A Good Negotiation Process Leads to Success in Project Management

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A Good Negotiation Process Leads to Success in Project Management

Dharshini G Ma

AStudent, Department of Civil Engineering, Msruas , Bangalore , India

Sai Yashas G Mb

BStudent, Department Of Civil Engineering, Msrit ,Bangalore , India

Abstract: Many organisations face the problems such as not satisfied with the outcomes or not benefitted with the end result during negotiation because lack of negotiation skills and many people assume negotiation and selling are same and few organisations follow negotiation process which are less effective. Negotiation is processes where the involved parties get satisfied with the end results and it mutually benefit both the parties and organisations. The negotiator should have certain traits to follow negotiation process such as Power, confidence, self discipline, patience to win the offer. The negotiator should have proper information gathered regarding other sides organisation, competitors, offers etc. and complete information regarding counterparts. Additional qualities the negotiator should have is listening , questioning ability as the more questions he ask to other party

, the more information he can gather and he should notice every move of his counterpart. Before the beginning of negotiation process, the negotiator should plan and list down all the points and prepare himself before the negotiation process. The best alternative to negotiation process is BATNA and through this the one can decide the best alternative among all. Following all these rules during negotiation process leads to success in organisation or company or management.

Keywords: Negotiation, Power, Listening,plan , BATNA

INTRODUCTION:

Negotiation is defined as an interchange of offers, a back and forward conversation between dual parties in which each party will have to offer to other. Both the parties focus on their own interests and self serving. Negotiation is a cooperative approach in which both the parties work to gain mutual benefit or win win solution. Win win solution is an approach or process of take and give results in both the parties receive enough of what they wanted to be satisfied.

No two negotiations are similar, as the negotiation depends from organisations to organisations, person to person etc. and it also depends on the skills and interests of the persons or organisations involved. Negotiation is a critical component at every level in management, organisation or department. It can occur between indoor or outdoor, it can either happen between managers and team members, between individuals on team, between departments, organisations and it also occur between parents and children, spouses etc. It is an opportunity to present ourselves in our life as well as business.

Sometimes negotiation does not happen in a situation in which it could have been. This happens because the participants lack proper skills about negotiating or may be parties dont have trust or comfortable in each other both of

the participants dont perceive that a negotiated agreement is an option. There are no specific rules for negotiation, and that one of the partys counterpart might have different goals, values and limitations than the other. Planning plays a vital role in negotiation process, no one can predict the end result, outcome, what will counterpart tells or does. A toolbox of options and opportunities will be provided if good planning and research are made when offers arise. Negotiation builds and preserves value for organization or counterpart. A good negotiator creates an agreement in which such value can be preserved considering all aspects of value and strives to maximize them for all parties.Negotiation is conducted to create new or different configuaration , neither widen nor breach the relationship.

NEGOTIATION OUTCOMES:

Negotiation not just establishes need and solution fit, but uncovers where the potential value is hidden, which enhances the value of exchange of goods or services or ideas. It clearly defines the solution and its parameters as they relate to each party. The impacts which are noticeable and can have direct impacts on business or a family should be included in the agreements and this agreements include important decisions that has to be negotiated. Such as the purchase of new house, furniture etc. During negotiation , the decision has to be chosen wisely to get best possible outcome or without the negotiation , agreement should be better than the outcome.The four possible outcomes are: Win win outcome: The main goal of this negotiation is that both the parties should be satisfied with their results or outcomes. This process makes both the parties feel that they have got fair share of the bargain. In this approach, both the parties will be mutually benefitted. The win win approach involves both the parties and satisfies both by giving them what they have hoped and this approach makes sure that the parties should not feel that they have lost .

Win lose outcome: In this approach, one party gets greater share than the others in a negotiation that assumes there is a single item or single set of items that are the subject of the negotiation. Few negotiators will have a singular goal of gaining a greater share. The parties which received less than their counterpart leave away from the negotiation. In this type of negotiation in which the agreement is apparent as a pastry to be divided.

Lose lose outcome: generally, win lose scenarios are short lived as they typically turn to lose lose scenarios longer term. In this approach , the party which lost the negotiation does not will to do business with the counterpart again neither the party recommends him or

her. The party which lost during negotiation thinks to destroy the other party by spreading negative messages or posts on social media.. In this approach, none of the parties are happy or satisfied with their results and they walk away from the negotiation with disappointment.

No outcome: In this approach, both the parties decide to end the negotiation without an agreement. Both the parties walk away unresolved and either do not pursue an agreement at all. Or seek an alternative supplier. In this approach, a negotiator might choose a positional approach such as bargaining, haggling, bartering or trading.

PRINCIPLED APPROACH:

The goal in moral negotiation is not to get a greater share of the gain than your counterpart, to beat your counterpart, or to take away any power or control from your counterpart. The goal is to build an arrangement in which all parties feel as if they have gone away with a good deal. And they have got it all, maybe even more than they wanted. Some of these are done and they can happily do business again together. Will participant holds the objective of getting what he or she wants in this negotiation strategy but also aims to ensure that the negotiating counterpart always gets what he or she wants.

Behaviours of successful negotiators

Negotiators should have certain behaviours to be followed that enable them to maintain power, progress on trust and interests in order to create high value agreements. The ability to control emotions represent these (mentioned below) features will strengthen the position and enhance power in a negotiation. The most common features of negotiators are as follows:

Confidence: The very first feature negotiator should have is confidence. Confidence is the outward presentation of understanding of the issue at hand of the negotiator. The negotiator should be trained and qualified to deal with it and take a stance on the needs and conditons to meet his / her organization's standards. A strong negotiator should always be calm without reticence to his / her position. He should not be disturbed by any strategies and continue to concentrate on organizational objectives. These negotiators are advantageous because hence they remain calm and silent, making an offer is easy.

Patience: Patience is an important trait of a successful negotiator. Before the timing is best ,great negotiators don't rush to agreement. And, to identify the best time to act, they utilize their knowledge and information resources. Successful negotiators often know that peers and their organisations are also frustrated do not go at the same pace as their own organisations. And, the rushing stuff makes them lose control. Patience also helps the negotiator to be quiet while waiting for a partner to respond to a suggestion or a bid. Professional negotiators make use of their own inherent curiosity. They assume nothing, and through research and questioning they seek profundity of understanding. Curious negotiators learn about their counterparts' background, market position, human resources, product and service selection, and a wide variety of other knowledge products, as well as the structure of

their counterparts. Whatever such negotiators said and offered is always clear. Something is unclear, they are asking for clarification, not just for clarity, but for understanding and motivation on the situation. If your counterpart says something, or makes an offer that seems to be incongruent with the goals, is too good to be true, or in some way outlandish, you may wonder why they did so. This is the time to raise more and more questions to counterpart until and unless its understood what are they offering.

Self discipline: Self-discipline refers to the ability you and your counterpart to separate emotions from behaviour. You don't have to be just another person. But you need to be aware of the signals you send through emotional expression and body language that can be read and interpreted by your counterpart. You need to be in control of what signals you want to send using your own emotional expression. A self-disciplined negotiator also makes use of timing to its advantage. This negotiator takes careful consideration of when to disclose certain pieces of information. When to Grant a Point. When to put in a bid. Self-discipline also allows the negotiator to remain focused on the subject and the point of value at hand, not to revert to selling when power seems to be slipping and not to be side-lined by individuals interests. This trait also allows the negotiator to keep the proposal from progressing too fast, and without careful consideration, and to counter proposals. Be aware of what your gut tells you, and take the necessary time to make carefully considered decisions. Don't feel rushed to make decisions in hurry. The willingness to listen without intent is another form of self- discipline. Most people are challenged to listen deeply to their counterparts without primarily listening for a break in the conversation in order to insert their point. A self- disciplined negotiator only listens to hear and think about what the counterpart is saying. And, once the counterpart stops talking, not to make a specific point. Also, self- disciplined negotiators hold their position, and are not worn out by the tactics their counterparts use.

Analytical reasoning: Analytical reasoning is something that comes to us with greater ease than others. A successful negotiator must be able to make fast mental comparisons that are important to consider what's being suggested and compare it to what's gone before, or what you've been talking about. Bearing in mind the numbers beforehand as part of your preparations will help this tremendously.

Creativity: When we think about the trait of imagination a little bit of being relaxed with being uncomfortable comes into play. In order to work through a wide variety of options and potential combinations, creativity and comfort with a fair amount of ambiguity about the result are required, at least in the early stages .In the case of a deadlock, creativity comes into play as well, or significant changes in the negotiation parameters.

Assertiveness: Great negotiators are forceful, but not aggressive. A negotiator who is well prepared with a well- constructed strategy and who strives to implement it proactively will gain considerable power and control in the negotiation process. This is assertiveness, and is

demonstrated by being firm and authoritative, yet respectful and polite, maybe even kind. Assertiveness is achieved by being confident, without being patronizing or arrogant, explaining your position. And, so that your counterpart doesn't feel compelled to respond with defines or counter-arguments to your proposal. Persistence is also related to assertiveness. A successful negotiator knows that a partner often allows a topic to be dropped out of a desire to prevent a debate, but does not allow the issue to be forgotten. In addition, persistence may manifest itself in terms of revisiting a point in the past that has received a negative response. An assertive negotiator knows that no really doesn't mean no. And, that further information and discussion could change a no to a yes. Therefore, if it is relevant, a persistent and assertive negotiator will bring up the topic again and there is reason to believe that the counterpart might have changed its position.

TRAITS OF SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATOR

The most common behaviours of successful negotiators are listening, questioning, empathizing and planning. The main quality a good negotiator should have is listening. An effective negotiator observes his counterpart so much such that what are his weakness, strength and motivation and they also focus on attending behaviour such as eye contact, nodding, smiling and reacting to the speaker demonstrating their engagement. The more the negotiator listens the more he will be able to question and he gains more questioning skills. With the help of questions , he gain more information of the counterparts regarding potential points of value to understand what holds the most and to understand point s=of view of their counterpart. Asking more questions and engaging in conversation build a good rapport with counterpart and asking high quality questions with a specific purpose will result in more productive dialogue. To ask proper and quality questions, one has to do proper research regarding organisation, annual report etc. if we have to deal with any company then we have to go their company profile and members of that company in LinkedIn or Google and has to note down if there are any changes has to be done in plans or structure or leadership, partnership agreements, product launches or discontinuations, major clients, office locations and major issues in their market or their client's markets.

Plan is most important for each determination to determine a goal. Before beginning of any interaction, questions should be carefully planned.

There are multiple types of questions, each with specific intent or purpose. There are two types of questions they are closed ended questions and open questions. Many negotiators begin with closed ended questions to initiate the conversation to gain concession or commitment or to confirm deal point. Open ended questions are categorised as information seeker, seeking to reveal or influence a persons perspective or attitude. Open ended questions are used to expand the scope of a conversation or deeper into particular aspect of the topic. In order to know information about the counterpart to evaluate the perspective behavioural style approach to a challenge or the own depth of knowledge on the topic.

TRAITS OF SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATOR

The most common behaviours of successful negotiators are listening, questioning, empathizing and planning. The main quality a good negotiator should have is listening. An effective negotiator obseres his counterpart so much such that what are his weakness, strength and motivation and they also focus on attending behaviour such as eye contact, nodding, smiling and reacting to the speaker demonstrating their engagement. The more the negotiator listens the more he will be able to question and he gains more questioning skills. With the help of questions , he gain more information of the counterparts regarding potential points of value to understand what holds the most and to understand point s=of view of their counterpart. Asking more questions and engaging in conversation build a good rapport with counterpart and asking high quality questions with a specific purpose will result in more productive dialogue. To ask proper and quality questions, one has to do proper research regarding organisation, annual report etc. if we have to deal with any company then we have to go their company profile and members of that company in LinkedIn or Google and has to note down if there are any changes has to be done in plans or structure or leadership, partnership agreements, product launches or discontinuations, major clients, office locations and major issues in their market or their client's markets.

Plan is most important for each determination to determine a goal. Before beginning of any interaction, questions should be carefully planned.

There are multiple types of questions, each with specific intent or purpose. There are two types of questions they are closed ended questions and open questions. Many negotiators begin with closed ended questions to initiate the conversation to gain concession or commitment or to confirm deal point. Open ended questions are categorised as information seeker, seeking to reveal or influence a persons perspective or attitude. Open ended questions are used to expand the scope of a conversation or deeper into particular aspect of the topic. In order to know information about the counterpart to evaluate the perspective behavioural style approach to a challenge or the own depth of knowledge on the topic.

There should be agenda for every meeting, where the meeting is over the phone or internet or in person and location of the meeting. Before starting with the meeting, it is important to gather information regarding counterparts organisation, his goals and information should be gathered through research. Developing trust with counterparts depends on the questions asked. To develop trust between counterparts it is important to keep eye on and concern on counterparts issues and challenges and understand how much value some of these issues represent to their organisation.

In the beginning of the negotiation process, it should start with broader scope questions and move to narrower type of questions as the conversation proceeds. After the question is asked, make sure to listen to counterparts answers and note down word to word. While listening to counterparts answers, observe hi or body language, facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, distractions and reactions.

By developing trust behaviour and high quality questions leads to empathy. The demonstration of empathy enhances conversations that explore new options and combinations of options. Empathy is not behaviour and it is thought as an important behaviour in negotiation. Developing a plan and following as per plan is the main role of the effective negotiator. Planning questions, locations, timings and agenda is important.

FACTOR THAT INFLUENCE HOW TO NEGOTIATE:

Power: There are various meanings for power, but in terms of negotiation. Power is the ability to influence a negotiation or the people involved in that negotiation. The more the power, we can have on timings, scope, and the style of the negotiation takes place. The power with respect to negotiation should have neither a negative or positive connotation. It can be easily misinterpreted and often underutilised in negotiations. One should believe that there is more power on your side than you see on the surface. These steps can be taken increase your power and reduce or minimize counterparts power. To make business or management or organisation proactive, power has to be knowledgeable about your counterparts position in terms of their current situation. One should be aware of to whom they going to be negotiating apart from organisation and department. These leads to gain lot of information and hence power also increases.

That organization provides the negotiator with some guidelines, some bottom lines and some timelines. The determine more power or to know ones power , more information has to be gathered about these guidelines.Self

  • confidence has to do a lot with effective preparation.10 types of power are Position, Knowledge, Character, Rewards, Punishment, Gender, Powerlessness, Charisma, Lack of interest, Craziness. The power is built within and research done determines the power held by counterpart. The truth is that the power is almost equally distributed in most agreements, when you consider all the power sources on both sides. This is important in that the more power sources are balanced; the more likely it is that you will be able to conduct your negotiations in a principled or win- win style. When the balance of power benefits one spouse

    rather than the other, there is a propensity to focus on merely sharing and recognizing the current power and recognizing interest with one partner exercising his or her control over the other partner in order to achieve as much of this value as possible.

    Power needs to be used to be useful and it only works when the other party understands and accepts it. If the other side refuses to understand the force behind it, it does not exist for the purposes of negotiation. Whenever both the parties accept for negotiation, trust plays a vital role .when there is no trust between parties who apply for negotiation, it leads to win lose outcome and there are chances of not satisfied with end result.

    The best way to gain trust between both the parties is that taking the time in the beginning stages of the negotiation to take steps which build up trust between both the parties. The advantages of building trust between parties is that they will be mutually benefitted and obtains win win outcome and they will be satisfied with they will be end result. It may seem like a person of a higher rank with greater authority to authorize changes in price or part will be in a stronger position to negotiate. But this is not generally the case. That is because the individual with the larger negotiating ability often carries a greater risk. A high degree of empowerment will result in fast and less well- considered agreement where the full range variables are not assessed. It is where those in authority have restrictions on you May be a negotiator in your favour. Since you are much less likely to fall prey to the counterpart's unfavourable deals, or accept too quickly or easily. Quite often, individuals of a higher level give in or walk away faster to complete the process. A lower level person with a set of requirements and priorities may be in a better position to consider a wide variety of arrangements for the agreement. Negotiations between teams continue to provide greater defines. For the organisation, and by using the skills and constraints within the

    Team to the greatest benefit facilitates the creation of certain high value agreements.

    NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES

    Bottom line strategy: Many of the organisations use bottom line strategy. According to this strategy, one party gets highest price or lowest price than the other. This directive is provided to higher level person who has given negotiator the authority to accept the number within the range. This strategy empowers the negotiator and can protect against offering a price below cost or with unacceptable margins.

    Through, this strategy the process might end soon because it tempts the parties to agree too early. In moments of feeling underpowered or less powerful than the counterpart negotiator

    With a bottom line number it is much easier time resisting pressure and temptations. It can also be helpful if multiple parties negotiate for one side as well. When the organisation or department agrees or establishes a bottom line, it ensures that none of the person in the group tells

    lower number to other side or makes a separate agreement on their own.\

    Disadvantages of bottom line strategy

    Establishing a bottom line strategy focuses only on price and as a result, conversations of the points value are minimised or un-noticed. These can have an effect of limiting creativity as the additional points are unnoticed creatively engineered agreements that cannot be created with a collection of value points because they are likely to need to go below the bottom line.

    The other issue with the bottom line numbers is that either they are quite arbitrary or set too high. Generally speaking, an in-depth cost analysis, margin criteria, and market conditions are not the means of evaluating a bottom line figure. More often than not, it's a group of people that might have some of that, some of that knowledge that provides their opinion about what they actually want to get for their product or service, and not what a bundle may look like in whole. Since they look at things from the point of view of what they want, and nothing else. The number is always set too high and the discussion about more choices is deterred.

    BATNA strategy: It is the best alternative to bottom line strategy.BATNA refers to best alternative to a negotiated agreement. Time in negotiation is often considered to be time between the end of selling of the product or service. However in many managements and organisations have deadlines associated with timings of product or service? The term negotiation is longer process and it begins before the sale in the form of gathering information , trust building etc. after the final agreement also, negotiation begins in the form of long term , building high value relationships and sustained though effective follow through on negotiation and the actions taken. Continuing negotiation after the agreement increases the quality future negotiated agreements.

    When determining the timings of the negotiation, making the first offer or finalising the agreement, there will be number of factors which affect negotiation are market conditions, the season, changes in the law, launches of new products, withdrawal of the problem. A great negotiator must be patient and must wait for the timings to be in his or her favour. Nevertheless, it is often true that a swift settlement is often in the best interests of all parties. It may be that competitive pressure might be greater later on, or an organization has an opportunity to fill a gap left by a competitor's error. In such cases, it may be wise to quickly finalize the agreement, recognizing that it may not be the best deal possible. But worth the risk to get a deal with a valuable client. Making good decisions includes knowledge about control, authority, timing, and trust. Take the time to gather information about your counterpart, its organization, its market conditions, and the place of the organization in the market. And their current vendors will significantly increase the bargaining power. Information should be about current suppliers of the organisation, relationships between their clients, mission of the company and the method of implementing it and also internal costs and significant

    and they enter a negotiation meeting with lowest or highest possible price number. They also have zero goals, no information about additional options to add to their agreement or no information about what their counterparts position. A negotiator without any goals leads to less power. Other than getting best deal possible, one should have set of goals while entering a negotiation meeting.

    In order to avoid all these problems, one should enter the negotiation meeting with framework agreement. Framework agreement is a written document that details the goals of negotiation. The agreement should include smart goal components, final price. By including all these requirements, it will be easy to evaluate results and will be able to measure final agreement against framework agreement. All the goals written in document must be realistic and achievable. This framework agreement should include all the variables and options that want to go. The purpose of this agreement is to have own goals and to achieve it. Changes have to make in framework agreement, when the negotiations proceed and these changes has be done if there is necessary.

    and they enter a negotiation meeting with lowest or highest possible price number. They also have zero goals, no information about additional options to add to their agreement or no information about what their counterparts position. A negotiator without any goals leads to less power. Other than getting best deal possible, one should have set of goals while entering a negotiation meeting.

    In order to avoid all these problems, one should enter the negotiation meeting with framework agreement. Framework agreement is a written document that details the goals of negotiation. The agreement should include smart goal components, final price. By including all these requirements, it will be easy to evaluate results and will be able to measure final agreement against framework agreement. All the goals written in document must be realistic and achievable. This framework agreement should include all the variables and options that want to go. The purpose of this agreement is to have own goals and to achieve it. Changes have to make in framework agreement, when the negotiations proceed and these changes has be done if there is necessary.

    changes, issues of The location of the negotiation itself can have an impact on the progress of the negotiation. In the case of live negotiations, the holding of the negotiations at the site of your own organization is generally considered as a position of power. However, if you think there is a chance that the discussion might not

    take on a collaborative tone or you might need to take a stand when you leave, then you're better off being at own location. Whenever the organisation or management is preparing for negotiation, make sure that power, authority, empowerment, trust, information, time, location plays an important role.

    NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Preparation, planning and implementation

    Planning plays a vital role during negotiation. It is important to plan each iteration carefully and planning the questions to ask, and to plan answers to counterpart questions and ideas and proposals etc. it is also important that research regarding counterpart, organisation, their past agreements, competitors, market conditions etc. First order plays a crucial role and important things to keep in mind are information contained in first order and best timing to present tithe chances of getting first order are developing trust, creating understanding and asking questions designed to understand the full set of options available and which one held the greatest value of counterpart. When opening a first offer, it should contain all these information.

    There will be situations where time constraints will be there and cannot get enough time for information, in these situations simultaneously balance the information gathering with keeping the process going and keeping counterpart engaged. It is the first of your offerings. Hold that in mind when you describe your first offer because your counterpart will most often see it as your stake in the ground and weigh all that follows against that first offer. You may find that certain counterparts will evaluate the value of their win based on how far from the initial offer they can push you. Before making offers and making counteroffers, the best preparation for this first offer and future negotiations is to create a template of the best possible agreement in advance. The template can be created of eithera written agreement or an outline of any other type of agreement in framework agreement including all the variables and how the counterpart may want to be in the agreement. The framework agreement reflects the idea of the best outcome possible. Between the two lies the spectrum of potential agreements. Considering the big picture, it can be imagined how you want your agreement to be, including al variables and points and the points of interest in first order. One way to think about how high to go with the first bid is to decide an amount that you think is the highest number or value youd feel confident convincing a neutral party was a reasonable offer. It is because the first bid is the stake in the ground and is a set of options that is probably the most you can achieve.

    In most of the organisations, many negotiators wont have sufficient information regarding counterpart, organisation

    In most of the organisations, many negotiators wont have sufficient information regarding counterpart, organisation

    FRAMEWORK AGREEMENTS

    VALUE, FAIRNESS AND SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES

    A good negotiator job is to explore the related options and to add value to the central issue by identifying opportunities. There are many aspects to value other than price, such as delivery items, delivery time, packaging, turnaround time, volume limits, payment terms, renewal options, staffing considerations. Based on the requirement of the organisations, they will focus on one of the value. Every central issue has multiple correlated issues or options.

    The goal is to establish an arrangement where both parties have maximized the interest of both the central problem and the relevant variables. You need to determine what aspects of a potential agreement have the greatest value for your counterpart in order to do so.Information about every option in central value should be gathered and have to be checked how these options influence counterparts business or management. And to check changing one or few might add value to counterpart. This information helps to build trust and there are more chances to enhance the value of the agreement to counterpart.

    The important thing to remember is there's a lot more to value than price per unit.

    And that may not be as valuable to your counterpart as what has value to you, and vice versa.

    The essential concept is 'fairness,' the definition should always be different from that of the counterpart. Your fair idea probably will be different from your counterpart's. Your assessment of the other organisation's justice is focused on far less knowledge than your counterpart. You are therefore not in a position to judge what is fair to both sides, only to yours. It is up to your counterpart to judge and communicate to you what is fair to his or her organisation. The use of the fair in discussions helps to move the discussion toward values.

    The important variables in the contract negotiation sector are timing, cost and gratification.

    Success in negotiation should not be defined based on the money or the end result or shares etc. it depends on the negotiation and it will vary with each negotiation opportunity. It is evaluated based on the benefit and opportunity obtained by both the parties considering all possible parameters. When evaluating the result of negotiated agreement, the focus should be on details of the agreement and why are they beneficial or detrimental to each party. Quality points that is more important to your counterpart than to your own organisation. The bottom line is that you need to control your emotional responses and be intentional. Strong emotional expressions may imply an absence of self-control, a lack of transparency, and a lack of trust or faith in worthiness, anger, or weakness.Behavior and sudden changes of counterpart play an important role and it is possible to expect internal conflict and misrepresentation when the language of the body does not match words.

    Principled bargaining requires partnering with a partner to find several potential solutions to the problem. And to remain concentrated on the issue, and not the positions taken by any particular individual. This may sound very similar to a win-win style, or to a collaborative style, and similarities certainly exist. The major difference lies in purpose.

    BATNA and it will be easy to make decisions. When one feel that counterparts BATNA is better then, care should be taken not to share BATNA with counterparts.

    BEST PRACTICES

    The ultimate goal of negotiation is to maximize the benefit for both the parties. Negotiations based exclusively on providing a single option or unchangeable collection of options is supposed to end up losing as rough negotiation negotiations that are almost always won. Rather of battling over an unchanging pool of options, always search for new opportunities to add value to the agreement. To obtain quality negotiated agreement, the process of negotiation should begin with trust and there should be trust relationship between both the parties. With the help of trust relationship, it is easy to build connections, demonstrates competence, reliability, speaking accurately and honestly, providing support and assistance without seeking compensation and participating in substantive, transparent, and constructive discourse. It is preferable to develop trust with every negotiator before the negotiating process begins as no one will be aware of to whom the negotiating will end up. During negotiation, it is important to know information regarding counterpart such as style of interaction, body language, model good dialogue and questioning behaviour. While asking questions to counterpart, observe his moves, answering skills and reading counterparts mind regarding motivation etc. Always keeping eye on counterpart and listening what he or she says and observing the change in volume , tone or hesitation etc. always taking a note of counterpart telling and analysing what is said and what is not said.it is always preferred to talk less and listen more.

    The more we listen to counterpart, the more we learn about his or her expectations, position, requirements and values. Self discipline plays a vital role listening, asking and answering questions and presenting proposals and controlling responses. Whenever negotiating proposal , focus should be on increasing value but , not just distributing it.once the negotiation process starts and proposal is on the table , should always consider creative combinations to add value to options and focus should be always on interests but not positions. There are various interests who underlie a position and there are various ways to achieve the interests. It is always preferable to present reasons first whenever presenting an idea, suggestion and then proceed with proposal. The reason behind proposing reason first is counterpart will not pay attention if the proposal is declared first.

    BEST ALTERNATIVE TO NEGOTIATED AGREEMENT

    Negotiators should follow all the written steps in the agreement and make sure that he follows his or her plan well and changes can be done if negotiation proceeds. Negotiator would have assumed possible outcomes in his mind or written in documents. Many negotiators also think about worst case scenarios like what will happen if negotiation fails, even though they have list of possibilities in their head but they have not thought any of it to determine feasibility. Having a list of possible alternatives either written down or in your mind, but not sure which of this combination is used or preferred when no agreement is done? In order to provide solution for all of these, BATNA is preferred. The advantages of using BATNA is one can be less dangerous and it is more realistic and every proposal has to be compared against BATNA and make sure that BATNA is superior than all those proposal. In case, if BATNA is found to inferior than any other proposal then, one can leave negotiating and walk away. In determining BATNA, it should consider all the possibl alternatives and proper explanations should be given to possible alternatives and outcomes. To make this possible, the first step in this is one has to list (include all variables and alternatives) out all the possible alternatives, if agreement is not made. Second step is to identify most promising ideas and develop into practical alternatives that can be implemented. Third step is to evaluate the best possible realistic alternative and select. Once, the BATNA is created, one can judge every offer with all of its various options added against BATNA. Doing all these, one can easily break off a negotiation or to make changes if they are going in wrong direction and it also makes sure that one has more power. During information gathering, counterpart might reveal their

    BEST ALTERNATIVE TO NEGOTIATED AGREEMENT

    Negotiators should follow all the written steps in the agreement and make sure that he follows his or her plan well and changes can be done if negotiation proceeds. Negotiator would have assumed possible outcomes in his mind or written in documents. Many negotiators also think about worst case scenarios like what will happen if negotiation fails, even though they have list of possibilities in their head but they have not thought any of it to determine feasibility. Having a list of possible alternatives either written down or in your mind, but not sure which of this combination is used or preferred when no agreement is done? In order to provide solution for all of these, BATNA is preferred. The advantages of using BATNA is one can be less dangerous and it is more realistic and every proposal has to be compared against BATNA and make sure that BATNA is superior than all those proposal. In case, if BATNA is found to inferior than any other proposal then, one can leave negotiating and walk away. In determining BATNA, it should consider all the possible alternatives and proper explanations should be given to possible alternatives and outcomes. To make this possible, the first step in this is one has to list (include all variables and alternatives) out all the possible alternatives, if agreement is not made. Second step is to identify most promising ideas and develop into practical alternatives that can be implemented. Third step is to evaluate the best possible realistic alternative and select. Once, the BATNA is created, one can judge every offer with all of its various options added against BATNA. Doing all these, one can easily break off a negotiation or to make changes if they are going in wrong direction and it also makes sure that one has more power. During information gathering, counterpart might reveal their

    CONCLUSION:

    It is always better to have a clear and complete framework agreement along with a clear and detailed BATNA. Preparing each and every detail regarding counterparts organisation, market conditions, competition, delivery, support etc. planning question, BATNA, framework agreement should be considered before making any proposal.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We would like to thank Sue Robins , University of California , Irvine Extension for taking precious time and helping students in various courses.Coursera has given opportunity t many students to learn many courses from top institutions.

    REFERENCES

    1. Sue Robins(2020). The art of negotiation.Cambridge , Irvine extension

    2. Adair, W, Brett, & J. (2005). Thenegotiationdance:Time,culture,andbehavioral sequences in negotiation. OrganizationScience.

    3. Kern, M. C., Brett, M. J., Weingart, R. L., & Eck, S. C. (2020). The "fixed" pie perception and strategy in dyadic versus multiparty negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision processes, 143 – 158.

    4. Kray, L, & Haselhuhn. (2007). Implicit negotiation beliefs and performance:Experimental and longitunal evidence. Journal of personality and social phychology, 49-64.

    5. Pinkley, R, Griffith, T, Northcraft, & G. (1995). Fixed pie a la mode: Information availability,information processing , and the negotiation of sub-optimal greements. organisational behavior and human decision processes, 101-112.

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