A Case Study of Environmental Social Impact Assessment Methodology – Kajaki Hydropower Plant Project, Helmand, Afghanistan

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A Case Study of Environmental Social Impact Assessment Methodology – Kajaki Hydropower Plant Project, Helmand, Afghanistan

Hussain Etemadi

CEO, Omran Geotechnic Company, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Mohammad Amin Etemadi

Environmental expert, Omran Geotechnic Company, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Reza Khodadadi

Environmental expert, Omran Geotechnic Company, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Marzia Hussaini

Social Expert, Afghanistan Ministry Of Foreign Affairs, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Sathyanarayanan S Undergraduate, Govandi, Mumbai, India.

Abstract Construction activities in general have adverse effects on the surrounding environment. One of the efforts to keep the impact on the environment on check is Environmental Social Impact Assessment (ESIA). The most convincing definition of ESIA is a comprehensive document of a projects potential environmental, social risks and impacts (IFC 2012). This paper aims to delineate the process involved in assessing the impacts of one such construction, a construction of a powerhouse in Kajaki Dam, Afghanistan. This powerhouse was constructed next to pre-existing powerhouse which comprises of three units. Along with the construction of a powerhouse an emergency spillway was also constructed and the penstock (4.9- meter diameter) was installed from the existing concrete plug in the tunnel to the powerhouse. This paper aims to identify and assess the impacts and also provide the mitigation measures by providing Environmental and Social Management Systems (ESMS) which was involved in this construction activity.

KeywordsEnvironmental Impact Assessment, Social Impact Assessment, Environmental Social Management Systems.

INTRODUCTION

The Kajaki Dam was built in the 1950s by the American firm Morrison-Knudsen on contract with the then Afghanistans Royal Government. Two 16.52 megawatt (MW) hydroelectric turbines were installed by USAID in 1975, along with 110 volt (v) transmission lines and substations that distributed the generated energy to the region.The dams power station has space between the two existing turbines (One and Three) for a third turbine (Turbine Two), which was not installed before the US withdrew from Afghanistan in 1979 following the communist coup and subsequent Soviet military intervention. The Kajaki Dam is a 90-m high embankment dam with an uncontrolled open channel spillway, which was constructed on the Helmand River in Afghanistan in the early 1950s to provide river control and irrigation benefits Fig. 2.1. A 33 MW powerhouse was added to the project in 1975. An

additional 18.5 MW turbine was recently added to the existing powerhouse. Work on the planned service spillway radial gates, emergency spillway alternative, and raising the dam crest commenced during the late 1970s but construction activities ceased during the Soviet occupation and these facilities were never completed. Consequently, the reservoir has never been impounded to its design level of 1045 m.

The Kajaki Dam was built in the 1950s by the American firm Morrison-Knudsen on contract with the then Afghanistans Royal Government. Two 16.52 megawatt (MW) hydroelectric turbines were installed by USAID in 1975, along with 110 volt (v) transmission lines and substations that distributed the generated energy to the region. The dams power station has space between the two existing turbines (One and Three) for a third turbine (Turbine Two), which was not installed before the US withdrew from Afghanistan in 1979 following the communist coup and subsequent Soviet military intervention. The Kajaki Dam is a 90-m high embankment dam with an uncontrolled open channel spillway, which was constructed on the Helmand River in Afghanistan in the early 1950s to provide river control and irrigation benefits Fig. 2.1. A 33 MW powerhouse was added to the project in 1975. An additional

    1. MW turbine was recently added to the existing powerhouse. Work on the planned service spillway radial gates, emergency spillway alternative, and raising the dam crest commenced during the late 1970s but construction activities ceased during the Soviet occupation and these facilities were never completed. Consequently, the reservoir has never been impounded to its design level of 1045 m.

      FIGURE 2.1 SATELLITE IMAGE OF THE KAJAKI DAM

      Category B: Projects with potential less adverse environmental impacts on human surrounding environment. These impacts are site-specific; few if any of them are irreversible; and in most cases mitigation measures can be designed more readily than for Category A projects.

      Category C: A proposed project is classified as Category C if it is likely to have minimal or no adverse environmental impacts. Usually, ESIA investigation for these kinds of projects is very limited.

      Category FI: A proposed project is classified as Category FI if it involves investment of Bank funds through a financial intermediary, in subprojects that may result in adverse environmental impacts. Table 3.1 contains the risk summary of the Environmental and Social impacts of the project.

      FIGURE 2.2 PROJECT FOOTPRINT AREA

      Methodology:

      The key objectives of the ESIA are to assess the potential environmental and social impacts associated with the construction and operation of Kajaki Dam Phase I and to identify measures that can be adopted to avoid, minimize or offset adverse impacts and enhance beneficial impacts.

      With reference to the level of impacts of a project on its surrounding environment, the World Bank classifies a proposed project into four different categories as Category A, B, C and FI as follows :

      Category A: Projects with likely significant negative impacts those are sensitive, diverse or unprecedented. For this category, the borrower needs to develop a comprehensive and detailed ESIA.

      EVALUATION OF RISK

      Physio-Chemical Impacts

      Potential Impact Category: Water Quality

      Table 3.1 Risk Summary of Environmental and Social

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Receptor) Consequence Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Solid waste leading to waterlogging and blockage of drainage lines Minor Low Low
      Liquid waste and contaminated stormwater leading to pollution of soil, surface, and groundwater Minor Medium Low
      Solid and liquid waste mismanagement leading to the risk of disease transmission Moderate Medium Low
      Clearing and grubbing activities leading to soil erosion Minor Low Low

      Impacts

      Potential Impact Category: Air Quality

      Potential Impact (Outcome/ Receptor) Consequ ence Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Off-site (residential, institutional, educational) human health

      impacts from construction noise

      Minor Low Low
      Off-site (industrial, commercial) human health

      impacts from construction noise

      Minor Low Low
      General nuisance (non- health impact) from construction noise Low Low Low

       

      Potential Impact (Outcome/ Receptor)

      Consequen ce Level

      Impact Significance

      Impact Significance with Mitigation

      Human health impacts from combustion gas emissions and dust

      Minor

      Medium

      Medium

      Localized ambient air quality degradation

      Minor

      Medium

      Medium

      Regional ambient air quality degradation

      Minor

      Low

      Low

      Potential Impact (Outcome/ Receptor) Consequen ce Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Human health impacts from combustion gas emissions and dust Minor Medium Medium
      Localized ambient air quality degradation Minor Medium Medium
      Regional ambient air quality degradation Minor Low Low

       

      Potential Impact Category: Noise

      Potential Impact Category: Landscape and Visual

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Recept or) Consequence Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Short-term quality of life impacts from alteration of the existing landscape Low Low Low
      Long-term quality of life impacts from alteration of the existing landscape Minor Low Low

      Potential Impact Category: Downstream

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rece ptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Rapid fluctuations in downstream flow Moderate High Medium

      Potential Impact Category: Sedimentation

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rece ptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Massive earth moving within the river flood plains and sections of the adjoining riverbanks and lands Major Medium Medium
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Re ceptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significan ce Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Fish may encounter potential impacts from the proposed project activities. Major Likely High
      Impact on

      water flow

      and power generation

      Low low low
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Re ceptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significan ce Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Fish may encounter potential impacts from the proposed project activities. Major Likely High
      Impact on

      water flow

      and power generation

      Low low low

       

      Potential Impact Category: Climate Change

      Biological Impacts

      Potential Impact Category: Impacts on Flora and Fauna

      Potential Impact Category: Fish

      Socio-Economic Impacts

      Potential Impact Category: Transport Impacts

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequen ce Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Short-term destruction of habitats and displacement of fauna Low Low Low
      Long-term destruction of habitats and displacement of fauna Low Low Low
      Short-term destruction of flora Low Low Low
      Long-term destruction of flora Low Low Low
      Irreversible impacts to ecological systems or functions Low Medium Low
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Public health and safety impacts from vehicles moving at high speeds and accidents Moderate Likely Medium
      Vehicle noise impacts for the surrounding community and on-site workers Minor Likely Medium
      Human health impacts from vehicle exhaust and fugitive dust Minor Likely Medium
      Road congestion and nuisance issues for the surrounding community Low Likely Medium
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequen ce Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Short-term destruction of habitats and displacement of fauna Low Low Low
      Long-term destruction of habitats and displacement of fauna Low Low Low
      Short-term destruction of flora Low Low Low
      Long-term destruction of flora Low Low Low
      Irreversible impacts to ecological systems or functions Low Medium Low
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significance Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Public health and safety impacts from vehicles moving at high speeds and accidents Moderate Likely Medium
      Vehicle noise impacts for the surrounding community and on-site workers Minor Likely Medium
      Human health impacts from vehicle exhaust and fugitive dust Minor Likely Medium
      Road congestion and nuisance issues for the surrounding community Low Likely Medium
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Migrant labour force could disturb the privacy of the local population. High Likely High
      The influx and accommodati on of

      workforces will result in increased concerns for the safety of women and children.

      Minor Unlikely Low
      Due to the movement of vehicles elderly people, women and children will be more exposed to dangerous situations; Moderate Likely Low
      Potential burdens for

      the local population, especially for elderly people

      Moderate Likely Low
      Human health impacts from construction noise, vibration, and air pollution Minor Unlikely Low
      Human health impacts from improper management of solid and liquid wastes Minor Unlikely Low
      Human health and safety impacts from release or mismanageme nt of

      hazardous materials

      Moderate Unlikely Medium
      Safety risk associated with security breach and

      targeting by anti- government groups

      Major Unlikely Medium
      Vulnerable individuals and groups in the affected communities being differentially or disproportiona tely affected by the project because of their disadvantaged or vulnerable status Moderate Unlikely Medium
      Human health impacts from construction noise, vibration, and air pollution Minor Unlikely Low
      Human health impacts from improper management of solid and liquid wastes Minor Unlikely Low
      Human health and safety impacts from release or mismanageme nt of

      hazardous materials

      Moderate Unlikely Medium
      Safety risk associated with security breach and

      targeting by anti- government groups

      Major Unlikely Medium
      Vulnerable individuals and groups in the affected communities being differentially or disproportiona tely affected by the project because of their disadvantaged or vulnerable status Moderate Unlikely Medium

       

      Potential Impact Category: Labor Influx

      Potential Impact Category: Public Health and Safety Impacts

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Potential Impact (Outcome/Rec eptor) Consequenc e Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation

       

      Potential Impact Category: Employment Impacts

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Receptor) Conse quence Level Impact Significanc e Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Health and safety impacts from improper Moder ate Medium Low
      management of labor camps
      Adverse social and health-related impacts from the influx of outside workers Minor Unlikely Low
      Impacts/stress on local public service systems (health

      centers, food markets, etc.)

      Moder ate Very unlikely Low
      management of labor camps
      Adverse social and health-related impacts from the influx of outside workers Minor Unlikely Low
      Impacts/stress on local public service systems (health

      centers, food markets, etc.)

      Moder ate Very unlikely Low

       

      Environmental Issue Air Quality
      Impact Source Operation of heavy machinery and transport vehicles

      Overall construction activities

      Potential Impacts Air Quality Impacts
      Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Cover stockpiles and loads to avoid fugitive dust emissions

      Minimize idling of vehicles and operation of combustion machinery and equipment to the greatest extent possible

      Hard pack or spray access roads and driveway areas to reduce dust generation

      Place washed stone at site exit to minimize off-site tracking of soil and debris

      Generators and vehicles will be kept in good working order to minimize exhaust emissions

      Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water on soil, where required

      Environmental Code of Practice (ECP) 8 will be implemented

      Responsibility for

      Mitigation Implementation

      Site Management Team (Operator/contractor)
      Environmental Issue Air Quality
      Impact Source Operation of heavy machinery and transport vehicles

      Overall construction activities

      Potential Impacts Air Quality Impacts
      Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Cover stockpiles and loads to avoid fugitive dust emissions

      Minimize idling of vehicles and operation of combustion machinery and equipment to the greatest extent possible

      Hard pack or spray access roads and driveway areas to reduce dust generation

      Place washed stone at site exit to minimize off-site tracking of soil and debris

      Generators and vehicles will be kept in good working order to minimize exhaust emissions

      Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water on soil, where required

      Environmental Code of Practice (ECP) 8 will be implemented

      Responsibility for

      Mitigation Implementation

      Site Management Team (Operator/contractor)

       

      Table 4.1 ESMP for Construction phase:

      Potential Impact Category: Occupational Health and Safety Impacts

      Potential Impact (Outcome/Recept or) Conse quenc e Level Impact Significa nce Impact Significance with Mitigation
      Construction health and safety risks resulting in injury or death Major High Medium
      Construction health and safety risks resulting in impairment or long-term health issues Mode rate Medium Medium

      ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN:

      The objectives of this ESMP are to:

      • Collate and describe all mitigation measures and actions identified in the ESIA process to enhance positive benefits and to eliminate/reduce key environmental, socio economic and health impacts to acceptable levels
      • Identify and describe the monitoring required to ensure compliance with reporting commitments

The ESMP includes environmental and social requirements that are common to most construction projects, as well as specific environmental and social initiatives unique to this project. Table 4.1 contains the Environmental and Social Management plans which addresses the mitigation measures to counter the Impacts.

Environmental Issue Noise
Impact Source Overall construction activities
Potential Impacts Noise Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Set and enforce standard daytime working hours, recommended to be 06:00 to 21:00

Maintain equipment and use low noise equipment and methods where feasible

ECP 9 will be implemented.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
of any spill.

The bottom of any soak pit or septic tank shall be at least 10 m above the groundwater table. The distance may be reduced, based on soil properties, if that distance will not result in contamination of groundwater.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Soil Erosion
Impact Source
Potential Impacts Land clearing, excavation, tunnel boring, and other construction activities may loosen the top soil in the Project area resulting in loss of soil and possible acceleration of soil erosion and landslides, especially in the wet season.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Vegetation loss will be limited to the demarcated construction area;

Areas such as muck disposal area, batching plant, labor camp and quarry sites shall be covered with grass and shrubs after project completion.

Slope stabilization measures will be adopted, for example adequate vertical and horizontal drains, drainage along roadsides, cross drainage and retaining walls.

Slope movements will be monitored around excavation work areas.

Local species shall be selected for planting to restore the biodiversity of the area in consultation with local stakeholders.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Soil Quality
Impact Source
Potential Impacts Accidental release of solvents, oils and lubricants can potentially result in the contamination of soil and consequent deterioration of groundwater and surface water quality. Soil contamination may also reduce the soil fertility reducing suitability for agriculture.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Fuel tanks will be appropriately marked by content and will be stored in safe areas where storage capacity is 10% greater than the fuel tank. The area will be lined with an impervious base.

Grease traps will be installed on site, wherever needed, to prevent the flow of oily water.

Spill cleaning kit (shovels, plastic bags, absorbent materials) will be available near fuel and oil storage areas.

An emergency plan for spill management will be prepared, all staff will be trained in the plan for the case

Environmental Issue Groundwater Quality
Impact Source Wastewater Discharges

Fueling of heavy machinery and transport vehicles

Storage, handling and disposal of solid waste

Storage, handling and disposal of hazardous waste

Potential Impacts Water Quality and General Environmental

Impacts

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Recycle waste to the maximum extent, provide for the proper temporary staging and storage of waste and debris on-site, implement good housekeeping in work areas

Transport, or oversee the subcontract for transport, of non-recyclable waste to the municipally-approved disposal site and periodically verify delivery. Segregate domestic waste in appropriate receptacles and dispose at municipally-approved disposal site, manage sanitary waste systems in a manner protective of human and environmental health.

Minimize erosion, grade and replant disturbed areas.

Protect against accidental releases of hazardous materials through training, spill prevention measures, recycling and if necessary, timely cleanup and disposal.

Enforce Chance Find Procedures and cease work if historic/ archeological finds are encountered.

Design, construct, operate, and decommission the structural elements or components of the project in accordance with good international industry practice, taking into consideration safety risks to third parties or affected communities.

Environmental Code of Practice (ECP) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 will be implemented.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Biological Environment
Impact Source Land clearance Construction activities
Potential Impacts Impacts on Flora, Habitat loss, Noise disturbance

Increased exposure to atmospheric pollutants

Protected fish species

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Use fencing, flagging and site boundary controls during construction to minimize disturbance to off-site habitats;

ECP 10, 11, and 12 will be implemented.

Minimize removal of vegetation and replant disturbed areas using native plant species,

The security management plan is in place;

Traffic safety rules have been implemented in the scope of the HSE plan

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Traffic
Impact Source Transportation of construction equipment to Project site
Potential Impacts Transport Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Manage haulage routes to avoid sensitive establishments and use barriers as appropriate.

Maintain vehicles in good working condition.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team/Human Resource
Environmental Issue Traffic
Impact Source Transportation of construction equipment to Project site
Potential Impacts Transport Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Manage haulage routes to avoid sensitive establishments and use barriers as appropriate.

Maintain vehicles in good working condition.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Labour Influx
Impact Source Employment of international workers for the Project

Goods and services received from the locals

Potential Impacts Disturbance of Social Cohesion Indirect job opportunities Contribution

to the local businesses

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Alcohol and Drug Policy is in place Disciplinary Action Procedure is in place

Local procurement plan will be developed.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Local Employment
Impact Source Employment of Afghan nationals during the construction phase
Potential Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Follow a transparent hiring process to help the community understand strategic staffing decisions and avoid conflict over hiring with the local communities.

Develop a training and skills program to impart best practice when training local people for construction and operational jobs.

Encourage Contractors to provide apprenticeship opportunities to local people, encourage supply chain partners to recruit local people.

Establish a local job readiness program and encourage the construction supply chain to continue to invest in workers.

Establish a local employment brokerage that will publicize job vacancies and put in place initiatives to ensure employment opportunities for hard-to-reach groups.

ECP 13 will be implemented.

Environmental Issue Labour and Working Conditions
Impact Source Employment of multinational groups
Potential Impacts Employment Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Consult with local authorities on hiring local workers and enforce a transparent no-gatekeeping policy.

Manage construction work camps (if used) according to WB PS2 guidelines, processes and standards.

Provide workers with clear, understandable documentation explaining workers rights and refrain from harassment, intimidation, and exploitation. Enforce Human Resource policies specifically outlawing underage workers and forced labor.

Implement employee grievance policy for on-site workers as part of the workers rights program.

Ensure proper security protocols and staff are in place throughout construction to provide security and safeguard property.

ECP 13 will be implemented.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Landscape
Impact Source Construction activities and borrow area.
Potential Impacts Visual amenity
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Landscaping of the site when construction is complete. This will mitigate the visual impact and reduce soil erosion during heavy rains and flood periods. Soils excavated during construction (borrow material) may be used for landscaping if suitable.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Public Health and Safety
Impact Source Project site
Potential Impacts Public Health and Safety Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce hazards associated with project-related vehicular traffic. Project drivers will be trained on defensive driving. Vehicle speeds near/within the communities will be kept low, to avoid hazards and dust emissions.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Borrow Area and Borrow Materials
Impact Source Borrow Site
Potential Impacts Soil Erosion
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Reduce the volume of material requiring disposal as far as possible. Remaining material will be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner Disposal sites will be properly filled, shaped and reworked and where feasible planted with trees. Borrow material should be obtained (as much as possible) from licensed quarries and borrow areas. Where necessary, appropriate restoration of the borrow area such as recontouring should be carried out, and no deep ditches should be left behind. ECP-7 will be implemented.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Cultural Heritage
Impact Source Construction activities
Potential Impacts Impacts/disturbance to unforeseen cultural heritage through project activities.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Procedures shall be developed in the event that cultural heritage is discovered during the project construction.

ECP 14 will be implemented. If cultural resources are found during construction follow the cultural heritage law of Afghanistan using the chance find procedure to identify and analyze the heritage and archeological resources during construction

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
Environmental Issue Cultural Heritage
Impact Source Construction activities
Potential Impacts Impacts/disturbance to unforeseen cultural heritage through project activities.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Procedures shall be developed in the event that cultural heritage is discovered during the project construction.

ECP 14 will be implemented. If cultural resources are found during construction follow the cultural heritage law of Afghanistan using the chance find procedure to identify and analyze the heritage and archeological resources during construction

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Borrow Area and Borrow Materials
Impact Source Borrow Site
Potential Impacts Soil Erosion
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Reduce the volume of material requiring disposal as far as possible. Remaining material will be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner Disposal sites will be properly filled, shaped and reworked and where feasible planted with trees. Borrow material should be obtained (as much as possible) from licensed quarries and borrow areas. Where necessary, appropriate restoration of the borrow area such as recontouring should be carried out, and no deep ditches should be left behind. ECP-7 will be implemented.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Public Health and Safety
  Project site
Potential Impacts Public Health and Safety Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce hazards associated with project-related vehicular traffic. Project drivers will be trained on defensive driving. Vehicle speeds near/within the communities will be kept low, to avoid hazards and dust emissions.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Landscape
Impact Source Construction activities and borrow area.
Potential Impacts Visual amenity
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Landscaping of the site when construction is complete. This will mitigate the visual impact and reduce soil erosion during heavy rains and flood periods. Soils excavated during construction (borrow material) may be used for landscaping if suitable.
Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Labour and Working Conditions
Impact Source Employment of multinational groups
Potential Impacts Employment Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Consult with local authorities on hiring local workers and enforce a transparent no-gatekeeping policy.

Manage construction work camps (if used) according to WB PS2 guidelines, processes and standards.

Provide workers with clear, understandable documentation explaining workers rights and refrain from harassment, intimidation, and exploitation. Enforce Human Resource policies specifically outlawing underage workers and forced labor.

Implement employee grievance policy for on-site workers as part of the workers rights program.

Ensure proper security protocols and staff are in place throughout construction to provide security and safeguard property.

ECP 13 will be implemented.

 

Environmental Issue Local Employment
Impact Source Employment of Afghan nationals during the construction phase
Potential Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Follow a transparent hiring process to help the community understand strategic staffing decisions and avoid conflict over hiring with the local communities.

Develop a training and skills program to impart best practice when training local people for construction and operational jobs.

Encourage Contractors to provide apprenticeship opportunities to local people, encourage supply chain partners to recruit local people.

Establish a local job readiness program and encourage the construction supply chain to continue to invest in workers.

Establish a local employment brokerage that will publicize job vacancies and put in place initiatives to ensure employment opportunities for hard-to-reach groups.

ECP 13 will be implemented.

 

Environmental Issue Labour Influx
Impact Source Employment of international workers for the Project

Goods and services received from the locals

Potential Impacts Disturbance of Social Cohesion Indirect job opportunities Contribution

to the local businesses

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Alcohol and Drug Policy is in place Disciplinary Action Procedure is in place

Local procurement plan will be developed.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Traffic
Impact Source Transportation of construction equipment to Project site
Potential Impacts Transport Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Manage haulage routes to avoid sensitive establishments and use barriers as appropriate.

Maintain vehicles in good working condition.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team/Human Resource

 

Environmental Issue Traffic
Impact Source Transportation of construction equipment to Project site
Potential Impacts Transport Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Manage haulage routes to avoid sensitive establishments and use barriers as appropriate.

Maintain vehicles in good working condition.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Biological Environment
Impact Source Land clearance Construction activities
Potential Impacts Impacts on Flora, Habitat loss, Noise disturbance

Increased exposure to atmospheric pollutants

Protected fish species

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Use fencing, flagging and site boundary controls during construction to minimize disturbance to off-site habitats;

ECP 10, 11, and 12 will be implemented.

Minimize removal of vegetation and replant disturbed areas using native plant species,

The security management plan is in place;

Traffic safety rules have been implemented in the scope of the HSE plan

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Groundwater Quality
Impact Source Wastewater Discharges

Fueling of heavy machinery and transport vehicles

Storage, handling and disposal of solid waste

Storage, handling and disposal of hazardous waste

Potential Impacts Water Quality and General Environmental

Impacts

Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Recycle waste to the maximum extent, provide for the proper temporary staging and storage of waste and debris on-site, implement good housekeeping in work areas

Transport, or oversee the subcontract for transport, of non-recyclable waste to the municipally-approved disposal site and periodically verify delivery. Segregate domestic waste in appropriate receptacles and dispose at municipally-approved disposal site, manage sanitary waste systems in a manner protective of human and environmental health.

Minimize erosion, grade and replant disturbed areas.

Protect against accidental releases of hazardous materials through training, spill prevention measures, recycling and if necessary, timely cleanup and disposal.

Enforce Chance Find Procedures and cease work if historic/ archeological finds are encountered.

Design, construct, operate, and ecommission the structural elements or components of the project in accordance with good international industry practice, taking into consideration safety risks to third parties or affected communities.

Environmental Code of Practice (ECP) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 will be implemented.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Soil Quality
Impact Source
Potential Impacts Accidental release of solvents, oils and lubricants can potentially result in the contamination of soil and consequent deterioration of groundwater and surface water quality. Soil contamination may also reduce the soil fertility reducing suitability for agriculture.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Fuel tanks will be appropriately marked by content and will be stored in safe areas where storage capacity is 10% greater than the fuel tank. The area will be lined with an impervious base.

Grease traps will be installed on site, wherever needed, to prevent the flow of oily water.

Spill cleaning kit (shovels, plastic bags, absorbent materials) will be available near fuel and oil storage areas.

An emergency plan for spill management will be prepared, all staff will be trained in the plan for the case

 

Environmental Issue Soil Erosion
Impact Source
Potential Impacts Land clearing, excavation, tunnel boring, and other construction activities may loosen the top soil in the Project area resulting in loss of soil and possible acceleration of soil erosion and landslides, especially in the wet season.
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Vegetation loss will be limited to the demarcated construction area;

Areas such as muck disposal area, batching plant, labor camp and quarry sites shall be covered with grass and shrubs after project completion.

Slope stabilization measures will be adopted, for example adequate vertical and horizontal drains, drainage along roadsides, cross drainage and retaining walls.

Slope movements will be monitored around excavation work areas.

Local species shall be selected for planting to restore the biodiversity of the area in consultation with local stakeholders.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

 

Environmental Issue Noise
Impact Source Overall construction activities
Potential Impacts Noise Impacts
Proposed Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Set and enforce standard daytime working hours, recommended to be 06:00 to 21:00

Maintain equipment and use low noise equipment and methods where feasible

ECP 9 will be implemented.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team
of any spill.

The bottom of any soak pit or septic tank shall be at least 10 m above the groundwater table. The distance may be reduced, based on soil properties, if that distance will not result in contamination of groundwater.

Responsibility for Mitigation Implementation Site Management Team

RESULT:

Many factors were considered for the environment and social impact. The consequence and impact significance are also considered along with impact significance along with the mitigation measures. Likelihood of the impact also proves to be of great significance in the impact matrix. The category of the impacts was classified only based on rough estimation. Numerical data is not available for this construction activity and hence numerical analyses are not provided in this study.

Local impacts and mitigation measures which are negligible are not mentioned in this paper for which mitigation measures were provided then and there. Data from Environmental safety Impact Assessment (ESIA) report submitted by Green Tech Construction and Engineering was only considered in preparing this paper.

This paper however delineates the application of Environmental safety Impact Assessment (ESIA) and how mitigation measures are provided through Environmental Social Management System (ESMS) in a construction activity.

Data Availability:

Some or all data, models, or code used during the study were provided by Green Tech Constructions and Engineering, Kabul, Afghanistan. Direct request for these materials may be made to the provider as indicated in the AcknowledgmentsIdentify the Headings

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