Acetylene based Waste Water Purifier Plant to Generate Electricity


Call for Papers Engineering Research Journal June 2019

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Acetylene based Waste Water Purifier Plant to Generate Electricity

Acetylene based Waste Water Purifier Plant to Generate Electricity

Abhilash Kumar

VIII Sem., EEE Dept., B.E.

SIT, Valachil Mangalore, 574143

Akshay A Shetye

VIII Sem., EEE Dept., B.E.

SIT, Valachil Mangalore, 574143

Harshith K

Assistant professor, EEE Dept SIT, Valachil

Mangalore, 574143

Abstract This paper leads to the idea of using the waste water and utilize the water efficiently and effectively so that the water is reacted with chemicals to produce acetylene. Hence this acetylene is used in the internal combustion engine and electricity is produced such that it reduces the demand of the petroleum products that is going to be extinct in near future. It includes about the emissions of harmful gases that can be reduced by the use of acetylene instead of petroleum products. Various fuels have been tested on IC engines for their suitability as alternate fuels. Except few alcohols, CNG and LPG, not many fuels have been found to be matched with IC Engines requirements .Thus this project is an attempt for the use of an alternative resource such that it can prove to be useful for the peoples in near future. Hence to produce the acetylene the waste water is utilised and hence producing less pollutants and better waste water management and air pollution control solutions for greener future.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    One of the biggest concerns for our water-based resources in the future is the sustainability of the current and even future water resource allocation. As water becomes scarcer the importance of how it is managed grows vastly. Finding a balance between what is needed by humans and what is needed in the environment is an important step in the sustainability of water resources. Attempts to create sustainable freshwater systems have been seen on a national level in countries such as Australia, and such commitment to the environment could set a model for the rest of the world. Here we are utilizing the water with calcium carbide to produce acetylene to run the engine and to generate electricity the use of fossil fuel is increasing drastically due to its consumption in all consumer activities. The high utility of fossil fuel depleted its existence, degraded the environment and led to reduction in underground carbon resources. Hence the search for alternative fuels is paying attention for making, sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency and environmental preservation, has become highly pronounced now a days the world wide reduction of underground carbine resources can be substituted by the bio-fuels. The SI and CI engines are the major contributors of the GHG. The main researchers around the world are finding the alternate fuel that should have the least impact on the environmental degradation. Rudolf Diesel patented an engine design for used dual fuel system. The present

    fuel system involves the adaptation of Rudolf with diesel as a single fuel. The emission of COX is unavoidable in fuel combustion systems. An attempt has been made to develop a tri fuel system without additives in conventional C.I engines to achieve bio-fuel and to reduce emission of pollutants. The results are presented and discussed. [1]

  2. ABOUT ACETYLENE

Various industrial environments, acetylene generation are initiated in acetylene generators. These equipment are sold in various capacities from 8 m3 to over 200 m3 per hour. Calcium carbide is introduced from the top of the generator shell into the water. The chemical formula of this reaction can be expressed as:

CAC2 + 2 H2O C2H2 + CA (OH)2

This reaction should only be conducted under controlled conditions. The process unit should be equipped with pressure and temperature sensors, as well as non-return valves for safety purposes. [1]

Fig 1: Industrial use of acetylene

Acetylene is the colourless gas with garlic smell produced from the calcium carbide, which is obtained from calcium carbonate. Further the calcium carbonate is heated in lime kiln at about 825 degree Celsius which forms calcium oxides (lime) liberating. Calcium oxide is then heated in electric furnace with coke to produce calcium carbide finally calcium carbide is hydrolysed producing acetylene. As acetylene is highly combustible with high flame speed and fast energy release, it can be used as alternative fuel in IC engines. It has a very wide flammability range and minimum ignition energy required for ignition. Furthermore comparing with various other fuel properties,

acetylene proved good to be used in internal combustion engines. [1]

2.1. Total Emissions of Acetylene

The molecular weight of acetylene is 26 with two carbon atoms (C2H2) gas density = 0.068 lb/ft3 typically the Material and Safety Data sheet will provide this detail of information) while the molecular weight of CO2 is 44 with one carbon atom. Given that each mole of acetylene, under complete combustion, will create two moles of CO2 (i.e., each pound of acetylene combusted will produce 3.38 pounds of CO2 (2×44/26)). Use the following conversion calculations to derive an emission factor for acetylene:

IC engine is fed to alternator to produce electrical output. Hence this method of energy harvesting is cheaper and has lesser pollutants thus we can utilize water from STP plant for energy supply. This is a decentralized and simple method of electrical power generation and hence this method can be employed in domestic purpose for a standby power supply.

4. OVERVIEW OF PROJECT

    1. Step 1:

      Water is passed through many portion of purification elements like char coal, filter papers, sand and gravels such that all the impurities are blocked and hence we can obtain cleaner and fresh water at the other end and collect it for the reaction purposes [3]

      0 .068

      x 453.6 = 30.854

      1 22

      1

      1 22

      30.854

      1 22

      1

      26.04

      1 22 1.185 22

      =

      1 22

      1.185 22

      1 22

      2 2

      1 22

      2.370 2

      =

      1 22

      2.370 2

      1 22

      44.01

      1 2

    2. Step 2:

Fig 2: water filtration unit

=

104.304 2

104.304 2

1 22

1

The second step involves the production of acetylene gas through the Calcium Carbide reacting with water in the reaction tank.

CaC2+2H2O C2H2+Ca (OH)2

1 22

106

104.304 104. 2

=

1 22

Acetylene consumed (cubic feet) X Acetylene

4

emission factor (104.304 10

2 ) = Total

emissions (metric tons)

1 22

The result obtained from this calculation illustrates that the amount of CO2 emitted is fairly minimum and other emissions like NOx, SOx are highly negligible compared to CO2. Also the CO emission is less comparing to gasoline This indicates that acetylene can be relatively more environmental friendly than gasoline.[2]

3. METHODLOGY

There are multiple stages of energy conversion. In the first stage waste water is purified and stored. In the second stage the water used with proper proportion with calcium-carbide to produce acetylene and proper storage of acetylene is done. In the third stage this acetylene is used as fuel for internal combustion engine hence cotrolling the engine for regulated torque and speed output. This rotational output of

Fig 3: calcium carbide reaction chamber

The reaction tank constitutes two chambers:

  • In first (upper) chamber the water is kept.

  • In second (lower) chamber the calcium carbide is kept. The water from the first chamber is released in such away to proceed the reaction spontaneously. The water is passed through the control valve. In the second chamber the

calcium carbide is kept in desirable amount to react with water. Through second chamber a valve is connected to the storage tank where the gas produced during reaction is stored.

    1. Step 3

      In this step the acetylene gas is stored in the storage tank and the pressure is measured by the pressure gauge.In this step the produced gas is stored and is passed through the pipes. Here the gas is stored to avoid moisture and the gas stored in storage tank is provided pressure through pressure gauge so the gas is of high concentration.[3]

    2. Step 4

      The gas in passed in the pipes in a very Sophisticated manner and then pipe is joined in the carburettor fitted with the filter, this then filters the air and acetylene then the mixture is passed in the engine and combustion is made [4]

      Table 1: comparison of exhaust gas

      Gasoline(C8H14.96)

      Acetylene(C2H2)

      CO2

      0.0695

      CO2

      0.0804

      H2O

      0.1239

      H2O

      0.720

      CO

      0.0642

      CO

      0.058

      H2

      0.00124

      H2

      0.00836

      N2

      0.7410

      N2

      0.7586

      Table 2: comparison with other fuel Graph shows the thermal efficiency of air and acetylene under different compression ratio

    3. Stage 5

Physical and combustion properties of fuels

acetylene

hydrogen

Diesel

Fuel

C2H2

H2

C8-C20

Density kg/m3(at 1 atm

1.092

0.08

840

& 20oC)

Auto ignition temp (oC)

305

572

257

Stoichiometric air fuel

ratio, (kg/kg)

13.2

34.3

14.5

Flammability limits

(vol %)

2.5-81

4-74.5

0.6-5.5

Flammability limits

(equivalent ratio)

0.3-9.6

0.1-6.9

Lower calorific value

(kJ/kg)

48,225

1,20,000

42,500

Lower calorific value

(kJ/m3)

50,636

9600

Max deflagration speed

(m/sec)

1.5

3.5

0.3

Ignition energy (MJ)

0.019

0.02

Lower heating value of

stoichiometric mixture

3396

3399

2930

(kJ/kg)

Fig 4: air and gas intake

The engine is coupled to the electric generator such a way that it runs in a speed of 1500 rpm and hence we can generate electrical output of 1.5KW. [5]

Fig 5: engine connected to alternator

1

0.5

0

0

10

compression ratio

20

k=1.26

k=1.4

thermal efficiency

Fig 6: thermal efficiency v/s compression ratio

  1. Ozone Layer Depletion (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP))

    Despite playing a protective role in the stratosphere, at ground-level ozone is classified as a damaging trace gas. Photochemical ozone production in the troposphere, also known as summer smog, is suspected to damage vegetation and material. High concentrations of ozone are toxic to humans. Radiation from the sun and the presence of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons incur complex chemical

    reactions, producing aggressive reaction products, one of which is ozone. Nitrogen oxides alone do not cause high ozone concentration levels. Here are some of the comparisons of POPC between several compound.[6]

    Table 3: POPC compression of different compound

    VOC

    POCP

    Ethane,C2H6

    8.8

    Propane,C3H8

    18.3

    n-Buthane,n-C4H10

    36.3

    n-pentane,n-C5H12

    36.6

    2,2-Dimethyylpropane,C(CH3)4

    20.3

    n-Hexane,CH3(CH2)4CH3

    45.6

    n-Octane,CH3(CH2)6CH3

    40.1

    Ethylene,CH2-CH2

    100

    Propane, CH3CH-CH2

    105.4

    Trans-2-butane,CH3CH=CHCH3

    110.7

    Acetylene CH=CH

    9.9

    Formaldehyde, HCHO

    47.1

    Acetaldehyde, CH3CHO

    55

    Acetone, CH3COCH3

    7.5

    Butanone,C2H5COCH3

    35.3

    Methanol, CH3OH

    16.5

    Ethanol, C2H5OH

    39.7

    Benzene, C6H6

    20.3

    Toliene, C6H5CH3

    51

    1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene,

    108.2

    C6H3(CH3)3

    Table 4: Calorific values of different fuel gas in comparison with Acetylene

    Fuel Gas

    (kcal/kg)

    Gross Heating Values

    Net Heating Values

    Hydrogen

    33889

    28555

    Methane

    13284

    11946

    Ethane

    12400

    11350

    Ethylene

    12020

    11270

    Natural Gas – approximately

    12000

    11000

    Propane

    12030

    11080

    Propylene

    11700

    10940

    n-Butane

    11830

    10930

    Iso-Butane

    11810

    10900

    Butylene-1

    11580

    10830

    Acetylene

    11932

    11514

    LPG (average)

    11920

    10997

    1. APPLICATIONS:

      • A good replacement for gasoline and petrol.

      • It can be used in place of LPG directly with minor manipulation in engine.

      • As it emits CO2, so it is more eco-friendly thus its

        use can be beneficial in countries like India where

        in year 2050 fossil fuel will get depleted (shown by studies).[7]

    2. ADVANTAGES:

      • Emission is non-polluting as only carbon dioxide and water vapours are emitted.

      • Homogenous mixture is formed due to which complete combustion.

      • Better efficiency.

      • It is very cheap and available in abundance.

      • It uses same handling system which is used in CNG and LPG cylinders.

      • It has very low Photochemical Ozone creation Potential (POCP).

      • An engine operated on such a fuel can be interchangeably utilized for indoor and outdoor

      • Operations without environmental concerns

      • The need for a three-way catalytic converter or other EGR device is eliminated

      • Due to reduced operating temperatures, there are

        fewer tendencies for viscosity

      • Breakdown of engine lubricants and less component wear

      • Due to cleanliness of the combustion process, build-up of carbon- and sulphur

      • Compounds are eliminated thereby substantially extending the time intervals between routine maintenance.[8]

  1. RESULT:

    Complete combustion of acetylene occurs when oxygen gas in the surrounding air mixes completely and is present in the stoichiometric mole ratio to react completely with the amount of hydrocarbon. For acetylene, the mole ratio is five moles of oxygen per two moles of acetylene 2:5

    1 kg of calcium carbide produces 0.41 kg of acetylene and hence one gram of acetylene produces 48.2KJ of energy and 1.92KG of acetylene is used to produce 1.5 KWhr energy in our setup in the presence of atmospheric air.

  2. CONCLUSION:

    The main focus of this paper is on the waste water utilization in a appropriate way to generate the electricity and control the air pollution by reducing the emission of flue gasses.

    This paper includes the fact that acetylene can be a good fuel for the country where calcium carbonate are abundant in nature as it is very cheap.

  3. REFERENCE:

[1] V.M.S. Ashok, N.I. Khan, Experimental investigation on use of welding gas (Acetylene) on SI Engine. Proceedings of AER Conference, IIT, 2006.

[2] Ganesan V. Internal combustion engine. 3rd ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill Book Company; 2007.

[3] FABRICATION OF S.I. ENGINE TO USE ACETYLENE AS FUEL .SUYASH KAMAL, Volume- 3, Issue-4, April-2015.

[4] J. Wulff, W.Hulett, L. Sunggyu, Internal combustion system using acetylene fuel. United States Patent No 6076487.

[5] Chigier N (1981) "Energy, Combustion and Environment", McGraw Hill

[6] Prabin K. Sharma et al.: Use of Acetylene as an Alternative Fuel in IC Engine proceeding of Rentech Symposium Compendium,

Volume 1, March 2012

[7] T.Lakshmanan, G.Nagarajan(2009), Performance and Emission of Acetylene-aspirated diesel engine, Jordan journal of mechanical and industrial engineering,3

[8] S.Swami Nathan, J.M.Mallikarjuna, A.Ramesh(2010), Effect of charge temperature and exhaust gas re-circulation on combustion and emission characteristics of acetylene fuelled HCCI engine Fuel

,89,pp.515-521

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *