acid Value – This value indicates the presence of free acids in a sample of oil/fat. For lubricating oils the acid value is deter- mined to check the amount of hydrolysed fats.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The acid values were found quite similar to the earlier re- ported values that of commomly used seed oils.These are summarized in table-2

CONCLUSION AND SCOPE

The seed oils of M.oleifera is classified as non-drying oil. It has been reported as food grade cooking oil as well as indus- trial oil. It can be recommended for large scale cultivation for beneficial exploitation.The seed oil of castor is non edible so may be a substitute of food oil used in industries.

Since these plants are commonly found in almost all parts of Rajasthan and requires less care, hence its cultivation on large scale for industrial applications has more advantages. Source of multi purpose phytochemicals including the seed oil also. Again, since the oil contains is high so applications in industrial, domestic and medicinal areas should be given attention by researchers.

TABLE-2ACID VALUES OF SEED- OIL

SEED OIL SAMPLE

ACID VALUE

1

180

2

98

3

196

Acknowledgment

Author is thankful to Dr.A.M.Khan, Asst.Dean, Department of Applied Seinces, JIET,Jodhpur for encouragement and to Di- rector CDRI Lucknow for Spectroscopic Analysis.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Indian Desert, Bhandari M.M., MPS Reports(1990)

  2. Flora of Rajasthan, BSI volume 1 (1991) [3]Wikipedia. search

  1. The Horseradish Tree-Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae)- A Boon to Arid Lands, Morton J.F. Economic Botany, 45, 318-333. (1991)

  2. The Wealth of India-A dictionary of Indian Raw Material and Industrial Product,NISC,CSIR volume 6,L-M.(1962)

  3. Local Communications.

  4. Drum stick (Moringa)-A multi purpose Indian vegetable. Ramchandram c., Peter K.V. and Gopalkrishan P.K. Economic Botany,34,276-283.(1980)

  5. Offical and Tentative Method of Americal Oil Chemists Society,3rd Edition(1978)

  6. Chemical Examination of Wild Plant Seed oils from Arid Land of Rajasthan. Devra A., Mathur A.,Sindal R.S. and Sherwani M.R.K., oriented Journal of Chemistry, Volume 21(2),295-298(2005)

  7. The Potential of Moringa oleifera for Agricultural and Industrial uses.Foidl N., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K. oct 20th-Nov 2nd,Dar Es Salaam.(2001)

  8. Possible Role of Moringa oleifera root in epithelial ovarian cancer.Chinmoy Bose K., Journal List, Med. General Volume 9 (1),2007 [12]Characterization of Moringa Oilefera seed oil Variety Priyakulam-1 Stavros Lalas and John Tsaknis Journal of food Compostion and Analysis- ELSEVIER Vol 15, issue-1, 65-77(2002)

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