An Experimental Study on Physical Properties of Clayey Soil by Using Destructive and Non Destructive Tests

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An Experimental Study on Physical Properties of Clayey Soil by Using Destructive and Non Destructive Tests

Vasanth S.D1 , Vinay.A2 ,

PG Student1,Assistant professor4, Department of Civil Engineering,

Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,1,2,4 Bengaluru ,Karnataka,India.

    1. Pradeep Kumar3, Shubhalakhsmi B S4, Head of the Department3, Assistant Professor4,

      Department of Civil Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru National College of Engineering,

      Shivamogga,Karnataka,India.

      Abstract: – Infrastructure projects such as highways, railways, water reservoirs, reclamation etc. requires earth material in very large quantity. In urban areas, borrow earth is not easily available which has to be hauled from a long distance Extensive laboratory field trials have been carried out by various researchers and have shown promising results for application of such expansive soil after stabilization with additives such as, lime, fly ash, GGBS etc. As fly ash is freely available, for projects in the vicinity of a Thermal Power Plants, it can be used for stabilization of expansive soils for various uses .Clayey soil is known for its high swell potential and low shear strength. In this paper, experimental investigations are done to know the effect of Fly Ash and Fly Ash and Lime in combination on clayey soil. The soil sample was collected from Holalkere taluk from Davangere District and additiondifferent percentages of FlyAsh (8%,10%,12%,14%,16%,18%,20%) was added and Fly Ash

      +Lime is added to find the variation in its Strength and the corresponding velocity of the soil specimens.Velocity of specimens is found by PUNDIT instrument. This method can provide fast and simple approach for determining characteristics of compacted stabilized soil. This is a non-destructive method can be used as an alternative to existing methods to analyze laboratory or field compacted soils.

      KeywordsFly Ash, Lime, Soil Stabilization, Ucc, PUNDIT, Velocity, Strength, California Bearing Ratio.

      1. INTRODUCTION:

Aim of this research is to stabilize the locally available Black Cotton soil in Holalkere Taluk of Davangere district. The stabilization is done for the following reasons.

Soil stabilisation is widely used in connection with road, pavement and foundation construction. It improves the engineering properties of the soil, e.g:

  • Strength – to increase the strength and bearing capacity,

  • Volume stability – to control the swell-shrink characteristics caused by moisture changes,

  • Durability – to increase the resistance to erosion, weathering or traffic loading.

  • To reduce the pavement thickness as well as cost. One method of improving the engineering properties of soil is by adding chemicals or other materials to improve the existing soil. This technique is generally cost effective: for example, the cost, transportation, and processing of a stabilizing agent or additive such as soil cement or lime to treat an in-place soil

material will probably be more economical than importing aggregate for the same thickness of base course.

Additives can be mechanical, meaning that upon addition to the parent soil their own load-bearing properties and the engineering characteristics of the parent soil. Additives can also be chemical, meaning that the additive reacts with or changes the chemical properties of the soil, thereby upgrading its engineering properties. Placing the wrong kind or wrong amount of additive or, improperly incorporating the additive into the soil can have devastating results on the success of the project.In this Project we have made use of Fly Ash obtained from Raichur Thermal Power Station from Shaktinagar,Raichur .

Clayey soils are important area of concern in case of soil subgrade of Highways and backfills of bridges , as there occurs a significant amount of swelling and shrinkage in the soil. Soil stabilization by mixing it with fly ash and lime in various composition and different combinations. The destructive and non destructive tests are conducted ,impact of compaction and variation of constituent components of the mix on velocity and strength is assessed and the following relations are obtained.

The main Objectives of the Study are :

  1. To find the optimum dosage of admixtures such as Fly Ash and Fly Ash and lime by means of strength assessement of test specimen.

  2. To find the variation of velocities of soil mixed with different admixture and its combination for a particular water content

  3. To find the strength of the optimum dosage of specimen using CBR.

  4. To find the relationship between Stess vs Strain

  5. To find the relationship between Velocity of wave and Curing period of the specimen.

  6. To find the relationship between Velocity of wave and replaced percentage of admixture.

    1. MATERIALS:

        1. Clayey (Black Cotton) Soil:

          In this experimental study Black Cotton soil is used which is obtained from Holalkere taluk ,near Davangere

          district.of Karnataka State.It is seived to 425 microns and used in mould that are further used in the destructive and Non destructive tests.

          Table 1:Physical Properties of Black Cotton Soil

          Sl

          no

          Property / Parameter

          For BC Soil

          1

          Specific Gravity

          2.22

          2

          Atterbergs limits

          Liquid limit %

          36.53

          Plastic limit

          26.78

          3

          Plasticity index

          9.75

          4

          Soil classification

          Silty Clay

          5

          Compaction Characteristics

          Max. dry density( kN/m3)

          1.77

          Optimum Moisture content (OMC)%

          14

        2. FLY ASH :

          Fly Ash used in the study is obtained from the Raichur Thermal power Station,Shaktinagar, Raichur. Class F is used in the study. Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash", is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates fine particles of fuel that are driven out of coal- fired boilers together with the flue gases. but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock strata.Class F fly ash is used in this study.

          Figure 2 : Lime used in the experiment along with fly ash as a stabilizing Agent .

    2. .PREPARATION OF SAMPLES :

      The samples meant for Unconfined Compression Test are prepared by addition of admixture such as only Fly Ash and combination of Fly Ash +Lime (70:30) ratio .Percentage of admixture is varied for every two percentage from 8% to 20%.The samples are tested on respective curing periods.

      Samples Plan for Each Admixture

      Percentage of

      0

      1

      3

      7

      14

      21

      28

      admixture

      DAY

      DAY

      DAY

      DAY

      DAY

      DAY

      DAY

      8%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      10%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      12%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      14%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      16%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      18%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      20%

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      3

      Table 2 : Number of ucs samples to be mould for different specified percentages of admixtures and curing periods.

      Figure 1: Fly Ash used as stabilizing Agent :

        1. LIME :

          Hydrated lime is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or hydrated ) It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders lime, slack lime or pickling lime.Here it is used in combination with the Fly ash to compare with the increase in strength between the admixtures.

          3.1 METHODS USED :

          3.1.1 UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST : The test was conducted as per IS2720 (Part 10)-1991 to find the Shear Strength of the Clayey Soil. Various percentage of Clay constituent components like Clay , fly ash and lime are calculated in terms of weight are calculated. A dry homogenous mix is prepared by mixing clay and respective admixture for particular combination of water is added for consistency.

          Mould meant for Unconfined Compression test is filled in three layers by using soil, and compacted by using compaction instrument .The Mould is placed in the dissicator for the specified number of days according to the decided age of testing such that its moisture content is retained.The specimen are tested .

          Table 3: Weights of Components of specimen for Fly Ash as admixture

          Percentage

          of

          Clay

          Fly

          Admixture

          (g)

          Ash(g)

          Lime(g)

          8%

          552

          33.6

          14.4

          10%

          540

          42

          18

          12%

          528

          50.4

          21.6

          14%

          516

          58.8

          25.2

          16%

          504

          67.2

          28.8

          18%

          492

          75.6

          32.4

          20%

          480

          84

          36

          Table 4: Weights of Components of specimen for Fly Ash +Lime as admixture

          Weights of the Constituent Components

          Percentage

          of

          Admixture

          Clay(g)

          Fly Ash(g)

          8%

          552

          48

          10%

          540

          60

          12%

          528

          72

          14%

          516

          84

          16%

          504

          96

          18%

          492

          108

          20%

          480

          120

      1. PORTABLE ULTRASONIC NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING INSTRUMENT (PUNDIT):

      A pulse of ultrasonic (> 20 kHz) longitudinal stress waves is introduced into one surface of a concrete member by a transducer coupled to the surface with a coupling gel or grease.

      The pulse travels through the concrete and is received by a similar transducer coupled on the opposite surface .The transit time of the pulse is determined by the instrument

      .The distance between the transducers is divided by the transit time to obtain the pulse velocity. The distance between the transducers is divided by the transit time to obtain the pulse velocity.

      Figure 3:Ultrasound Non Destructive Testing Machine

          1. California Beatring Ratio Test (Unsoaked Condition): The California Bearing Ratio Method is used to find the CBR value of the Plain Soil sample and the Soil Sample prepared by addition of optimum amount of admixture in it accoding to the IS2720-part 16-1987.

            Figure 5: California Bearing Ratio Testing Machine

    3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION :

        1. SEIVE ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLE

          Table 5:Dry sieve analysis of soil sample

          SL

          no.

          Sieve Size (mm)

          weight retained

          on each sieve (g)

          %

          Retained

          Cumulative % Retained

          %

          Finer

          1

          4.75

          0

          0

          0

          100

          2

          2.36

          58.27

          11.65

          11.65

          88.35

          3

          1.18

          143.15

          28.63

          40.68

          59.72

          4

          0.6

          40.29

          8.05

          48.33

          51.67

          5

          0.425

          110.2

          22.04

          70.37

          28.63

          6

          0.3

          28

          5.6

          75.97

          24.03

          7

          0.15

          74.09

          14.8

          90.77

          9.23

          8

          0.075

          31

          6.2

          96.97

          3.03

          9

          PAN

          15

          3

          99.97

          0.03

          Sieve analysis From graph, D10= 0.1578 mm D30=0.4279 mm D60=1.1915 mm

                • Coefficient of uniformity = D60/ D10 = 7.550

                • Coefficient of curvature= D302/(D10 * D60) = 0.9738

          K= C * D102

          Table 7: Load and Deformation values for Plain with admixture

          100

          Sieve Analysis

          80

          % FINER

          60 h e 1 0

          40

          20

          W

          er

          ,

          C

          =

          0

          K=

          2.

          49

          0

          0.01 0.1 PARTICLE SIZE 1 10

          Figure 4 : Seive Analysis representing percentage finer and particle size

        2. California Bearing Test :

          It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard circular piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding penetration of a standard material.

          In this test it is observed that the after addition of admixture the Strength of the Black Cotton Soil is improved by significant amount.The Load (KN) vs Penetration (mm) graph is plotted which shows as the load increased deformation also increases.Load at 2.5 mm and 5 mm penetration are significantly used.

          DEFORMATION

          (mm)

          LOAD (kN)

          0

          0

          0.5

          19.024

          1

          23.78

          1.5

          28.563

          2

          30.941

          2.5

          35.67

          3

          40.426

          3.5

          42.804

          4

          48.371

          4.5

          49.938

          5

          54.694

          7.5

          70.151

          10

          83.23

          12.5

          84.12

          Table 6 :Load and deformation values for plain soil sample

          X1/1370 * 100

          = 2.60

          X2/2055 * 100

          = 2.66

          DEFORMATION

          LOAD

          0

          0

          0.5

          15.67

          1

          23.398

          1.5

          28.749

          2

          29.938

          2.5

          33.505

          3

          34.099

          3.5

          34.694

          4

          35.883

          4.5

          39.45

          5

          40.044

          7.5

          45.395

          10

          47.178

          12.5

          51.934

          k=21.19 Mpa/m

          60

          Load vs Deformation

          50

          40

          30

          20

          10

          0

          0

          5

          10

          15

          Figure 6: Load vs Deformation graph for Plain Soil Soil + Admixture

          Figure 7: Load vs Deformation curve for Black Cotton Soil+Admixture

          k= 38.816 Mpa/m

        3. PUNDIT

          1. VELOCITY VS CURING PERIOD AND

          2. VELOCITY VS PERCENTAGE OF ADMIXTURE

      As the curing period of the specimen increases the velocity is observed to be increased.But the rate of increase in the velocity is more pronounced in the initial curng periods later the rate of increase in velocity with curing period decreses.More the velocity and more the strength .Untill optimum dosage of the admixture the velocity increases and later it decreases.

      Table 8:Variation of velocity with curing period

      0 DAY

      1 DAY

      3 DAY

      7 DAY

      14 DAY

      21 DAY

      28 DAY

      Percentage Replacement of FLY

      ASH(%age))

      Time (micro secods)

      Velocity ( m/s )

      Time (micro secods)2

      Velocity ( m/s )3

      Time (micro secods)4

      Velocity ( m/s )5

      Time (micro secods)6

      Velocity ( m/s )7

      Time (micro secods)8

      Velocity ( m/s )9

      Time (micro secods)10

      Velocity ( m/s )11

      Time (micro secods)12

      Velocity ( m/s )13

      8%

      165.5

      459.2145

      155

      490.3226

      141.2

      538.2436

      125

      608.0000

      125.6

      605.0955

      126.4

      601.2658

      127.4

      596.5463

      10%

      157.8

      481.6223

      146.8

      517.7112

      132.8

      572.2892

      115

      660.8696

      116.7

      651.2425

      115.8

      656.3040

      115.6

      657.4394

      12%

      148.6

      511.4401

      135.6

      560.4720

      116.8

      650.6849

      106.8

      711.6105

      105.8

      718.3365

      106.2

      715.6309

      104.9

      724.4995

      14%

      142.3

      534.0829

      128.6

      590.9798

      113.6

      669.0141

      96.8

      785.1240

      95.4

      796.6457

      95.2

      798.3193

      102.3

      742.9130

      16%

      138.6

      548.3405

      120

      633.3333

      105.6

      719.6970

      97.6

      778.6885

      98.2

      773.9308

      97.2

      781.8930

      98.4

      772.3577

      18%

      142.6

      532.9593

      128.4

      591.9003

      110.3

      689.0299

      102.3

      742.9130

      103.5

      734.2995

      102.8

      739.2996

      103.2

      736.4341

      20%

      148.9

      510.4097

      133.9

      567.5878

      118.6

      640.8094

      105.3

      721.7474

      105.8

      718.3365

      105.2

      722.4335

      106.1

      716.3054

      Figure 8: Velocity vs Curing Period graph (Fly Ash)

      Figure 9 : Velocity vs Percentage of Admixture( Fly Ash )

      FLY ASH +LIME :

      Figure10: Velocity vs Percentage of Admixture( Fly Ash+Lime )

      Figure11: Velocity vs curing period( Fly Ash + Lime)

      Figure 12: Stress vs Strain graph for 14% optimum dosage is shown above for BC Soil +Fly Ash

      Table 8 : Velocity for different curing period ( Fly Ash + Lime)

      0 DAY

      1 DAY

      3 DAY

      7 DAY

      14 DAY

      21 DAY

      28 DAY

      Percent age Replace ment of FLY ASH

      +LIME

      (%age))

      Tim e (mic ro seco

      ds)

      Velo city (

      m/s )

      Time (mic ro seco

      ds)2

      Velo city ( m/s

      )3

      Time (mic ro seco

      ds)4

      Velo city ( m/s

      )5

      Time (mic ro seco

      ds)6

      Velo city

      ( m/s

      )7

      Time (mic ro seco

      ds)8

      Velo city ( m/s

      )9

      Time (micr o secod

      s)10

      Velo city ( m/s

      )11

      Time (micr o secod

      s)12

      Velo city ( m/s

      )13

      8

      127.

      4

      596.5

      463

      115

      660.8

      696

      108.9

      697.8

      880

      102.3

      742.

      9

      103.2

      736.4

      341

      104.3

      728.6

      673

      105.2

      722.4

      335

      10

      119.

      6

      635.4

      515

      108.3

      701.7

      544

      101.3

      750.2

      468

      96.5

      787.

      6

      95.3

      797.4

      816

      96.4

      788.3

      817

      94.8

      801.6

      878

      12

      110.

      1

      690.2

      816

      101.4

      749.5

      069

      98.4

      772.3

      577

      92.1

      825.

      2

      93.1

      816.3

      265

      92.8

      818.9

      655

      91.9

      826.9

      859

      14

      105.

      2

      722.4

      335

      97.6

      778.6

      885

      92.3

      823.4

      020

      86.7

      876.

      6

      86.5

      878.6

      127

      85.7

      886.8

      145

      87.6

      867.5

      799

      16

      98.7

      770.0

      101

      92.3

      823.4

      020

      89.2

      852.0

      179

      83.1

      914.

      6

      83.3

      912.3

      649

      82.9

      916.7

      672

      82.5

      921.2

      121

      18

      102.

      3

      742.9

      130

      99.7

      762.2

      869

      93.5

      812.8

      342

      87.2

      871.

      6

      86.2

      881.6

      705

      86.4

      879.6

      296

      86.4

      879.6

      296

      20

      108.

      9

      697.8

      880

      105.6

      719.6

      970

      94.2

      806.7

      941

      92.3

      823.

      4

      91.9

      826.9

      859

      92.6

      820.7

      343

      93.5

      812.8

      342

      Figure 13 ; Stress vs Strain graph for BC Soil+Fly Ash+Lime for its optimum dosage of 16% of admixture replaced.

    4. CONCLUSIONS:

The Main Objective of the study is to increase the stability of the Clayey Soil and establish relationship between descructive and Non Destrucitve Test .

Based on the experiments conducted , the following observationis are made :

  1. The various admixtures such as Fly Ash and lime could be used for B C Soil significantly increases the Geotechnical Properties of the Soil

  2. It has been observed that increase in High Solid Content increases the velocity and hence the strength upto optimum value.

  3. Strength and velocity increases with increase in percentage of admixture , reaches maximum at the optimum and then starts decreasing

  4. At the initial curing periods, the rate of increase in velocity is rapid and thereafter rate decreases

  5. The Strength of the soil is increased when the admixture is added when compared with soil without Admixture.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    The Authors express their thanks to the students for the help during the conduction of Laboratory work and analysis of data. The Authors also express thanks to the Principal of the College and Head of the Department of Civil Engineering for the College.

  6. REFERENCES

  1. Sara Rios,Nuno Cristelo, António Viana da Fonseca and Cristiana Ferreira (2017) entitled Stiffness Behavior of Soil Stabilized with Alkali-Activated Fly Ash from Small to Large Strains DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000783.© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  2. Nilo Cesar Consoli, Rubén Alejandro Quinonez Samaniego and Néstor Masamune Kanazawa Villalba(2016) entitled Durability, Strength, and Stiffness of Dispersive ClayLime Blends DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000722. © American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. Sas W,Szymaski A and Gabry K(2013) entitled The behaviour of natural cohesive soils under dynamic excitations Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

  4. G. Kibria1 and M. S. Hossain(2012) entitled Investigation of Geotechnical Parameters Affecting Electrical Resistivity of Compacted Clays DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000722.

    © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  5. Gokhan Inci, Nazli Yesiller, and Takaaki Kagawa(2010)entitled Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Response of Compacted Clayey Soils. 36: 18041815

  6. T.G. Sitaram P. Anbazhagan(2006)entitled Evaluation of Low Strain Dynamic Properties using Geophysical Method: A Case Study J. Struct. Eng., 2007, 143(5): 04016223

  7. K k Chipkoit and M S Aggour(2005) entitled Dynamic Properties of Treated and untreated Cohesive Soils MD 20742- 3021, USA

  8. Nazli Yesiller . Gokhan Ind and Carol J. Miller(2012) entitled

    Ultrasonic Testing for Compacted Clayey Soils ISSN: 2248-9622

  9. Robert C. Reedy and Bridget R. Scanlon (2003) entited Soil Water Content Monitoring Using Electromagnetic Induction Journal apof Geotechnical and GeoEnvironmental Engineering,Volume 129

    .Issue 11,American Society of Civil Engineers.

  10. Jose M. Roesset (1998) entitled Nondestructive Dynamic Testing of Soils and Pavements Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, vol.1, No. 2 (1998).

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