 Open Access
 Authors : Kashapogu Arun , G. Kishor
 Paper ID : IJERTV9IS090519
 Volume & Issue : Volume 09, Issue 09 (September 2020)
 Published (First Online): 06102020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
A High Output YSource Boost DC/DC Converter for Renewable Applications
Kashapogu Arun
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Pulla Reddy Engineering College Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
G. Kishor
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Abstract Boost Dc/Dc converter based on Ysource impedance network with high gain without and with closed loop control is analyzed in this paper which provides solutions to distributed generation applications. The analyzed converter consists of a Y source impedance network which has threewinding inductor tightly coupled for high voltage boosting which is indeed higher than the other classical impedance networks. Turns ratio and winding placement of this inductor can be designed to give the gain desired, while maintaining the duty ratio of switch smaller. Principle of operation is presented and analyzed by mathematical derivations and calculations. Analyzed converter is simulated using MATLAB and the results are in agreement with theoretical analysis and confirm the performance of analyzed converter.
Key Words: Dc/Dc converter, Ysource, impedance network, closed loop control, PI controller.

INTRODUCTION
Distributed Generation powered by renewable energy sources like solar and fuel cells etc., have been gradually recognized as the reliable way of providing premium power for meeting energy demand in future for a low cost. Realizing such a distributed grid however requires more demanding power electronic converters for enhancing the low source voltages to a predefined grid voltage.
Consider fuel cells as an example, their power densities are comparably high, which along with their low emission and quiet operation, make them attractive as distributed sources [1]. However, the output DC voltages are low usually, and vary widely.
Converters with high voltage gains are thus needed generally for tying fuel cells to the distributed grid. Their ranges of gain variation must even be wide for tracking the wide output voltage variations of fuel cells.
It is hence important to style high gain converters for these sources, whose gains should ideally nullify the source variations before a regulated voltage are often obtained for grid interfacing. The converters that are designed should also match with other requirements of the intended sources, which for solar and fuel cells, are to avoid negative currents flowing into them and limit ripple currents drawn from them [2]. The converter types can be DC/DC, AC/AC, AC/DC or DC/AC depending upon the system requirement. For DC/DC converters, conventional boost [3], pushpull [4], halfbridge [5], fullbridge [6] and those with numerous voltage multiplier
cells [7] have been tried for boosting low source voltages to a regulated DClink voltage between 200V and 600V depending upon the system requirements.
The amount of boosting voltage, demands the inclusion of high frequency transformers in the converter circuits, whose turns ratios are increased proportionally with the demanded gains in almost all cases. The resulting turns ratios and total number of turns might therefore be high if high gain and satisfactory coupling are to be ensured simultaneously [6][8]. Alternatively, cascaded or multilevel techniques can be introduced to the converters for raising their gains but the number of components and complexity involved will undoubtedly increase.
Another way is to use twowinding coupled inductors for boosting voltage, whose turns ratios can be kept low comparably even at high gain voltage. Converters which are implemented with coupled inductors therefore can have higher power densities, as compared to the earlier mentioned methods.
The coupled inductors are different from the high frequency transformers earlier mentioned since their magnetizing inductances are designed intentionally to be finite (ideally infinite for transformers). Based on this, a few magnetically coupled impedance networks have been found, whose origin dated back to the Zsource impedance network introduced in [9]. The Zsource network and its subsequent quasi [10] [11], embedded [12] [13] and series [14] variations use two inductors and two capacitors for voltage boosting. They have been demonstrated for DC/AC inverter [22], DC/DC converter [23], AC/AC converter [24] and AC/DC converter [25], but their gains are mentioned to be low. That has led to the development of the switchedinductor [15], tappedinductor [16], cascaded [17], Tsource [18], transZ
source [19], and TZsource [20] networks.
The latter three networks are considered different from the others since they use magnetically coupled inductors for boosting gain. They are also different from those pushpull and bridgebased converters mentioned above in the way that their gains are increased at a rate faster than the usual proportional relationship with turns ratios. Their turns ratios and total number of turns can therefore be comparably lesser, while retaining the necessary magnetic coupling at higher power density. It is hence the intention of this paper to
continue by analyzing a Ysource network implemented as a high boost DC/DC converter [21].
The resulted converter uses a threewinding coupled inductor for flexibly deciding on its gain, which is presently not matched by any related converters. The number of components used is also kept small to allow the converter to be implemented compactly without compromising its performance. Ysource boost DC/DC converter without closed loop consists some error in the transient state.
iin
Vin
VL
N1 N3
D1
N2
C1 VC1
To reduce this error closed loop controller is used. Results thus obtained are in match with theoretical analysis and confirm the performance expected from the converter.

YSOURCE IMPEDANCE NETWORK The YSource impedance network is shown in Fig.1
VL
Fig. 2 Ysource impedance network equivalent during shoot through circuit
(ii) When the switch is turned OFF, the diode D1 now conducts linking the source with the impedance network. The equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. 3.
VL
N1 N3
D1
N1 N3
iin N2
D1
iin
Vin
N2
C1 VC1
SW
LOAD Vo
Vin
C1 VC1
SW LOAD Vo
Fig. 1 YSource impedance network
It consists of an active switch SW, a passive diode D1, a
Fig. 3: YSource impedance network equivalent during nonshoot
through circuit
By applying KVL, we have,
– Vin VL VL VC1 0
N1
N2
N
N
capacitor C1 and a threewinding coupled inductor (N1, N2, N3)
for the high boost at a small duty ratio for switch SW. As the windings of the coupled inductor are connected directly to switch SW and diode D1, its coupling should be tight to ensure very small leakage inductances at its winding terminals. For
Vin VL N1 N2 VC1
1
N
N
Vin VC1 VL N1 N2
1
the Ysource inductor, three strings are wound to form three
VL (Vin VC1 N1
) N N
) N N
1 2
(2)
coupled windings inductor.
A. Circuit Analysis
Taking state space average of equations (1) and (2), we can get voltage across capacitor C1,
(i) When the switch SW is turned ON, diode D1 is reverse biased, and replaced by an opencircui in series with source.
The equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. 2.
VL (dST) + VL (1 – dST) = 0
SW)
N1
(dST normalized ONtime of switch
N1
By applying KVL, we have,
VC1 * N3 N2 (dST ) + (Vin – VC1 )* N1 N2 (1 dST ) = 0
VL
VL
V * N1 (d ) + N1 (V – V * d – V + V *d ) = 0
VC1
0
C1 N3 N2 ST
N1 N2 in
in ST
C1 C1 ST
N1
N 2
N1
N3
N
N N
N
VC1 1 (dST ) – 1 + 1 * dST Vin (1 dST ) 1 = 0
N1
N3
N3 N2
N1 N2
N1 N2
N1 N2
VC1 N2 * VL N2 * VL 0
N1(N1 N2 ) N1(N3 – N2) N1
N1
VC1 dST
(N3 – N2 )(N1 N2 )
– N1 N2 + Vin (1 dST ) N1 N2 = 0
VC1 (N1) VL(N2 N3) 0
V V
N1
(1)
N 2 N * N ) N * N
– N * N ) N
N
L C1 N3 N2
VC1 dST 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 – 1 + Vin (1 dST ) 1 = 0
(N2 * N3 N1 * N3 – N 22 – N1 * N 2 ) N1 N 2
N1 N 2
N1
N1
N1(N1 N3 )
Vin (1 dST ) N1 N 2 = VC1 N1 N 2 – dST ( (N1 N 2 )(N3 N 2 )
Vin (1 dST ) (N1) = VC1 [N1 (1 dST (N1 + N3)]
Vo
1
Gv V
1 1 d
* K
(5)
Voltage across capacitor C , VC1 = Vin (1 dST )
(3)
in
ST
1 N3 N1
Gain of the YSource network is raised exponentially by
1 dST N3 N 2
We can find the peak output voltage Vo, from the nonshoot through circuit as shown below:
N
N
– Vin + VL + VL N3 + Vo = 0
1
increasing its winding factor K. Different total number of turns needed by the YSource network for producing a higher voltage gain is also realized in the Table I.
K = (+)
0 < dST <
dST,max
Gain, Gv
N1:N2:N3
2
0 < dST < 1/2
(12dST)1
1:1:3, 2:1:4,
1:2:5, 3:1:5,
4:1:6, 1:3:7
3
0 < dST < 1/3
(13dST)1
4:2:5, 3:1:3,
2:2:4, 1:3:5,
4:3:5,
K = (+)
0 < dST <
dST,max
Gain, Gv
N1:N2:N3
2
0 < dST < 1/2
(12dST)1
1:1:3, 2:1:4,
1:2:5, 3:1:5,
4:1:6, 1:3:7
3
0 < dST < 1/3
(13dST)1
4:2:5, 3:1:3,
2:2:4, 1:3:5,
4:3:5,
TABLE I: Gain Of YSource Impedance Network For Different Winding Factor K And Turns Ratio (N :N :N )
1 2 3
V V N3 + V
in L 1
N1 o
Substituting equation (2) here, we get,
N1 N3
Vin = Vo + (Vin – VC1) N1 N2 1 N1
N1 N1 N3
Vin = Vo + (Vin – VC1) N1 N2 N1
N N
N N
Vin = Vo + (Vin – VC1) N1 N3
1 2
N1 N3 N1 N3
One can extend up to K=10 for different turns ratio
(N1:N2:N3) which obtain different gains.
Vin = Vo + Vin N1 N2 – VC1 N1 N2
Substituting equation (3) here, we get,

YSOURCE BOOST DC/DC CONVERTER
For its high boost ability, the Ysource impedance network is suitable for implementing high gain converters like the high boost DC/DC converter.
N1 N3 Vin (1 dST ) N1 N3
Vin = Vo + Vin N1 N2 –
N N
N1 N2
1 dST 3 1
N3 N2
VL
N1 N3
N1 N3 (1 dST ) N1 N3
Vin = Vo + Vin N1 N 2 –
N N
N1 N 2
D1 D2
1 dST 3 1
N3 N2 N2
N N
(1 d
)
SW
Vin
V
Vin = Vo + Vin 1 3 1 ST
RLOAD o
N1 N2
N3 N1
C1 C2
1 dST N3 N2
N N
N N
N1 N3 (1 dST )
Vo = Vin 1 N1 N 2 1
N N
Fig. 4 YSource Boost Dc/Dc Converter
1 d
ST 3 1
3 2

Principle of Operation
N 2 N1
The Ysource boost DC/DC converter is as shown in
dST
Fig. 4, where only one controllable switch is used. In addition
N1 N3 N3 N 2
to the basic Ysource impedance network shown in Fig. 1,
Vo = Vin 1 N N
1
2
1 d
ST N3 N1
N N
N N
3 2
there is an extra diode D2 and capacitor C2 across load. Now,
when the switch SW is turned on, diodes D1 and D2 will
N3 N1
reversebias simultaneously. Then C1 to charge the
dST N N
magnetizing inductance of the coupled inductor, and C2 to
1
1
V = V
3 2
o in
N N
power the load. Turning SW off, on the other hand, causes D1
1 dST 3 1
N3 N 2
to conduct, and the input source to recharge C1. The input
source, together with the coupled inductor, also supplies
energy to recharge C2 and power the load, but only if the
Peak output voltage, Vo = Vin 1
voltage Vo across capacitor C2 is lower than voltage across
1 N N
N N
N N
1 dST 3 1
3 2
switch SW. Then D2 conducts, hence linking C2 and the load to the rest of the circuit.
1 dST * K
1 dST * K
Peak output voltage, Vo = Vin 1
(4)
The same is repeated when SW turns on again. By
N3 N1
1
periodically switching SW, the load voltage Vo across C2 can be regulated, which according to equation (5) represents a gain
Where K = N3 N2 , is a term introduced to represent the
of,
winding factor of the integrated magnetics.
Vo
1
Gain can be obtained from equation (4) as,
Gv Vin 1 1 dST * K
This is the maximum gain that the Ysource network can provide.

Expected Operating Waveforms
Based on the operating principle described above, Fig. 5
VC1
0(1 0.375)
5 3
1 0.375
shows some expected waveforms from the Ysource boost DC/DC converter in response to the applied gatesource
Vo
1
5 1
voltage V
to switch SW.
Gv Vin 1 1 dST * K = 4
GS
When SW is on from t0 to t1 (dST= (t1 t0)/TS), its drain Taking switching frequency, f = 12.6 KHz
source voltage VDS falls to zero, while its current IDS increases
From this time period, T
= 1/f = 1 = 79.365 S
to a finite value. That causes diodes D1 and D2 to become
S
12.6*1000
reversebiased, and their voltages VD1 and VD2 to increase.
We have
ton ton
The input current Iin, which is also same as the current ID1
dST ton toff TS
through D1, then collapses to zero during this interval.
When SW turns off at t1, VDS across it increases sharply, together with Iin = ID1 and ID2 through the two diodes D1 and D2. These currents, in turn, charge capacitors C1 and C2 with voltage across C2 increasing slightly above voltage across switch VSW at t2. When that happens, diode D2 stops
ON time period, ton = dST * Ts = 0.375 * 79.365 = 29.761875 S
And OFFtime period, toff = TS ton =79.365 29.761875 = 49.603125 S
From equation (3), we know that voltage across capacitor C1,
conducting with current across diode D2, ID2 returned to zero.
Since ID2 comes from the dc source, its reduction to zero also
VC1
Vin (1 dST )
=
=
causes Iin to drop. The converter remains in this state until SW

dST

dST
N3 N1
1 N3 N2
turns on again at t3 ( TS = t3 t0), causing the waveforms to
Substituting input
repeat the patterns. For Iin and ID2, it should be mentioned that their patterns can change depending on the charging time constant of C2. Longer charging time will increase the interval between t1 and t2, while a shorter charging time will reduce it. This variation however will not affect the maximum gain that is produced by the converter.
voltage Vin = 60V, dST = 0.375 and N1:N2:N3 = 3:1:5, we have,
60(0.625) VC1
60(0.625) VC1
1 0.375* 2
VC1 = 150 V.
VGS
(1dST)TS
Now from equation (1), we have,
N N
N N
t VL VC1 N1
3 2
VD1
Iin=ID1
VDS
V V 3
L C1
L C1
t 5 1
VL = 112.5 V
Therefore, voltage across inductor N1,
t VN1 = VL1 = VL = 112.5 V.
And voltage across inductor N2,
t N 2
1
VN2 = VL2 = VL * N = 112.5 * 3 = 37.5 V.
IDS
1
And voltage across inductor N
3,
t VN3 = VL3 = VL * N3
N
= 112.5 * 5 = 187.5 V.
3
VC1
VD2 ID2
1
We can similarly get inductance values as, L1 = 160.714 H
t L2 = 17.8571 H
L3 = 446.428 H
t Generalized mutual inductance with three windings matrix is given as,
t
t0 t1 t2 t3
TS
L11
[L] = L21
L31
L12 L22 L32
L13
L23
L33
Fig. 5 Expected output waveforms from the Ysource boost DC/DC
converter.


Design Parameters
160.714
[L] = 53.57
267.85
53.57
17.8571
89.285
267.85
89.285 * 1E6 H
446.428
YSource boost dc/dc converter is simulated using MATLAB for the turns ratio N1:N2:N3 = 3:1:5.
K = N3 N1 =2
N3 N2
The capacitance values are, C1=C2=470 F and the resistance is taken as load, RLOAD = 200 ohms.

Simulation Results
And let dST = 0.375 For this we get gain as,
The simulation results of Ysource boost dc/dc converter as follows:
Fig. 6 Input voltage Vin = 60 V
Fig. 6 shows input voltage of Vin = 60 V which is given to the YSource boost DC/DC converter shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 GateSource Voltage Vgs (V)
Fig.7 shows gatesource voltage Vgs (V) with a duty ratio of 37.5% which has switching frequency of fs=12.6 KHz (Time period, TS = 79.365 Sec).
Fig. 8 Voltage across Diode D1, VD1(V)
Fig. 9 Current through Diode D1, ID1 = Iin(A)
Fig. 10 DrainSource voltage of SW, Vds(V)
Fig. 11 DrainSource current of SW, Ids(A)
Fig. 12 Voltage across Diode D2, VD2(V)
Fig. 13 Current through Diode D2, ID2 (A)
Fig. 14 Voltage across Capacitor C2, VC1 (V)
Fig. 14 shows voltage across capacitor C1, VC1 (V) which is approximately 150 V which supplies the voltage to converter shown in Fig.. 4 when the switch SW is turned off.
Fig. 15 Output voltage across RLOAD, Vo (V)
Fig. 15 shows output voltage across RLOAD = 200 ohms, Vo (V) which is around 230 V for an input voltage of Vin = 60 V with a gain of Gv = 3.83
Fig. 16 Output current through RLOAD, Io (A)
Fig. 16 shows output current through RLOAD = 200 ohms, Io
(A) which is 1.18 A with an output voltage of Vo = 230 V which gives output power Po = Vo*Io=271.4 W
Fig. 17 Output ripple voltage across RLOAD, Vo (V) Fig. 17 shows output ripple voltage Vo(V) across RLOAD, with a maximum ripple voltage of 229.6 V and a minimum ripple voltage of 229.3 V
Normalizedvalueof ripplevoltage Maximumvalue Minimumvalue
Averagevalue
229.6 229.3
229.45
= 0.001307
These are some of the tables evaluated for different load resistance, duty ratio and line voltage values to analyze the operation of the converter which are shown in TABLES II, III and IV.
TABLE II: LOAD REGULATION (Vin= 60 V)
Resistance, R (ohm)
Output voltage, Vo (V)
Output current, Io (A)
Output power, Po=Vo*Io (W)
200
229.5
1.147
263.236
190
229.2
1.208
276.873
180
229.0
1.272
291.288
210
230.0
1.095
251.850
From the TABLE II, it is observed that, output power is increased when load value is decreased and the output power is decreased when the load is decreased by keeping input voltage (Vin= 60 V) constant.
TABLE III: DUTY RATIO REGULATION (Vin= 60 V)
Duty ratio, D
Output voltage, Vo (V)
Output current, Io (A)
37.5
229.5
1.147
40.0
282.0
1.410
42.5
363.0
1.815
45.0
492.5
2.465
47.5
650.0
3.250
From the TABLE III, it is observed that, with increase in duty ratio, both output voltage and output current are increased by keeping both input voltage (Vin= 60 V) and load (R = 200 Ohms) constant.
TABLE IV: LINE REGULATION (R= 200 ohms)
Input voltage, Vin (V)
Output voltage, Vo (V)
Output current, Io
(A)
Output power, Po=Vo
* Io (W)
60
229.5
1.147
263.23
70
268.5
1.345
361.13
50
190.5
0.953
181.54
From TABLE IV, it is observed that, when input voltage is increased by keeping load resistance constant, the output power is increased and when input voltage is decreased, the output power is decreased by keeping load (R = 200 Ohms) constant.
From Figs. 15 and 16 one can observe that output voltage and current waveforms takes some time in transient state to settle. To reduce this rise time and improve the performance of the converter, closed loop control (PI controller) method is implemented by trial and error and simulated using MATLAB.


CLOSED LOOP YSOURCE BOOST DC/DC CONVERTER USING PI CONTROLLER

Closed loop Ysource DC/DC converter using PI controller circuit diagram is as shown in Fig. 18:
VL
Now the results obtained for Ysource boost dc/dc converter using PI controller are as follows:
Fig. 20 Input voltage, Vin = 60 V.
Fig. 20 shows input voltage of Vin = 60 V which is given to the closed loop YSource boost DC/DC converter using PI controller shown in Fig. 18.
N1 N3
D1 D2
N2
Vin
SW
C1 C2
+
RLOAD Vo _
Vgs
PI CONTROLLER VO
Fig. 18 Closed loop Ysource boost dc/dc converter using PI controller
PI controller used is as shown in Fig. 19:
Fig. 21 Gatesource voltage of SW, Vgs(V)
Fig. 21 shows gatesource voltage of SW, Vgs(V) which is generated by using PI controller shown in Fig. 19.
Ref. voltage
+_
Vo
Kp
Ki 1/s
Integrator
+ _ > Vgs
Fig. 19 PI controller used in Fig.18
The output voltage which takes more time to settle and the required reference voltage both are implemented using PI controller to reduce the error. And the resultant signal is compared with repeating sequence to generate the required pulse signal. This generated pulse signal is given to the gate terminal of the switch SW. Here reference voltage is 240 V and proportional constant Kp=0.75 and integral constant Ki=110.
A. Simulation Results
Fig. 22 Voltage across diode D1, VD1(V)
Fig. 23 Current through diode D1, ID1 = Iin (A)
Fig. 24 Voltage across diode D2, VD2(V)
Fig. 25 Drainsource voltage of SW, Vds(V)
Fig. 26 Drainsource current of SW, Ids(A)
Fig. 27 Voltage across capacitor C1, VC1(V)
Fig. 27 shows voltage across capacitor C1, VC1(V) which is approximately 150 V which supplies voltage to the converter shown in Fig.18 when the switch SW is turned off.
Fig. 28 Output voltage across RLOAD, Vo(V)
Fig. 28 shows output voltage Vo(V) across RLOAD = 200 ohms, which is 240 V for an input voltage of Vin = 60 V with a gain of Gv = 4.
Fig. 29: Output current through RLOAD, Io(A)
Fig. 29 shows output current Io(A) through RLOAD = 200 ohms, which is 1.2 A with an output voltage Vo = 240 V which gives output power as Po = Vo*Io = 288 W.
Fig. 30 Output ripple voltage across RLOAD, Vo(V)
Fig. 30 shows output ripple voltage Vo(V) across RLOAD, with a maximum ripple voltage of 240.04 V and a minimum ripple voltage of 239.85 V
Normalized valueof ripple voltage Maximum value – Minimum value
Averagevalue
240.04 239.85
239.945
0.000791
By comparing the output voltage of Ysource boost dc/dc converter without and with closed loop control, one can observe that the spike obtained of output voltage in transient state is drastically reduced.
Similarly, for output current also the spike obtained of output current in transient state is improved.
And the ripples obtained in output voltage Ysource boost dc/dc converter without closed loop control are also reduced in output voltage by using closed loop control (PI controller).
V. CONCLUSION
A high gain DC/DC converter operating with a small switch duty ratio has been analyzed and simulated using MATLAB to validate the concept. The analyzed converter uses a Ysource impedance network consisting a three winding coupled inductor. Turns ratio and winding placement of this inductor can be designed in a way to get the gain desired, while maintaining the duty ratio of switch smaller. The converter is thus unique with more degrees of freedom for tuning the gain, when compared to the existing coupled inductorbased converters.
Therefore, boost dc/dc converter with highgain which is based on Ysource impedance network without and with closed loop control have been analyzed providing solution to high voltage gain applications, for example in distributed generation.
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